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Cahokia.10

Cahokia.10

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    Cakohia.10 Cakohia.10 Presentation Transcript

    • ART OF THE MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURES OF SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES © DR. MAUDE SOUTHWELL WAHLMAN 2010 0
    • • Paleo-Indian (14,000?) - 8000 BC • Archaic 8000 - 1000 BC • Woodland 1000 BC - 800 AD (Adena, Hopewell) • Mississippian 800 - 1500 AD • Early Mississippian 800 - 1150 AD • Middle Mississippian 1150 - 1350 AD • Late Mississippian 1350 -1500 AD 1
    • Mississippian Centers CAHOKIA A Typical Hamlet 2
    • MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURES NATIVE AMERICANS 500-1000 A.D. Populations grew and permanent settlements increased, while regional adaptations to environmental conditions and specialized lifestyles evolved. In the Eastern Woodlands, mound groups included residential areas and were located adjacent to major rivers, and the cultural pattern subsequently known as Mississippian began, influenced by trade with Mexico. By 750 AD, corn was increasingly grown in Midwest and Southeast river valleys. By 800 AD, in the central Mississippi region known as the American bottom, mound centers—some with structures placed around community plazas—become politically dominant. By 1000 AD, Mississippian cultural patterns were well established in the Midwest and Southeast, with population growth, and economic stability made possible by Maize agriculture and long- distance trade. 3
    • CAHOKIA CAHOKIA 4
    • NATIVE AMERICANS 1000-1400 A.D. Populations grew with political centralization in the Eastern Woodlands and the Southwest. The success of food crops, such as maize and beans, allowed for concentrations of peoples. Settlements enlarged, with individual centers assuming regional dominance. Important Mississippian sites in the Southeast such as Cahokia, IL, Spiro, OK, Moundville, AL, and Etowah, GA, showed clear evidence of high-ranking inhabitants with many precious objects in their burials. Cahokia on the Mississippi River floodplain of Illinois expanded, and over 100 earthen mounds were built for varying purposes. 5
    • 1. 2. 4. 3. MAJOR MISSISSIPPIAN SITES
    • CAHOKIA, IL 7
    • CAHOKIA ALONG THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 8
    • CAHOKIA, IL: AN ARTIST’S RECONSTRUCTION 9
    • On the Illinois side of the Mississippi River within sight of St. Louis and its famous arch, is the largest mound complex in the United States. Called "Cahokia," this enormous site has more than one hundred mounds and covers nearly 3,700 acres. Many of the mounds at Cahokia are gigantic and as large as almost any mound in Ohio. But Cahokia is dominated by the largest earthen mound in North America, Monks Mound. It measures 1037 feet from north to south and 790 feet from east to west. It consists of several terraces and ramps which take it to a height of 100 feet. The base covers 15 acres. The focal point of this sprawling Mississippian village, Monks Mound, had several buildings on top 800 years ago. These buildings housed the elite of the village and from its summit, the chief or king could survey his realm which covered nearly 6 square miles.
 Directly in front of Monks mound was a plaza or court surrounded by the houses of lesser dignitaries, and around this complex, a stockade of logs kept out commoners. Cahokia was the largest prehistoric settlement in North America. 10
    • CAHOKIA MOUNDS, IL 11
