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Understanding your     Hispanic/Latino students    Faculty week presentation            Fall 2012 Wilson García Eric o. ...
Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? Whatis the correct term? Why?  Hispanic - U.S. Census                        Hispa...
Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? Whatis the correct term? Why?Latino: People with aHispanic backgroundin USA can also...
Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? Whatis the correct term? Why?Spanish:People thatspeak Spanishand live inSpain.
Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? What is thecorrect term? Why?Guarione M. Díaz ―In this book, I use the termsHispanic...
Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? What is thecorrect term? Why?   Although the two are often used    interchangeably,...
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Jenifer López         Andrea Sotomayor
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Antonio Banderas           Leonel Messi
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?David Ortiz             Cantante XuXa
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Mariela Castro      Benedita da Silva
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Isabel Allende      Gabriel García Márquez
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?George P. Bush         Dilma Rousseff
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Edson Arantes do Nascimento          “Pele”              Rigoberta Menchú Tum
Demographics? How many, where, and why? How many people in the US are of Hispanic origin? a) 4 million b) 14 million c)...
Demographics? How many, where, and why?  After Mexicans and Mexican-  Americans, which is the second  largest Hispanic gro...
Demographics? How many, where, and why? How many people of Hispanic origin live in NH?   a) 3,000   b) 15,000   c) 37,000
Demographics? How many, where, and why?  In the three largest high schools of  Manchester, NH, what is the percentage  of ...
Language     English language      learners (immigrants      and international –      Spanish      dominance).     Herit...
Cultural characteristicsThe degree of presenceof these culturalcharacteristics will varybetweenindividuals, dependingon fa...
Group orientation Hispanics culture is  predominantly  collectivist. Individuals are seen  first as members of  a family...
Group orientation   Focus on and    maintaining    positive, personal    relationships.   Agreeing with other    regardl...
Group orientationBe simpático: Polite and respectful. Don’t express  criticism, confrontation, or  assertiveness. Show ...
Group orientation           Family is the            center of personal            existence.           Families are    ...
Group orientation Conform to family  beliefs and wishes. Being influenced  by relatives’  perceptions and  feelings. Sa...
Proxemics   Feel comfortable with physical proximity.   Closer personal space.   Stand and stay closer.
Personal Space           Hispanics tend to            touch each other            during a            conversation       ...
Time orientationPresent-orientedsense: Valuing the here and  now, especially the  interpersonal  relationships that  are ...
Time orientation Time is a cycle. Several tasks at  the time. Changes at the  last minute (Roll  & Irwin, 2008).
Time orientation Meeting deadlines  and being on time  differs between  study/work and  social situations.(Carr-Ruffino, ...
The Spiritual World   The spiritual and physical world live along    side.   Day of the Dead: Dead is not to be fear    ...
The Spiritual World       Religious affiliation among Hispanics70605040          68302010                         15      ...
I’m ControlledHispanics are less likely to believe they are in          control of their own destiny―Things   happen to me...
Hierarchy and status   Hierarchy and    status is very    important in    Hispanic culture.   It brings stability    and...
Hierarchy and status             Authority figures are              expected to set clear              standards and     ...
Hierarchy and status Hispanic show greater deference  and respect toward authority  figures (i.e.; professors). Power di...
Communication patternsSpeaking indirectly: Hispanics  communicate  indirectly with  strangers, outsiders,   or authority ...
Communication patternsHigh concern forfeelings: Hispanics may tell  you what you want to  hear out of concern of  your fe...
Communication patternsHigh sensitivity tocriticism:Reaction to criticismdepends on the statusof the source. Authority fig...
Gender roles Hispanic culture and  Anglo culture  continue to differ  markedly in how  gender roles are  viewed in the tw...
Role of the Hispanic Woman   Attractive     Nurturing
Role of the Hispanic Man             Strong             Masculine             Chivalrous and              respectful to...
Challenges of Hispanics   undergraduates
Hispanics in collegeIn 2007, 88 % ofLatinos in highereducation werenative-born U.S.citizens(Santiago & Cunningham2005).
Generation     Percent of high school Hispanic students                enrolling in college                   (ages 18-24)...
Students at PSU               by ethnicity and race100      81.2 80 60  40  20                    0.9   0                 ...
First-generation college           Hispanic students are           more likely than other           undergraduates to be  ...
First-generation collegeLack of social capital:                          As the first in their                          fa...
First-generation college                        ―The combination ofPoor information:                    minimal adult supe...
First-generation college  ―I wish I would have been educated     about the intricacies of collegeadmissions and preparatio...
