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Incoterminos
 

Incoterminos

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Todo lo relacionado con los Incoterms en el mundo y sus funciones principales

Todo lo relacionado con los Incoterms en el mundo y sus funciones principales

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    Incoterminos Incoterminos Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Incoterms Principles Delivery conditions , not payment conditions! Seller and buyer agree on the delivery of goods. Usually, they refer to standardized terms . This speeds up the process and increases the transparency and mutual understanding. Incoterms (= International Commercial Terms), are prepared by the International Chamber of Commerce. They do not apply unless they are expressly incorporated into the contract. They have no binding force of law. More info: www.incoterms.com
    • Relationship: between seller and buyer, not between seller / buyer and carrier! Forwarders, shipbrokers, stevedores and carriers are intermediaries, who instructed by the seller or the buyer, contribute towards the carrying out of these terms. Incoterms Principles
    • Critical Point = The moment in the route of the goods at which the responsibilities are transfered from the seller to the buyer. We distinguish 3 critical points: 1. Transfer of Costs; 2. Transfer of Risk; 3. Transfer of Documents. Incoterms Critical Points
    • Group Term Complete Name Transport Mode E DEPARTURE EXW Ex Works Any F MAIN CARRIAGE FCA Free Carrier Any UNPAID FAS Free Alongside Ship Sea FOB Free on Board Any C MAIN CARRIAGE CFR Cost and Freight Sea PAID CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight Sea CPT Carriage paid to… Any CIP Carriage and Insurance paid to… Any D ARRIVAL DAF Delivered at frontier Any DES Delivered ex ship Sea DEQ Delivered ex Quay Sea DDU Delivered Duty unpaid Any DDP Delivered Duty paid Any Incoterms Overview
    • Seller Carrier Airport Quay Ship, Port of Sailing Ship, Port of Arrival Quay Airport Border Buyer EXW Ex Works FCA Free Carrier FAS Free Alongside Ship FOB Free On Board CFR Cost & Freight CIF Cost Insurance & Freight CPT Carriage Paid To… CIP Carriage & Insurance Paid To… DAF Delivered Ex Ship DES Delivered Ex Quay DEQ Delivered At Frontier DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid DDP Delivery Duty Paid Seller’s Costs Seller’s Risks Incoterms Overview
    • Incoterms and Costs
    • In eleven out of thirteen INCOTERMS there is no obligation to contract transport- insurance. It is strongly recommended that the party which bears the (transport) risk from a certain moment on, does cover this insurance from that moment on. Incoterms and Insurance
    • Incoterms and Insurance
      • Critical Point - Costs:
      • the moment at which the goods have been made available,
      • not cleared for export and not loaded on a vehicle.
      • Critical Point - Risk:
      • Same as for Costs. Seller has no obligation to insure.
      Incoterms EXW = Ex Works The seller delivers when the goods have been made available at the seller’s premises or another named place (e.g. warehouse).
    • Incoterms EXW = Ex Works
      • Application :
      • Any mode of transport.
      • Minimum obligation for the seller.
      • Do not use EXW when the buyer cannot carry out the
      • export formalities (then better apply FCA).
    • Terminal Terminal Incoterms FCA = Free Carrier The seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer, at the named place.
      • Critical point Costs:
      • Seller’s premises: loading for account of seller;
      • O ther place: un loading not for account of seller.
      • Critical point Risk:
      • - Seller’s premises: seller responsible for loading;
      • - Other place: seller not responsible for un loading.
    • Application: Any mode of transport, including Multi modal. Incoterms FCA = Free Carrier
      • Critical Point – Costs:
      • the moment at which the goods have been loaded on board.
      • Critical Point – Risk:
      • the moment at which the goods
      • have passed the ship’s rail at the port of shipment.
      Incoterms FOB = Free On Board Terminal Terminal Seller delivers when the goods, cleared for export, pass the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment.
    • Application : Sea- and inland water transport. If parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the FCA-term should be used. Incoterms FOB = Free On Board
    • Liner terms: from ship’s tackle till ship’s tackle FOB Incoterms FOB: Loading / Discharging Containers
    • Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment . Incoterms CIF = Cost, Insurance & Freight
      • Critical Point - Costs:
      • the moment at which the goods have been discharged at the
      • port of destination. Seller must clear the goods for export and pay
      • the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods in the named
      • port of destination.
      • Critical Point - Risk:
      • the moment at which the goods have passed the ships’s rail
      • at the named port of shipment. Seller must insure.
    • Application: Sea- and inland waterway transport. If parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the CIP term should be used. Incoterms CIF = Cost, Insurance & Freight
      • Critical Point - Costs:
      • the moment at which the goods have been put at the disposal
      • of the buyer at the named place of destination duty unpaid.
      • Critical Point Risk:
      • same as for Costs.
      Incoterms DDU = Delivery, Duty Unpaid Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal The seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import and not unloaded from any means of transport at the named place of destination.
    • Application : Any mode of transport, including Multi Modal. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport but when delivery is to take place in the port of destination on board the vessel or on the quay (wharf), the DES- or DEQ-term should be used. Incoterms DDU = Delivery, Duty Unpaid
