Understanding your Hispanic/Latino students Faculty week presentation Fall 2012 Wilson García Eric o. CintrónDepartment of Languages and Linguistics
Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? Whatis the correct term? Why? Hispanic - U.S. Census Hispanic- RobertBureau McNamara ―…includes Persons of Hispanic a population of peopleorigin, in particular, were who share a commonthose who indicated thattheir origin was language heritage butMexican, Puerto have many significantRican, Cuban, Central or differences.‖South American, or someother Hispanic origin. Itshould be noted that personsof Hispanic origin maybe ofany race.from: The Hispanic Population in the UnitedStates: March 1993, Current PopulationReports, Population Characteristics, SeriesP20-475.
Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? Whatis the correct term? Why?Latino: People with aHispanic backgroundin USA can also becall Latino. The termLatino is moreinclusive and includeother people fromCentral and SouthAmerica and theCaribbean that NOTspeak Spanish.
Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? Whatis the correct term? Why?Spanish:People thatspeak Spanishand live inSpain.
Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? What is thecorrect term? Why?Guarione M. Díaz ―In this book, I use the termsHispanic, Latino, and Hispanic American withoutintending to express a preference. Ultimately, Iconsider the choice personal and respect thoseof others.‖
Labels: Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish? What is thecorrect term? Why? Although the two are often used interchangeably, there are subtle, but significant differences in meaning, said Carlos von Son, a professor of multicultural studies and world languages at Palomar College. "There is a difference between Hispanoamerica and Latinoamerica," said von Son. "Hispanoamerica refers to Spanish-speaking countries. Latinoamerica includes Brazil, because their language roots (Portuguese) come from a Latin language."
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Jenifer López Andrea Sotomayor
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Mariela Castro Benedita da Silva
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Isabel Allende Gabriel García Márquez
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?George P. Bush Dilma Rousseff
Who’s Hispanic/Latino?Edson Arantes do Nascimento “Pele” Rigoberta Menchú Tum
Demographics? How many, where, and why? How many people in the US are of Hispanic origin? a) 4 million b) 14 million c) 40 million
Demographics? How many, where, and why? After Mexicans and Mexican- Americans, which is the second largest Hispanic group in the US? a) Cubans b) Puerto Ricans c) Dominicans
Demographics? How many, where, and why? How many people of Hispanic origin live in NH? a) 3,000 b) 15,000 c) 37,000
Demographics? How many, where, and why? In the three largest high schools of Manchester, NH, what is the percentage of students of Hispanic origin? a) 50 b) 12 c) 8
Language English language learners (immigrants and international – Spanish dominance). Heritage learners (Bilingual with English dominance). English only (Fry, 2002)
Cultural characteristicsThe degree of presenceof these culturalcharacteristics will varybetweenindividuals, dependingon factors such as: Level of acculturation. Generational status. Socio-economics.(Moll & Irwin, 2008).
Group orientation Hispanics culture is predominantly collectivist. Individuals are seen first as members of a family or cohesive group. The wants and needs of the group comes first.(Carr-Ruffino, 2005)
Group orientation Focus on and maintaining positive, personal relationships. Agreeing with other regardless of personal opinions and feelings. Fear of losing face or shame by the group(Carr-Ruffino, 2005)
Group orientationBe simpático: Polite and respectful. Don’t express criticism, confrontation, or assertiveness. Show a certain level of conformity and empathy for the feelings of others. Try to behave with dignity and respect toward others. Value working toward harmony in interpersonal relationships.(Carr-Ruffino, 2005)
Group orientation Family is the center of personal existence. Families are inward-focused and members rely on the these relationships for their emotional security. Family business is considered private.
Group orientation Conform to family beliefs and wishes. Being influenced by relatives’ perceptions and feelings. Sacrifice for the welfare of the family or in-group.(Carr-Ruffino, 2005)
Proxemics Feel comfortable with physical proximity. Closer personal space. Stand and stay closer.
Personal Space Hispanics tend to touch each other during a conversation (hugging and kissing) (Roll & Irwin, 2008). Sometimes men embrace instead of shaking hands (Carr- Ruffino, 2005).
Time orientationPresent-orientedsense: Valuing the here and now, especially the interpersonal relationships that are unfolding currently. Temporarily forgetting about day’s worries.(Ting-Tommey &
Time orientation Time is a cycle. Several tasks at the time. Changes at the last minute (Roll & Irwin, 2008).
Time orientation Meeting deadlines and being on time differs between study/work and social situations.(Carr-Ruffino, 2005).
