قوات (عولمة):التغييرات السريعة العالمية بلا حدود، حيرة عالية، الخ
Urban manegement final
Waheeda Mustafa Omer
Kurdistan Region Government – Iraq
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
University of Duhok, Faculty of Engineering and
Applied science /School of Planning
Land degradation is a central challenge to sustainable
At the global scale, key problems threatening natural
resources and the sustainability of life support systems
1. soil degradation, about one third of the world‟s agricultural land
has been damaged, mostly by soil loss caused by water
2. water problems of quality and quantity, as well as spatial and
temporal interdependence (highland-lowland effects).
3. natural vegetation: problems of quality, quantity and biodiversity
4. wildlife: problems of protected areas, wildlife corridors,
controlled hunting and poaching. (Dumanski, J (ed). 1994).
Sustainable Urban management ,
SUM it is defined as a knowledge-based procedure that helps integrate
land, water , biodiversity, and environmental management , to
meet rising food and fiber demands while sustaining ecosystem services
and livelihoods using land management technology, regional
planning and policy framework.( Hurni, H. 1997)
There are Five Element of Urban management:-
5. Internal & External Forces
1- Outcome (city welfare for all)
The Overall , overall urban society
The Group, each individual group of the urban society
The Past , historical/cultural background of the urban society
sustainable culturally ( Cultural preservation)
The Future , future generation of the urban society
3-Process (good governance)
Continuous processes, planning, implementation, evaluation,
technical process , multi disciplinary actors
political decision making process, multi stakeholders (public-
Participation, transparency , equity and accountability, etc.
4- Input ( institutions)
Political support & commitment
law & regulation
to do the right thing
5- Forces (globalization)
External ( global forces)
borderless world, rapid changes, high uncertainty, etc.
Internal ( local pressures)
local needs, local culture, etc.
How to manage land & urban form???????
sustainable economically, socially, politically, culturally, and
competitive urban output
compact, mixed land use, mixed groups
greenery ( urban agriculture)
multi centered city……………..etc.Eng.Waheeda
How to manage urban infrastructure & services ????
sustainable economically, socially, culturally, and environmentally
public transport, transportation demand management, etc
water supply, etc.
Solid waste management ….etc.
waste water management,………… etc.
3- Institutional System
How to manage the institutional system????
sustainable economically, socially, culturally, and environmentally
4- Spatial System
How to manage the spatial system -- the city and its hinterland ???
sustainable economically, socially, culturally, environmentally
integrated plan – management- development with its
neighboring regions ; on land use, infrastructure & services, and
How to manage………….?
land & urban form
urban infrastructure & services
Livable city for all , to work, live, and play…….?
Multi-level Stakeholder Approach to
Sustainable Urban Management
Defined as , feasible acceptable, viable and ecologically sound
solutions at local scales management.
Consist of five major pillars of sustainability,
1. ecologically protective,
2. socially acceptable
3. economically productive
4. economically viable, and
5. reduce risk.
It is address the issue related to :
for whom will SUM be realized? for what? by what means? and with what
Intervention levels and activities in a multi-
level stakeholder approach to SLM
It is defined as an increase in a population in cities and towns
versus rural area . It began during the industrial revolution when
worker moved towards manufacturing hubs in cities in cities to
obtain job in factories as agriculture become less common
Patterns of Urban Growth
1. Increasing proportion of population
2. Great increase in large cities (>1,000,000)
3. Increasing rapidly in developing counties
4. Urban growth slower in developed countries
5. Poverty in urban areas increasing
Duhok Governorate is a highly urbanized area with approximately
70% of its population living in cities.
Duhok City is under great development pressure, it has registered a
population growth from (6.4%) to (6.8%) per year over the past four
The City faces more challenges and higher demands of
environmental, social, and economical resources
Study Questions & Objectives
Are there a popper SUM in Duhok city?
What are the factors effecting on SUM in Duhok city?
Study Objectives :
To evaluate the effect of urban management on Duhok city master
To formulate policy and recommendations to support decision maker
and urban planner for getting SUM in Duhok City.
There is a significant effect of Sustainable
Urban Management on the Duhok master
Area of urban land use
No. of population
1947 10.34 5621 534.6
1957 25.79 7680 297.8
1977 224.33 40191 179.1
1987 633.18 114322 180.5
1998 809.42 212469 262.5
2007 2794.6 250508 89.6
Population Density during (1947-2007).
Source: Hirory, 2008
Household Size in Neighborhood of Duhok City
Master Plan of Duhok City to 2032
“Livable and Equitable City with Distinct
To enhance the quality of life of Duhok citizens
through the conservation and protection of the
natural, cultural resources, introduction of recreational
opportunities and improvement of the infrastructure
quality towards sustainable land use allocation
The master plan identifies seven goals for the City:
High – quality diversified and complete living
Structuring, efficient transportation networks fully integrated.
A prestigious, convivial and inhabited centre.
Dynamic, accessible and diversified employment areas.
High quality architecture and urban landscapes.
An enhanced built, archaeological and natural heritage.
A healthy environment.
Duhok urban area expansion for 2032.
Urban area within Duhok Master Plan divided in to two type stage
First stage :up to 2017
Second stage: expansion after 2035
Total Population in Duhok city 325,000 in 2011
Duhok city Master plan able to provide land approximately for
1,3000,000 population ( Duhok Master Plan report).
Based on growth equation:
Pf=Pn(1+R)^2……………………> r will be 5% up to 2035Eng.Waheeda
Based on the statistical data from general directorate of municipality
and directorate of urban planning, There ware:
5000plots needed for compensation the landowner of Duhok
2000plots needed for( )the landowner of Sumel and Mrena
1000 plots need to distribute for employment
Control the speed and magnitude of growth.
Policy and legislative reform.
Participation of local people.
Academic and research institutions.
Information and data collection systems.
Land use classification and inventory
• Dumanski, J (ed). 1994. Workshop Summary. Proc of the international
workshop on sustainable land management for the 21st century (Vol 1).
Agric Inst of Canada, Ottawa.
• Hurni, H.(1996). Precious Earth. From Soil and Water Conservation to
• Sustainable Land Management. Internatl Soil Conserv Org (ISCO),
• and Centre for Dev and Environ (CDE), Bern.
• Hurni, H.(1996). Concepts of sustainable land management. ITC
journal,(Vol 3) P 2010-2015
• Tyler. G. (n.d), Living in the Environment MATES, Sustainable Cities:
Urban Land Use and Management, Chapter 25 .
• Kusbiantoro ,BS. 2001 “Urban Management to Reach Sustainability”.
Urban and Regional Development Institute and Bandung Institute of
Technology Indonesia PECC XIV, Hong Kong, 28-30 November 2001
• Claudio .A. (2003) “The Meaning and Scope of Urban Management: an
introductory note”, in Azza Sirry (2003), „Urban Management Practices in
Secondary Cities in Egypt: the case of Belbeis‟, Elias Modern Publishing
House, Cairo, Egypt. Eng.Waheeda