    • The city of Cahokia was inhabited from 700 AD. to 1400 AD. From 1100 AD. to 1200 the city covered almost six miles, with about 100,000-200,000 people. The mound builders at Cahokia Mounds were some of the first intensive farmers of North America. The people of Cahokia had political systems and alliances, and many things to trade: luxury goods, copper, alligator teeth, mica, and conch shells, all objects acquired by hunting and trading. By the 1400's the city of Cahokia was abandoned, due to climate, war, or disease. 12
    • CAHOKIA TODAY 13
    • CAHOKIA: ORIENTED NORTH AND SOUTH, AND EAST 14 AND WEST.
    • CAHOKIA PLANS 15
    • EUROPEAN DRAWING OF A MISSISSIPPIAN ELITE MALE ARTISTS VIEW OF THE KING OF CAHOKIA GREETING THE SUN ON JUNE 21 16 AT THE TOP OF MONK’S MOUND
    • BURIAL OF A KING OF CAHOKIA, WITH SHELLS 17
    • MONK’S MOUND 1892, NE VIEW By 1050, The four-terraced Monks Mound, the largest earthen structure in the United States, was under construction at Cahokia. By 1200, Beans were a staple in the Eastern Woodlands and VIEW FROM THE WEST are grown together with maize. 18
    • CAHOKIA: 1936 VIEW OF MONK’S MOUND 19
    • CAHOKIA: STAGES OF BUILDING MONK’S MOUND 20
    • MODEL of TERRACES ON MONK’S MOUND, CAHOKIA 21
    • CAHOKIA: MONKS MOUND TODAY 950-1300 AD LARGEST EARTH MOUND IN THE AMERICAS, AND THE LARGEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI EARTHWORKS, MONK'S MOUND AT CAHOKIA, ILLINOIS, MEASURES 1,000 FEET IN LENGTH, MORE THAN 700 FEET IN WIDTH, AND IS STILL 100 FEET IN HEIGHT.; ALIGNED WITH THE SUN AT THE EQUINOXES. SEE BERLO, P. 81. 22
    • MONKS MOUND, CAHOKIA 23
    • CAHOKIA RECONSTRUCTED 24
    • Temple/Palace on Monks Mound 25
    • GAMES AT CAHOKIA 26
    • CAHOKIA: TWIN MOUNDS FOX MOUND (LEFT) 27
    • CAHOKIA: ONE OF THE TWIN MOUNDS 28
    • LIFE AT CAHOKIA 29
    • HOUSE CONSTRUCTION AT CAHOKIA 30
    • CAHOKIA RECONSTRUCTED, INSIDE THE VISITORS CENTER 31
    • DOMESTIC LIFE AT CAHOKIA 32
    • CAHOKIA VILLAGE LIFE 33
    • WARM CLOTHING 34
    • CORN AGRICULTURE 35
    • TRADING AT CAHOKIA 36
    • In the 12th century Cahokia was as large as London. It was the largest city in America until Philadelphia grew larger in 1800. It was thriving 800 years ago in the heartland of our country. At its center was Monk's Mound, towering as high as a 10-story building. 37
    • PALISADE (PROTECTIV E WALL) AROUND 1300 A.D., THE POPULATION OF CAHOKIA DECLINED; A DEFENSIVE WALL WAS BUILT AT THE SITE'S CENTER. BY 1350 THE SOUTHERN CULT REACHED ITS PEAK OF INFLUENCE. SIMILARITIES IN RELIGIOUS PRACTICES AND ART PROLIFERATED ACROSS THE EASTERN WOODLANDS; WARRIOR, BIRD-MAN, AND SERPENT IMAGERY WERE AMONG THE VISUAL THEMES. 38
    • FACING WEST, WOODHENGE, MARKET, CAHOKIA, IL 39
    • WOODHENGE, AN ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY AT CAHOKIA 40
    • RECONSTRUCTED WOODHENGE 41
    • SUNRISE AT CAHOKIA, FROM WOODHENGE 42
    • MISSISSIPPIAN SIGNS 43
    • SPIDER GORGET, 1200-1500 A.D. PILEATED WOODPECKER GORGET Incised Shell c. 1200 A.D. 1.Worn at the throat of a chief/priest as a CAHOKIA SHELL status symbol; PENDANTS 2. buried with him/her; 44 3. The cross is a directional symbol.
    • POTTERY MAKING AT CAHOKIA 45
    • 46 CADDO POT CAHOKIA: CERAMICS
    • CAHOKIAN PAINTED CERAMICS 47
    • BEAVER CLAY POT, CAHOKIA, IL C. 1200 A.D. 11.75” 48
    • FACE POTS, CAHOKIA 49
    • 50 CAHOKIA: CERAMIC FEMALE FIGURES
    • COPPER BREAST PENDANT 51
    • STONE SCULPTURES OF CHIEFS 52
    • CAHOKIA MATERNAL SCULPTURE 53
    • CAHOKIA: STONE FEMALE FIGURES 54
    • CAHOKIA WEB SITE: http://cahokiamounds.org 55
    • CAHOKIA SANDSTONE TABLETS THE BIRDMAN TABLET WAS FOUND IN MONKS MOUND IN 1971 56
    • CAHOKIA STONE BIRDMAN TABLET 57
    • SPIRO, OK 58