The Spiritual World The spiritual and physical world live along side. Day of the Dead: Dead is not to be fear (Roll & Irwin, 2008)
The Spiritual World Religious affiliation among Hispanics70605040 68302010 15 170 Roman Catholic Protestant Other/Secular Source: Suro et al., 2007
I’m ControlledHispanics are less likely to believe they are in control of their own destiny―Things happen to me and I havelittle control over my life. It depends on my government, my boss, my fate, God’s will…‖ (Carr-Rufino, 2008)
Hierarchy and status Hierarchy and status is very important in Hispanic culture. It brings stability and determine attitudes and behaviors according to the status (Moll & Irwin, 2008).
Hierarchy and status Authority figures are expected to set clear standards and boundaries for compliance of their policies and rules. Authority figures are expected to make all important decisions and others do not question them (Moll & Irwin, 2008).
Hierarchy and status Hispanic show greater deference and respect toward authority figures (i.e.; professors). Power distance between authority figures and subordinates is greater (Moll & Irwin, 2008). ―Call me Wilson‖
Communication patternsSpeaking indirectly: Hispanics communicate indirectly with strangers, outsiders, or authority figures. A way to be polite. It may be difficult to determine exactly what they think or feel(Moll & Irwin, 2008).
Communication patternsHigh concern forfeelings: Hispanics may tell you what you want to hear out of concern of your feelings. Personal opinions and believes are less important than respecting the other’s person feelings(Moll & Irwin, 2008).
Communication patternsHigh sensitivity tocriticism:Reaction to criticismdepends on the statusof the source. Authority figures: seriously/sheepishly. Equal: Humorous. Lower: Not tolerated. (Moll & Irwin, 2008).
Gender roles Hispanic culture and Anglo culture continue to differ markedly in how gender roles are viewed in the two cultures. In general, there are many more rules governing male and female Hispanic behaviors.(Moll & Irwin, 2008)
Role of the Hispanic Woman Attractive Nurturing
Role of the Hispanic Man Strong Masculine Chivalrous and respectful toward women, those in position of authority, and the elderly Honorable (Moll & Irwin, 2008)
Challenges of Hispanics undergraduates
Hispanics in collegeIn 2007, 88 % ofLatinos in highereducation werenative-born U.S.citizens(Santiago & Cunningham2005).
Generation Percent of high school Hispanic students enrolling in college (ages 18-24)45 4240 363530 2625201510 5 0 First Second Third or higher Source; Fry, 2011
Students at PSU by ethnicity and race100 81.2 80 60 40 20 0.9 0 0.5 0.4 0.3 White Hispanic Asian Native Black American Source: Collegeresults.org
First-generation college Hispanic students are more likely than other undergraduates to be first-generation college students (58 vs. 46 percent). (Santiago, Lopez & Skoloda, 2009)
First-generation collegeLack of social capital: As the first in their family to go to college, the systemic knowledge and support systems may be more limited than for others. (Santiago, Lopez & Skoloda, 2009)
First-generation college ―The combination ofPoor information: minimal adult supervision and poor information often causes Latina/o students to make poor choices about postsecondary education, choices that might hinder or delay their chances to achieve a higher education degree‖ (Zalaquett &
First-generation college ―I wish I would have been educated about the intricacies of collegeadmissions and preparation. I ended up not attending the 1st year because I couldn’t complete all the requiredpaperwork and didn’t know that I qualify for a scholarship‖(Zalaquett & Lopez, 2006)
Financial concernsLow income families A significantly proportion of Hispanics are from low family incomes and thus significantly lower Expected Family Contributions (EFCs) to pay for college than other students (Santiago, D. & Cunningham, A., 200 5)
Financial concernsWork demands Hispanics are more likely to work more hours per week than non- Hispanics. (Longerbeam, Sedlacek, & Alatorre 2004).
Financial concerns Hispanic students arePart-time attendance: more likely than other undergraduates to be enrolled part-time than non-Hispanics (51 vs. 47 percent) (Santiago, 2009). Many Hispanics attend part time in order to work full-time (Fry, 2002).
Financial concernsPart-time attendance: At PSU, 5.4% of all students attend part-time (Collegeresults.org).
Financial concerns Part-time attendanceResearch shows thatstudents enrolled part-time are less likely tocomplete a degree in atimely manner thanstudents enrolled full-time(Santiago, Lopez & Skoloda, 2009)
Financial concerns Stress and financial issuesHispanic studentsexperience highlevels of stressdue to financialconcerns(Quintana etal., 1991)
Financial concerns Hispanics areFinancial issues and dropout significantly more likely to attribute a decision to leave college to an inability to afford continuing in higher education. (Longerbeam, Sedlacek, and Alatorre 2004).
Pre-college preparation Remedial courses As many first-year college students, many undergraduates of Hispanic background required remedial English courses. This more an issue of literacy and less of language(Cerna, Pérez &Sáenz, 2009)
Older students Retention vs. college age Completion rates diminishes as the student ages (National Center for Education Statistics, 2001). Younger students are less likely to be married and have children thus more likely to remain focused on their education (Fry, 2002).
