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  • Be certain any object that an infant can grasp and bring to the mouth is either safe to eat or too big to fit in the mouth. Inspect toys and pacifier for small parts that could be aspirated if broken off; don’t make home-made pacifiers.
  • Infancy

    1. 1. PROMOTING ACHIEVEMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL TASK • Erikson 1986 proposed that the developmental task of the infant period is to form a sense of TRUST. When the infant is hungry, a parent feeds and makes him comfortable again. When she is wet, the father changes her and makes her dry. • When cold, the mother holds and warms him. By this process, an infant learns to trust that when he or she has a need or is in distress, a person will come to meet that need. • A synonym for Trust is LOVE. By the way that infants handled, fed, talk to and held, they learn to love and be loved. • Infants who have numerous caregivers, to may be fed one day on a rigid schedule and the next only when they are hungry, who sometimes are treated roughly and sometimes gently, can have difficulty learning to trust anyone.
    2. 2. • It is important for people to establish the ability to love, or trust, early in life because development is sequential. • How do parents encourage a sense of trust in an infant? • Trust arises primarily from a sense of confidence that no one knows what is coming next. It is imply to establishing some schedule. For example, breakfast, bath, play time, nap, lunch, walk outside, quiet play time, dinner, story and bed time. • This gentle rhythm of care gives infants a sense of being able to predict what is going to happen and feel that life has some consistency.
    3. 3. Promoting Infant Safety A. General  Know the whereabouts of infants at all times  Be aware that the frequency of accidents is increased when parents are under stress. Take special precautions at these times.  Choose babysitters carefully and explain and enforce all precautions when sitters are in charge. B. Aspiration Be certain any object that an infant can grasp and bring to the mouth is either safe to eat or too big to fit in the mouth.  Inspect toys and pacifier for small parts that could be aspirated if broken off; don’t make home-made pacifiers.
    4. 4. C. Falls Never leave an infant on an unprotected surface.  Place a gate at the top and bottom of the stairways; don’t allow the infant to walk with a sharp object in the hands or mouth.  raise crib rails and make sure they are locked before walking away from the crib.  Don’t leave a child unattended in a high chair; avoid using an infant walker. D. Motor Vehicle Never transport unless an infant is buckled into an infant car seat in the back seat of the car. Don’t be distracted by an infant while driving. Don’t leave an infant unattended in a parked car.
    5. 5. E. Suffocation  Allow no plastic bags within infant’s reach.  Don’t use pillows in a crib.  Store unused appliances such as refrigerators or stoves with the doors removed.  Buy a crib that is approved for safety .  Remove constricting clothing such as a bib from neck at bedtime. F. Drowning Don’t leave infants alone in a bathtub or unsupervised near water. G. Animal Bites  Don’t allow an infant to approach a strange dog; supervise play with family pets.
    6. 6. H. Poisoning  Never present medication as a candy.  Buy medications in containers with safety caps; put away immediately after use.  Never take medications in front of the infants.  Never leave medication in a pocket or handbag.  Use no lead-based paint in any area of the home.  Hang plants or set on high surfaces. I. Burns  Test warmth of formula and food before feeding  Do not smoke or drink hot liquids while holding or caring for infant  Use a sunscreen on a child over 6 months when out in direct or indirect sunlight  Monitor infants carefully near candles. Don’t leave infants un supervised near hot-water faucets.  Keep electrical wires and cords out of reach.
    7. 7. Promoting Nutritional Health of the Infant • The best food for infant during the first twelve months of life (and the only food necessary for the first six months) is breast milk. With breastfeeding, as long as the mother is ingesting an adequate diet, no additional supplements such as added Iron or Vitamins are necessary, except for Fluoride if it is not included in the water supply. If the infant will not be receiving exposure to sunshine, Vitamin D may also be prescribe. • Prolonged breastfeeding into the pre-school period is not usually recommended because it may impair child growth. • For infants whose mothers choose not to breastfeed, a commercial iron- fortified formula may be used. • Infants who are changed to cow’s milk before one year of age should receive supplementary of Vitamin C to make up for the deficiency of vitamin C in cow’s milk. The introduction of cow’s milk before 1 year is not recommended because it may lead to such intestinal irritation that slight but continues gastrointestinal bleeding occurs, resulting in anemia.
    8. 8. Recommended Daily Dietary Allowances for the Infant The entire first year of life is one of rapid growth, requiring a high protein, high calorie intake. Calorie allowances can be reduce during the year from a level of 120 per kilogram of body weight at birth to approximately 100kg of body weight at the end of the first year. It is important that the number of calories be gradually reduced this way during the first year otherwise, babies tend to become overweight.
    9. 9. Introducing Solid Food • From a nutritional standpoint, a normal full – term infant can thrive on a commercial iron-fortified formula or breast milk without the addition of any solid food until age 6months. • Generally speaking, an infant is physiologically ready for solid food when he or she is taking more than 32oz (960mL) of formula a day and does not seem satisfied, or is nursing vigorously every 3 to 4 hours and does not seem satisfied. Infants are not ready to digest complex starches until amylase is present in saliva at approximately 2 to 3 months. Chewing movements do not begin until 7 to 9 months.
    10. 10. Loss of Extrusion Reflex • The extrusion reflex is a life saving reflex that prevents an infant from swallowing or aspirating foreign objects that touch the mouth. The reflex fades at 3 to 4 months. Quantities and Types of Food • Children take different quantities of food according to their preferences and needs. A newborn stomach can hold approximately 2 tablespoons (30mL). At 1 year, the stomach can hold approximately 1 cup (240mL). For this reason, when they begin eating solid food, infants rarely take more than 2 tablespoon (30mL) at a time. o CEREAL – the first food generally given to infants with B vitamins and iron.
    11. 11. • Vegetables and Fruit – vegetables are usually the second food added to the diet (at approximately age 7 months). Fruit is usually offered 1 month after beginning vegetables (at approximately age 8 months). • Meat and Eggs– Meat is usually introduced at 9 months and Egg yolks at 10 moths. • Table Food – with the introduction of solid food, parents should arrange for their child to be eating three meals a day, if that is the family’s pattern, and to join the family at the table.
    12. 12. Establishing Healthy Eating Pattern • Some parents may need reminders that there are no hard and fast rules for infant feeding. The rules are only guidelines based on what seems to work well with the majority of infants. • Parents should individualize their approach according to the cues their child giving them for readiness. • A child who adapts to change poorly may have difficulty accepting the first solid food and may have difficulty with each new food. • Most infants eat hungrily. Thus, feeding problems generally are reported more frequently as a second year or toddler problem that an infant concern. • An infant who is fatigue and over stimulated may not eat well.
    13. 13. Weaning • Infants are capable for approximating their lips to a cup effectively and controlling the flow at about 9 months of age. • The sucking reflex begins to diminish in intensity between ages six months and nine months, which makes this the time to consider weaning. • Infants usually need more fluid during hot weather that cold weather because of increase perspiration. Self feeding • At approximately six months of age, infants become interested in handling a spoon and beginning to feed themselves. However, they are much more adept at feeding themselves with their fingers. Promoting Adequate Intake with a Vegetarian Diet • The infant eating a vegetarian diet should be continue to breastfed or ingest an Iron fortified, balanced, commercial formula for the entire first year. • If a milk allergy is present, a soy base formula can be used. • Solid foods are added at 6 months, an assortment of foods should be provided, including vegetables such as avocados, potatoes, broccoli; fruits such as apples, prunes, (high in iron) and bananas; infant’s cereal; tofu; wheat germ; legumes; brewer’s yeast and synthetic vitamin D.