Financial concernsLow income families   A significantly                      proportion of                      Hispanics ...
Financial concernsWork demands   Hispanics are               more likely to work               more hours per             ...
Financial concerns                           Hispanic students arePart-time attendance:                            more l...
Financial concernsPart-time attendance:                        At PSU, 5.4% of                        all students        ...
Financial concerns      Part-time attendanceResearch shows thatstudents enrolled part-time are less likely tocomplete a de...
Financial concerns Stress and financial issuesHispanic studentsexperience highlevels of stressdue to financialconcerns(Qui...
Financial concerns                               Hispanics areFinancial issues and dropout                               s...
Pre-college preparation             Source: Hakimzadeh & Cohn, 2007
Pre-college preparation     Remedial courses As many first-year  college students, many  undergraduates of  Hispanic back...
Older students    Retention vs. college age   Completion rates    diminishes as the student    ages (National Center for ...
Older students   College age vs. incomeCollege enrollment at alater age is more costly.Older adults tend toearn more and t...
Campus climate       Identity Hispanic students   who are highlyethnically identified    are at risk in institutions where...
Campus climate   Sense of belongingResearcherindicates that aracial climateperceived ashostile negativelyaffects a sense o...
Campus climateSense of belonging:   It has been found                      that Hispanic                      students are...
Campus climateLack of multicultural centersLack of multiculturalcenters depriveminority students of agreat support systemt...
Campus climate       Faculty and       administrators are       a major factor in       creating a       hospitable and   ...
Campus climateLack of Hispanic faculty andstaffThe lack of Hispanic  faculty and staff who may serve as    mentors andadvi...
How could we the faculty and     staff help Hispanic students           succeed at PSU?1.   Work in small groups and consi...
Thanks/Gracias
References   Carr-Ruffino, N. (2005). Making diversity work. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Pearson.   Cerna, O. S., Pérez, P. A...
References   Jones, L., Castellanos, J., & Cole, D. (2002). Examining the Ethnic Minority Student Experience at Predomina...
References   Santiago, D.A. & Cunningham A.F. (2005). How Latino Students Pay for College: Patterns of Financial Aid in  ...
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  • The spiritual and physical world live along side: A clear example is the day of the dead among Mexican and Mexican Americans. Dead is not to be fear.
  • The Catholic influence and the indigenous influence
  • This contrast to “telling it like it is”
  • Source: Pew Hispanic Center, 2002
  • For instance: their parents may not be able to help them navigate the higher education system. Parents may not speak English.
  • Source: Pew Hispanic Center, 2007
  • Transcript of "Understanding hispanicsaug27"

    1. 1. Understanding your Hispanic/Latino students Faculty week presentation Fall 2012 Wilson García Eric o. CintrónDepartment of Languages and Linguistics
    2. 2. Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? Whatis the correct term? Why? Hispanic - U.S. Census  Hispanic- RobertBureau McNamara ―…includes Persons of Hispanic a population of peopleorigin, in particular, were who share a commonthose who indicated thattheir origin was language heritage butMexican, Puerto have many significantRican, Cuban, Central or differences.‖South American, or someother Hispanic origin. Itshould be noted that personsof Hispanic origin maybe ofany race.from: The Hispanic Population in the UnitedStates: March 1993, Current PopulationReports, Population Characteristics, SeriesP20-475.
    3. 3. Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? Whatis the correct term? Why?Latino: People with aHispanic backgroundin USA can also becall Latino. The termLatino is moreinclusive and includeother people fromCentral and SouthAmerica and theCaribbean that NOTspeak Spanish.
    4. 4. Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? Whatis the correct term? Why?Spanish:People thatspeak Spanishand live inSpain.
    5. 5. Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? What is thecorrect term? Why?Guarione M. Díaz ―In this book, I use the termsHispanic, Latino, and Hispanic American withoutintending to express a preference. Ultimately, Iconsider the choice personal and respect thoseof others.‖
    6. 6. Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? What is thecorrect term? Why? Although the two are often used interchangeably, there are subtle, but significant differences in meaning, said Carlos von Son, a professor of multicultural studies and world languages at Palomar College. "There is a difference between Hispanoamerica and Latinoamerica," said von Son. "Hispanoamerica refers to Spanish-speaking countries. Latinoamerica includes Brazil, because their language roots (Portuguese) come from a Latin language."