      • Critical Point - Costs:
      • the moment at which the goods have been put at the disposal
      • of the buyer at the named place of destination duty paid.
      • Critical Point Risk:
      • same as for Costs.
      Incoterms DDP = Delivery, Duty Paid Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal The seller delivers the goods to the buyer, cleared for import and not unloaded from any means of transport at the named place of destination. OK
    • Application : Any mode of transport, including Multi Modal. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport but when delivery is to take place in the port of destination on board the vessel or on the quay (wharf), the DES- or DEQ-term should be used. Incoterms DDP = Delivery, Duty Paid
    • Incoterms FAS = Free Alongside Ship Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Seller delivers, when goods are cleared for export* , placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment * this a reversal from previous Incoterms versions which required the buyer to arrange for export clearance
      • Critical Point Costs:
      • The moment that the goods are cleared for export placed
      • alongside the named ship by the seller in the named port
      • of shipment, so before loading.
      • Critical Point Risk : same as Costs.
    • Application: Sea and Inland waterway transport Incoterms FAS = Free Alongside Ship
    • Incoterms CFR = Cost and Freight Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Seller delivers when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of loading.
      • Critical Point Costs:
      • the moment the goods are -uncleared- at the disposal of the
      • buyer in the port of destination. Seller must clear goods for
      • export and pays the costs and freight necessary to bring the
      • goods to the named port of destination.
      • Critical Point Risk:
      • the moment the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of loading
    • Application: Sea and Inland waterway transport only. If parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship’s rail, the CPT-term should be used. Incoterms CFR = Cost and Freight
    • Incoterms CPT = Carriage Paid To … Seller delivers the goods to the Carrier nominated by him cleared for export and pays the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Critical Point Costs: The moment the goods are - uncleared - at the disposal of the buyer in the place of destination Critical Point Risk: The moment the goods have been delivered to and put under the custody of the first carrier.
    • Application: Any mode of transport including Multi modal. Incoterms CPT = Carriage Paid To …
    • Incoterms CIP = Carriage and Insurance Paid To … Seller delivers the goods to the Carrier nominated by him cleared for export and pays the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination and has to produce insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss and damage. Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal
      • Critical Point Costs:
      • The moment the goods are - uncleared - at the disposal of
      • the buyer in the place of destination.
      • Critical Point Risk:
      • The moment the goods have been delivered to and put
      • under the custody of the first carrier.
    • Application: Any mode of transport including Multi modal. Incoterms CIP = Carriage and Insurance Paid To …
    • Incoterms DAF = Delivered At Frontier The seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export, but not cleared for import at the named point and place at the frontier , but before the customs border of the adjoining country. Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal
      • Critical Point Costs:
      • The moment the goods are at buyer’s disposal at the named
      • point at the border - unloaded and uncleared.
      • Critical point Risk: same as Costs.
    • Application: Any mode of transport including Multi modal. Incoterms DAF = Delivered At Frontier
    • Incoterms DES = Delivered Ex Ship Seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on board the ship not cleared for import at the named port of destination. Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal
      • Critical Point Costs:
      • The moment that the goods are available to the buyer in the
      • port of destination – so before unloading.
      • Critical Point Risk:
      • Same as Costs.
    • Application: Sea and Inland waterway transport Incoterms DES = Delivered Ex Ship
    • Incoterms DEQ = Delivered Ex Quay The seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer not cleared for import on the quay (wharf) at the named place of destination. The buyer must clear the goods for import. This is reversal from previous Incoterms versions which required the seller to arrange for import clearance. Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal
      • Critical Point Costs:
      • The moment that the goods are available to the buyer in the port of
      • destination, so after the goods have been unloaded on the quay of the
      • port of destination .
      • Critical Point Risk:
      • Same as Costs.
    • Application: Sea and Inland waterway transport Incoterms DEQ = Delivered Ex Quay
    • Which Incoterms are suitable for multimodal transport, especially in containers ? - W hen using loading units, the point of risk transfer between seller and buyer should be a point where a physical inspection is possible, e.g. when loading or unloading the container. - So, FOB or CIF clauses are not very suitable, because there the point of risk transfer is the reeling of the ship. The distinct location of a damage of the cargo inside the container is almost impossible. - So, better use EXW, FCR, DDU or DDP. Incoterms Application: Example