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Cold war

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  • 1. Post WWII Europe 1945 - war ends • Alliance unravels • Soviet Union expands into Eastern Europe • • • Elections in Hungary and Poland Satellite nations Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria • Threatened by Western powers, Soviet Union wanted a “buffer” on its western border • Forced Eastern European countries to remain as allies •
  • 2. Differences in Motive   Soviets protecting from future attack or just empire-building? West sees it as the Soviet Union trying to take over all of Europe
  • 3. The Iron Curtain   Split between Western Europe and Eastern Europe following WWII 1946 Winston Churchill speech in Fulton, Missouri     Warns of the influence of the Soviet Union Very unpopular at the time Ends up being one of the most famous speeches of the century “Iron Curtain” would be used to describe Soviet policy in Europe from 1945-1989
  • 4. Containment  Truman’s answer was containment     To prevent the further spread of communism Brainchild of George Kennan who will be known as “the father of containment” Many thought this was too soft Columnist Walter Lippmann coins the term “Cold War” at this time
  • 5. The Truman Doctrine  Containment began in Europe in Greece and Turkey     1947 – Great Britain tells the U.S it can’t afford to keep troops in Greece or aid Turkey These are hot areas for communist takeovers Truman felt the U.S. must act by providing military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey Passed by Congress, known as the Truman Doctrine
  • 6. The Marshall Plan  1948-1952 economic aid to Europe       Also feared a poor European economy would soon affect U.S. markets U.S. offers money, supplies, and machinery to every nation in Europe   Postwar Europe still in shambles Shortages of food, fuel, and raw materials U.S. feared troubles in France, Italy, and other European countries could lead to communist takeovers   Secretary of State George Marshall Western Europe welcomes it Eastern Europe/Soviet Union turn it down Many tariffs and trade laws are dropped throughout Western Europe U.S. gives $13 billion in relief during this time  Comparable to approximately $121 billion today.
  • 7. The Berlin Airlift  Germany is split into 4 sections following WWII     In 1948 the Western powers announce that their 3 sections will form an independent, democratic nation Angers the Soviet Union, so they close off all traffic from West Germany into Berlin, hoping to take full control of Berlin    One of the first major crises of the Cold War U.S. doesn’t want war, so they don’t send troops to Berlin Instead the U.S. and Britain provide a massive airlift to Berlin’s 2 million people   U.S., Great Britain, France, Soviet Union Berlin was also split up into 4 sections Food, medicine, clothing, raw materials, coal Soviet Union calls off the blockade after 11 months
  • 8. NATO  North Atlantic Treaty Organization    General Dwight D. Eisenhower was commander of NATO’s forces Western European countries coming together for military protection        Formed in 1949 Alliance between U.S., Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, Italy, France, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, West Germany “an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against all of them.” Leads to the Soviet Union and its satellite nations forming the Warsaw Pact 1949 – Soviet Union develops an atomic bomb 1952 – U.S. develops a hydrogen bomb 1955 – Soviet Union develops a hydrogen bomb Arms race between the two sides is fully under way
  • 9. The Korean War   1950-53 Following Japanese surrender the Soviet Union had troops in Korea north of the 38th parallel and the U.S. had troops south of the 38th parallel       Soviets set up a communist government and shut off North Korea from the outside world U.S. supports Syngman Rhee in the south, In 1948 the U.N. recognizes the South Korean Republic as the government of all of Korea 1949 – U.S. withdraws most troops from South Korea 1950 – North Korea invades South Korea U.N. orders North Korea to withdraw   Truman appoints MacArthur to command all U.N. troops Truman sends U.S. military to Korea without asking Congress to declare war
  • 10. The Korean War     Summer 1950 – North Korea pushes all the way to Pusan Fall 1950 – MacArthur leads surprise landing at the port of Inchon November 1950 – U.N. troops get all the way to the Yalu River 200,000 Chinese troops cross border and push MacArthur back
  • 11. MacArthur Fired      MacArthur wants U.S. to bomb China and help Chiang Kai-shek invade China Truman doesn’t want a war with China April 1951 – a letter is released in which MacArthur criticizes Truman’s decisions Truman feels he has no choice but to remove MacArthur from his post Incredibly unpopular move with American citizens    MacArthur is a war hero and one of the most popular men in America Republicans wanted MacArthur to run for President in 1952, but he declines and retires MacArthur addresses the nation
  • 12. The End of The Korean War    By 1952 no substantial gains had been made in Korea Presidential candidate Dwight Eisenhower promised to “go to Korea” and resolve the issue 1953 – cease-fire is declared      Korea left divided at the 38th parallel 2.5 mile DMZ “buffer zone” created More than 3 million total casualties 54,000 U.S. troops killed Lasting effects     Proxy war China left protected with a “buffer” state China and Soviet Union become close allies May 2009 – North Korea withdraws from the armistice
  • 13. The Cold War in America   1945 – fear of a depression with the war over American jobs actually increased     Defense spending    Farm income high – feeding the whole world Rationing during war led to Americans saving $30 billion $6 billion in wartime tax cuts 1949 - $15 billion 1953 – $50 billion Marshall Plan restored markets in Europe for American goods
  • 14. Fear of Communism at Home   The Cold War and the Korean War heighten fear of communism in U.S. Communist spy ring sending nuclear secrets to Soviet Union is discovered in Canada   Americans believed this was why the Soviet Union was able to develop the atomic bomb so early Fallout – arrest and execution on Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in 1953     First execution of civilians for espionage in U.S. history Still highly controversial Leads to mass suspicion of other communist sympathizers and spies in the government, universities, the press, and Hollywood How to spot a communist
  • 15. Loyalty Oaths and Subversives  Following the loss of China to the Communists and the stalemate of the Korean War, America entered a 2nd Red Scare    Communist fear led to the popularity of loyalty oaths    Critics accused Truman of not doing enough to save China Allegations that his advisers were Communists Controversial, but Supreme Court found state loyalty oaths to be constitutional Subversives – individuals attempting to overthrow the government House Committee on Un-American Activities becomes popular, leading anticommunist investigations throughout the late ’40s and ’50s
  • 16. McCarthyism  Senator Joe McCarthy of Wisconsin      McCarthyism – the use of unfounded political accusations to destroy the character of opponents 1950 speech – “I have here in my hand a list of 205 names of Communists” Becomes face of Cold War fear at home Gains incredible power in early ’50s    nobody wants to challenge him for fear of being accused of Communist sympathies Growing hysteria leads to “witch-hunts” 1954 – decline in popularity    1947-57 1954 Army-McCarthy Hearings Edward R. Murrow vs. McCarthy McCarthyism

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