    7. 7. Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Jenifer López Andrea Sotomayor
    8. 8. Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Antonio Banderas Leonel Messi
    9. 9. Who’s Hispanic/Latino?David Ortiz Cantante XuXa
    10. 10. Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Mariela Castro Benedita da Silva
    11. 11. Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Isabel Allende Gabriel García Márquez
    12. 12. Who’s Hispanic/Latino?George P. Bush Dilma Rousseff
    13. 13. Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Edson Arantes do Nascimento “Pele” Rigoberta Menchú Tum
    14. 14. Demographics? How many, where, and why? How many people in the US are of Hispanic origin? a) 4 million b) 14 million c) 40 million
    15. 15. Demographics? How many, where, and why? After Mexicans and Mexican- Americans, which is the second largest Hispanic group in the US? a) Cubans b) Puerto Ricans c) Dominicans
    16. 16. Demographics? How many, where, and why? How many people of Hispanic origin live in NH? a) 3,000 b) 15,000 c) 37,000
    17. 17. Demographics? How many, where, and why? In the three largest high schools of Manchester, NH, what is the percentage of students of Hispanic origin? a) 50 b) 12 c) 8
    18. 18. Language  English language learners (immigrants and international – Spanish dominance).  Heritage learners (Bilingual with English dominance).  English only (Fry, 2002)
    19. 19. Cultural characteristicsThe degree of presenceof these culturalcharacteristics will varybetweenindividuals, dependingon factors such as: Level of acculturation. Generational status. Socio-economics.(Moll & Irwin, 2008).
    20. 20. Group orientation Hispanics culture is predominantly collectivist. Individuals are seen first as members of a family or cohesive group. The wants and needs of the group comes first.(Carr-Ruffino, 2005)
    21. 21. Group orientation Focus on and maintaining positive, personal relationships. Agreeing with other regardless of personal opinions and feelings. Fear of losing face or shame by the group(Carr-Ruffino, 2005)
    22. 22. Group orientationBe simpático: Polite and respectful. Don’t express criticism, confrontation, or assertiveness. Show a certain level of conformity and empathy for the feelings of others. Try to behave with dignity and respect toward others. Value working toward harmony in interpersonal relationships.(Carr-Ruffino, 2005)
    23. 23. Group orientation  Family is the center of personal existence.  Families are inward-focused and members rely on the these relationships for their emotional security.  Family business is considered private.
    24. 24. Group orientation Conform to family beliefs and wishes. Being influenced by relatives’ perceptions and feelings. Sacrifice for the welfare of the family or in-group.(Carr-Ruffino, 2005)
    25. 25. Proxemics Feel comfortable with physical proximity. Closer personal space. Stand and stay closer.
    26. 26. Personal Space  Hispanics tend to touch each other during a conversation (hugging and kissing) (Roll & Irwin, 2008).  Sometimes men embrace instead of shaking hands (Carr- Ruffino, 2005).
    27. 27. Time orientationPresent-orientedsense: Valuing the here and now, especially the interpersonal relationships that are unfolding currently. Temporarily forgetting about day’s worries.(Ting-Tommey &
    28. 28. Time orientation Time is a cycle. Several tasks at the time. Changes at the last minute (Roll & Irwin, 2008).
    29. 29. Time orientation Meeting deadlines and being on time differs between study/work and social situations.(Carr-Ruffino, 2005).
    30. 30. The Spiritual World The spiritual and physical world live along side. Day of the Dead: Dead is not to be fear (Roll & Irwin, 2008)
    31. 31. The Spiritual World Religious affiliation among Hispanics70605040 68302010 15 170 Roman Catholic Protestant Other/Secular Source: Suro et al., 2007
    32. 32. I’m ControlledHispanics are less likely to believe they are in control of their own destiny―Things happen to me and I havelittle control over my life. It depends on my government, my boss, my fate, God’s will…‖ (Carr-Rufino, 2008)
    33. 33. Hierarchy and status Hierarchy and status is very important in Hispanic culture. It brings stability and determine attitudes and behaviors according to the status (Moll & Irwin, 2008).
    34. 34. Hierarchy and status  Authority figures are expected to set clear standards and boundaries for compliance of their policies and rules.  Authority figures are expected to make all important decisions and others do not question them (Moll & Irwin, 2008).
    35. 35. Hierarchy and status Hispanic show greater deference and respect toward authority figures (i.e.; professors). Power distance between authority figures and subordinates is greater (Moll & Irwin, 2008). ―Call me Wilson‖
    36. 36. Communication patternsSpeaking indirectly: Hispanics communicate indirectly with strangers, outsiders, or authority figures. A way to be polite. It may be difficult to determine exactly what they think or feel(Moll & Irwin, 2008).
