In France, this “True Style” was a reaction against Rococo levity.
Style adopted by the leaders of the French Revolution.
Became most closely associated with the revolutionary movements of the period.
Associations with heroic subject matter
Impression of stability & solidity
References to Athenian democracy and Roman Republic.
Leading Neoclassical painter
Appealed to republican sentiments associated with Classical antiquity.
Oath of the Horatii
Death of Marat
Jacques-Louis David Completed in 1784 Oil on Canvas 10’10” x 13’ 11” Louvre Completed in 1793 Oil on canvas 65” x 50 3/8” Royal Museum of Fine Arts Brussels
Napoleon and the Arts
- Arc de Triomphe
- Place Charles de Gaulle in Paris
- 164 ft high
Charles Percier & Pierre F.L Fontaine -Place Vendome Column - 44 meters high - stone core encased in the bronze of 1250 cannons captured at the Battle of Austerliz. - Completed in 1810
Napoleon and the Arts II
- Maria Paolina Borghese as Venus
-Galleria Borghese, Rome
- Portrait of a Negress
- Oil on canvas
31 in x 25 in
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres Napoleon Enthroned: -1806 -Musee de I’Armee Paris -Oil on canvas -8 ft. 8 in Grande Odalisque: -oil on canvas - Indicates Romantic shift -1814 -Louvre
Neoclassicism in America
Thomas Jefferson: American who most embodied Neoclassicism.
Jefferson designed his own home, Monticello, himself. Jefferson was inspired by the Maison Carree at Nimes in southern France for the design of a new State capitol in Virginia. Rotunda, University of Virginia. Pride and joy of Jefferson who is deemed, “Father of the University.”
Romantic Era Beginnings
The term “Romantic” is derived from the Romance languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, & Romanian) & from medieval tales of chivalry & adventure written in those languages.
The era is an artistic, literary, & intellectual movement that originated in the 2nd half of the 18 th century in Western Europe.
Reaction to the Industrial Revolution.
Revolt against aristocratic social & political norms of the Age of Enlightenment.
Response against the scientific rationalization of nature.
Embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature.
Legitimized individual imagination as a critical authority---brought freedom from classical notions of form in art.
Nostalgic for the past & believes in idealistic participation in current events.
Strong emphasis placed on intuition, imagination, and feeling.
The mind = site of mysterious, unexplained, & possibly dangerous phenomena.
Romantic Visual Arts
Artists used their works for highlighting national identity & exoticism.
Most Romantic artists painted landscapes that usually showed nationalism or exoticism through adventure of far-away places.
Nature used to convey emotions.
Artists found the natural world less a model of perfection and more a source of mysterious powers.
Painters painted from many supernatural texts & stories.
Known as a time of surging emotions. For example, the supernatural represented love & fear was portrayed through demons.
William Blake: Engraver, painter, & poet.
Theodore Gericault: Committed to social justice & interested in human psychology.
Eugene Delacroix: Most prominent figure in French Romantic painting.
Francisco de Goya y Lucientes: Leading Spanish painter of the late 18 th & early 19 th centuries. Obvious support intellectual & political freedom.
Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa. -Oil on canvas -16 ft x 23 ft 6 in -Louvre -1819 Francisco de Goya y Lucientes The Witches Sabbath - 1799 -Oil on canvas -Museo Lazaro Galdiano, Madrid Examples of Romantic Art
Blake: “God Creating the Universe” -British Museum -Relief etching finished in gold, Watercolor on paper - 9 1/4 x 6 5/8 in Delacroix: “Death of Sardanapalus” -oil on canvas -1827 -12’ 1” x 16’ 3” -Louvre Examples of Romantic Art
Caspar David Friedrich: Known for poetic landscapes.
John Constable & Joseph Mallord William Turner: In England, the 2 greatest Romantic landscape painters.
Thomas Cole: habit of journeying on foot through northeastern states whilst making pencil sketches of landscape.
Examples of Romantic Art Thomas Cole View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts after a Thunderstorm. -1836 -Oil on canvas -4 ft. 3.5 in x 6 ft 4 in. -Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY Caspar David Friedrich, Two Men Contemplating the Moon - 1819 -Oil on canvas -13 ¾ x 17 ½ in -Germaldegalerie Neue Meister, Staaliche Kunstsammiungen, Dresden
Constable: “ Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop’s Garden -1823 -87.6 cm x 111.8 cm -Victoria and Albert Museum Turner: “Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons” -1835 -oil on canvas -92 x 123 cm -Philadelphia Museum of Art