Older students College age vs. incomeCollege enrollment at alater age is more costly.Older adults tend toearn more and thusthey are deferring moreincome than a youngerstudent if they chooseto study rather thanwork(Fry, 2002)
Campus climate Identity Hispanic students who are highlyethnically identified are at risk in institutions where Hispanics are underrepresented (Torres, 2004).
Campus climate Sense of belongingResearcherindicates that aracial climateperceived ashostile negativelyaffects a sense ofbelonging incollege(Lascher, nd).
Campus climateSense of belonging: It has been found that Hispanic students are most likely to perceive less sense of belonging than White students (Johnson et al., 2007).
Campus climateLack of multicultural centersLack of multiculturalcenters depriveminority students of agreat support systemto receivesocial, cultural andadvising support(Jones et. al. 2002)
Campus climate Faculty and administrators are a major factor in creating a hospitable and supportive campus environment (Colin et al. 2006).
Campus climateLack of Hispanic faculty andstaffThe lack of Hispanic faculty and staff who may serve as mentors andadvisors makes the college experience more difficult for Hispanic students (Torres, 2004).
How could we the faculty and staff help Hispanic students succeed at PSU?1. Work in small groups and consider for a few minutes some strategies that we, as faculty and staff, could use to assist Hispanic/Latino students to be academically successful in this institution.2. Then, each small group will share some of their strategies the rest of the audience.
References Carr-Ruffino, N. (2005). Making diversity work. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Pearson. Cerna, O. S., Pérez, P. A., & Sáenz, V. (2009). Examining the precollege attributes and values of Latina/o bachelor’s degree Attainers. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 8(2), 130-157. doi: 10.1177/1538192708330239 Diaz, G. M. (2007) . The Cuban American Experience: Issues, Perceptions, and Realities. Fry, R. (2002). Many Enroll, Too Few Graduate. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/11.pdf Fry, R. (2011). Hispanic college enrollment spikes, narrowing gaps with other groups. Retrieved from http://pewresearch.org/pubs/2089/college-enrollment-hispanics-blacks-educational-attainment Hakimzadeh S., & Cohn, D. (2007). English usage among Hispanics in the United States. Retrieved from : http://www.pewhispanic.org/2007/11/29/english-usage-among-hispanics-in-the-united-states/ Johnson, D. R., Soldner, M., Leonard, J. B., Alvarez, P., Inkelas, K. K., Rowan-Kenyon, H., & Rowan-Kenyon, H. (2007). Examining Sense of Belonging Among First-Year Undergraduates From Different Racial/Ethnic Groups. Journal of College Student Development, 48(5), 525-542. doi: 10.1353/csd.2007.0054
References Jones, L., Castellanos, J., & Cole, D. (2002). Examining the Ethnic Minority Student Experience at Predominantly White Institutions: A Case Study. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 1(1), 19-39. doi: 10.1177/1538192702001001003 Kanno & Harklau (Ed.)(2012). Linguistic minority students go to college. Preparation, access, and persistence. New York: Routledge Klein, Beltranena, & McArthur (2004). Language Minorities and Their Educational and Labor Market Indicators— Recent Trends, NCES 2004–009. Washington, DC: 2004. Longerbeam, Susan D., William E. Sedlacek, and Helen M. Alatorre. 2004. In Their own voices: Latino student Retention.‖ NASPA Journal 41: 538-550. McNamara, R. (2009). Muilticulturalism in the Criminal Justice System. Quintana, Stephen M., Martha C. Vogel, and Veronica C. Ybarra. 1991. ―Meta-Analysis of Latino Students’ Adjustment in Higher Education.‖Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 13: 155-168. Roll & Irwin (2008). The invisible border. Latinos in America. Boston: Intercultural Press.
References Santiago, D.A. & Cunningham A.F. (2005). How Latino Students Pay for College: Patterns of Financial Aid in 2003-04. Washington, DC: Excelencia in Education and the Institute for Higher Education Policy. Santiago, D.A, Lopez, E., & Skoloda, M., (2009) What works for Latino students in higher education. Retrieved from: http://edexcelencia.org/sites/default/files/EE09Compendium.pdf Suro, Escobar, Livingston, Hakimzadeh (2007). Changing faiths. Latinos and the transformation of American religion. Retrieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/reports/75.pdf Ting-Toomey & Chung (2012). Understanding intercultural communication. New York: Oxford University Press. Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Torres, V. (2004). Familial Influences on the Identity Development of Latino First-Year Students. Journal of College Student Development, 45(4), 457-469 doi: 10.1353/csd.2004.0054 Zalaquett, C. & Lopez, A. (2006). Learning from the stories of successful undergraduate Latina/Latino students: the importance of mentoring. Mentoring and Tutoring journal, 14 (3), 337-353.