    37. 37. Communication patternsHigh concern forfeelings: Hispanics may tell you what you want to hear out of concern of your feelings. Personal opinions and believes are less important than respecting the other’s person feelings(Moll & Irwin, 2008).
    38. 38. Communication patternsHigh sensitivity tocriticism:Reaction to criticismdepends on the statusof the source. Authority figures: seriously/sheepishly. Equal: Humorous. Lower: Not tolerated. (Moll & Irwin, 2008).
    39. 39. Gender roles Hispanic culture and Anglo culture continue to differ markedly in how gender roles are viewed in the two cultures. In general, there are many more rules governing male and female Hispanic behaviors.(Moll & Irwin, 2008)
    40. 40. Role of the Hispanic Woman Attractive Nurturing
    41. 41. Role of the Hispanic Man  Strong  Masculine  Chivalrous and respectful toward women, those in position of authority, and the elderly  Honorable (Moll & Irwin, 2008)
    42. 42. Challenges of Hispanics undergraduates
    43. 43. Hispanics in collegeIn 2007, 88 % ofLatinos in highereducation werenative-born U.S.citizens(Santiago & Cunningham2005).
    44. 44. Generation Percent of high school Hispanic students enrolling in college (ages 18-24)45 4240 363530 2625201510 5 0 First Second Third or higher Source; Fry, 2011
    45. 45. Students at PSU by ethnicity and race100 81.2 80 60 40 20 0.9 0 0.5 0.4 0.3 White Hispanic Asian Native Black American Source: Collegeresults.org
    46. 46. First-generation college Hispanic students are more likely than other undergraduates to be first-generation college students (58 vs. 46 percent). (Santiago, Lopez & Skoloda, 2009)
    47. 47. First-generation collegeLack of social capital: As the first in their family to go to college, the systemic knowledge and support systems may be more limited than for others. (Santiago, Lopez & Skoloda, 2009)
    48. 48. First-generation college ―The combination ofPoor information: minimal adult supervision and poor information often causes Latina/o students to make poor choices about postsecondary education, choices that might hinder or delay their chances to achieve a higher education degree‖ (Zalaquett &
    49. 49. First-generation college ―I wish I would have been educated about the intricacies of collegeadmissions and preparation. I ended up not attending the 1st year because I couldn’t complete all the requiredpaperwork and didn’t know that I qualify for a scholarship‖(Zalaquett & Lopez, 2006)
    50. 50. Financial concernsLow income families A significantly proportion of Hispanics are from low family incomes and thus significantly lower Expected Family Contributions (EFCs) to pay for college than other students (Santiago, D. & Cunningham, A., 200 5)
    51. 51. Financial concernsWork demands Hispanics are more likely to work more hours per week than non- Hispanics. (Longerbeam, Sedlacek, & Alatorre 2004).
    52. 52. Financial concerns  Hispanic students arePart-time attendance: more likely than other undergraduates to be enrolled part-time than non-Hispanics (51 vs. 47 percent) (Santiago, 2009).  Many Hispanics attend part time in order to work full-time (Fry, 2002).
    53. 53. Financial concernsPart-time attendance: At PSU, 5.4% of all students attend part-time (Collegeresults.org).
    54. 54. Financial concerns Part-time attendanceResearch shows thatstudents enrolled part-time are less likely tocomplete a degree in atimely manner thanstudents enrolled full-time(Santiago, Lopez & Skoloda, 2009)
    55. 55. Financial concerns Stress and financial issuesHispanic studentsexperience highlevels of stressdue to financialconcerns(Quintana etal., 1991)
    56. 56. Financial concerns Hispanics areFinancial issues and dropout significantly more likely to attribute a decision to leave college to an inability to afford continuing in higher education. (Longerbeam, Sedlacek, and Alatorre 2004).
    57. 57. Pre-college preparation Source: Hakimzadeh & Cohn, 2007
    58. 58. Pre-college preparation Remedial courses As many first-year college students, many undergraduates of Hispanic background required remedial English courses. This more an issue of literacy and less of language(Cerna, Pérez &Sáenz, 2009)
    59. 59. Older students Retention vs. college age Completion rates diminishes as the student ages (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001). Younger students are less likely to be married and have children thus more likely to remain focused on their education (Fry, 2002).
    60. 60. Older students College age vs. incomeCollege enrollment at alater age is more costly.Older adults tend toearn more and thusthey are deferring moreincome than a youngerstudent if they chooseto study rather thanwork(Fry, 2002)
    61. 61. Campus climate Identity Hispanic students who are highlyethnically identified are at risk in institutions where Hispanics are underrepresented (Torres, 2004).
    62. 62. Campus climate Sense of belongingResearcherindicates that aracial climateperceived ashostile negativelyaffects a sense ofbelonging incollege(Lascher, nd).
    63. 63. Campus climateSense of belonging: It has been found that Hispanic students are most likely to perceive less sense of belonging than White students (Johnson et al., 2007).
    64. 64. Campus climateLack of multicultural centersLack of multiculturalcenters depriveminority students of agreat support systemto receivesocial, cultural andadvising support(Jones et. al. 2002)
    65. 65. Campus climate Faculty and administrators are a major factor in creating a hospitable and supportive campus environment (Colin et al. 2006).
    66. 66. Campus climateLack of Hispanic faculty andstaffThe lack of Hispanic faculty and staff who may serve as mentors andadvisors makes the college experience more difficult for Hispanic students (Torres, 2004).
    67. 67. How could we the faculty and staff help Hispanic students succeed at PSU?1. Work in small groups and consider for a few minutes some strategies that we, as faculty and staff, could use to assist Hispanic/Latino students to be academically successful in this institution.2. Then, each small group will share some of their strategies the rest of the audience.
    68. 68. Thanks/Gracias
    69. 69. References Carr-Ruffino, N. (2005). Making diversity work. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Pearson. Cerna, O. S., Pérez, P. A., & Sáenz, V. (2009). Examining the precollege attributes and values of Latina/o bachelor’s degree Attainers. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 8(2), 130-157. doi: 10.1177/1538192708330239 Diaz, G. M. (2007) . The Cuban American Experience: Issues, Perceptions, and Realities. Fry, R. (2002). Many Enroll, Too Few Graduate. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/11.pdf Fry, R. (2011). Hispanic college enrollment spikes, narrowing gaps with other groups. Retrieved from http://pewresearch.org/pubs/2089/college-enrollment-hispanics-blacks-educational-attainment Hakimzadeh S., & Cohn, D. (2007). English usage among Hispanics in the United States. Retrieved from : http://www.pewhispanic.org/2007/11/29/english-usage-among-hispanics-in-the-united-states/ Johnson, D. R., Soldner, M., Leonard, J. B., Alvarez, P., Inkelas, K. K., Rowan-Kenyon, H., & Rowan-Kenyon, H. (2007). Examining Sense of Belonging Among First-Year Undergraduates From Different Racial/Ethnic Groups. Journal of College Student Development, 48(5), 525-542. doi: 10.1353/csd.2007.0054
    70. 70. References Jones, L., Castellanos, J., & Cole, D. (2002). Examining the Ethnic Minority Student Experience at Predominantly White Institutions: A Case Study. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 1(1), 19-39. doi: 10.1177/1538192702001001003 Kanno & Harklau (Ed.)(2012). Linguistic minority students go to college. Preparation, access, and persistence. New York: Routledge Klein, Beltranena, & McArthur (2004). Language Minorities and Their Educational and Labor Market Indicators— Recent Trends, NCES 2004–009. Washington, DC: 2004. Longerbeam, Susan D., William E. Sedlacek, and Helen M. Alatorre. 2004. In Their own voices: Latino student Retention.‖ NASPA Journal 41: 538-550. McNamara, R. (2009). Muilticulturalism in the Criminal Justice System. Quintana, Stephen M., Martha C. Vogel, and Veronica C. Ybarra. 1991. ―Meta-Analysis of Latino Students’ Adjustment in Higher Education.‖Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 13: 155-168. Roll & Irwin (2008). The invisible border. Latinos in America. Boston: Intercultural Press.
    71. 71. References Santiago, D.A. & Cunningham A.F. (2005). How Latino Students Pay for College: Patterns of Financial Aid in 2003-04. Washington, DC: Excelencia in Education and the Institute for Higher Education Policy. Santiago, D.A, Lopez, E., & Skoloda, M., (2009) What works for Latino students in higher education. Retrieved from: http://edexcelencia.org/sites/default/files/EE09Compendium.pdf Suro, Escobar, Livingston, Hakimzadeh (2007). Changing faiths. Latinos and the transformation of American religion. Retrieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/reports/75.pdf Ting-Toomey & Chung (2012). Understanding intercultural communication. New York: Oxford University Press. Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Torres, V. (2004). Familial Influences on the Identity Development of Latino First-Year Students. Journal of College Student Development, 45(4), 457-469 doi: 10.1353/csd.2004.0054 Zalaquett, C. & Lopez, A. (2006). Learning from the stories of successful undergraduate Latina/Latino students: the importance of mentoring. Mentoring and Tutoring journal, 14 (3), 337-353.
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