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Building knowledge workers through skill colleges piloting 100 community colleges in 12th plan

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  • 1.     BUILDING  KNOWLEDGE  WORKERS  THROUGH     SKILL  COLLEGES:     PILOTING  100  COMMUNITY  COLLEGES  IN  12th  PLAN         Approach  Paper  for  achieving  this  through  “Skill  Colleges”   ü Industry  lead  program  that  caters  to  job  readiness   ü Modeled  after  global  best  practices   ü Adapted  for  India’s  unique  needs   ü Integrated  into  existing  systems   ü Supported  by  strong  partner  networks         www.wadhwani-­‐foundation.org   January  2012Confidential   1        
  • 2.       Table  of  Contents    Executive  Summary:  ..............................................................................................................................  3  1.  Intervention  at  post-­‐Secondary  Education  level  –  A  Case  for  Action  ................................................  4  2.   NVEQF  based  Skill  Colleges  in  higher  education  ............................................................................  6  3.   Implementation  Model  ................................................................................................................  10   3.1   Challenges  for  implementing  NVEQF  in  Higher  Education  .....................................................  11   3.2   Anchors  for  Deployment  ........................................................................................................  12   3.3   Approach  for  Rolling  Out  ........................................................................................................  12   3.4   Plan  and  Supporting  Elements  ...............................................................................................  15  4   Driving  Success  by  nurturing  implementations  in  Pilot  and  beyond:  ............................................  18   4.1   National  Skill  Knowledge  Network  (NSKN)  .............................................................................  19  5.  Benefits  and  Next  Steps:  ..................................................................................................................  21  Appendix  A.  Sample  Courses  in  Various  Industries:  ............................................................................  23    Confidential   2        
  • 3.    Executive  Summary:  India   needs   to   create   tens   of   millions   of   highly   skilled   knowledge   workers   to   sustain   its   economic  growth,  meet  global  demand  and  fulfil  its  human  potential.  To  meet  the  skill  demands  of  a  growing  Indian   economy   and   increasing   youth   population,   GoI   has   launched   various   Initiatives   around   Skill  development   and   MHRD   has   also   established   the   NVEQF   to   facilitate   and   formalize   Skill  development.          This   paper   focuses   on   implementation   of   the   NVEQF   at   Levels   5   through   7   through   Skills   Colleges  modelled   after   the   Community   College.   This   will   build   world-­‐class   capacity   for   three   million   higher  education  seats  tightly  linked  with  market-­‐linked  vocational  education.  Working   closely   with   Industry,   Central   &   State   Governments   as   well   as   Educational   Institutes,   the  Initiative  aims  to  offer  a  faster,  cheaper  and  better  alternative  to  the  regular  college  track  and  thus  open  the  doors  to  the  4.5  million  youth  left  behind  after  completing  Class  12  each  year.  Rolling  out  NVEQF  in  Higher  Education,  especially  at  the  Level  5  and  6,  will  meet  critical  needs:  • Right-­‐skilling  the  currently  under-­‐equipped  Knowledge  Workers  for  global  jobs  of  the  future  • Overcome  barriers  of  affordability,  accessibility  and  employability  to  push  more  working-­‐age   youth  to  pursue  higher  education  and  improve  GER  of  the  nation  A  “Skills  Colleges”  model,  similar  to  Community  Colleges,  that  offers  shorter  term  courses  like  1-­‐year  Diplomas  or  2-­‐year  Associate’s  Degrees  is  proposed.  This  could  best  drive  national  standards  while  meeting  the  needs  of  the  local  industry  and  populations.  They  could  be  set  up:  • Within  Current  Systems.  The  existing  College  or  VET  Provider’s  physical  infrastructure  could  be   used,  but  with  separate  course  offerings,  distinct  curriculum,  teachers,  assessments,  etc.    • As  new  dedicated  “Skills  Colleges”.  These  could  be  built  on  the  NVEQF  principles  from  the   beginning  and  would  be  focused  on  meeting  Knowledge  Worker  skills    In   the   12th   5-­‐year   Plan   for   India,   100   Community   Colleges   are   planned   to   prove   the   value   of   the  model   in   addressing   the   skill   gaps.   To   implement   this   correctly,   a   “4-­‐S”   (Select   Pilot,   Scope   up   to  various  industries  gradually,  Standardize  curriculum,  assessments,  etc.  to  start  with  and  Support  for  success)   approach   is   suggested.   Piloting   will   gain   quick   traction   with   forward   thinking   and   aligned  early   adopters,   consolidate   learnings   into   replicable   models   through   the   support   structure   to   enable  further   scale-­‐up   and   adoption   and   then   become   a   self-­‐sustaining   vibrant   ecosystem   across   the  various  geographies  and  industries  in  the  long  run.  It  is  suggested  that  a  PPP  with  the  government  and  partners  like  Wadhwani  Foundation  called  National  Skill  Knowledge  Network  (NSKN)  can  play  a  vital  role  in  supporting  and  ensuring  success  of  this  program.  It  is  envisioned  that  this  entity  can  be  setup  in  mission  mode  with  increasing  portion  of  the  funding  for   such   capacity   building   activities   being   borne   by   the   beneficiaries   (industry,   colleges,   etc.)   over  time.  Confidential   3        
  • 4.    The   National   Vocational   Educational   Qualification   Framework   is   a   pathbreaking   step   in   integrating  vocational   training   and   formal   education   in   India.   Proper   implementation   of   NVEQF   in   higher  education   will   help   build   work-­‐ready   students   for   the   knowledge   economy   jobs   of   the   future.  Assuming  the  context  of  NVEQF  is  known  to  readers;  this  paper  focuses  on  its  actualization.  1.  Intervention  at  post-­‐Secondary  Education  level  –  A  Case  for  Action  India’s  growing  economy  and  demographic  dividend  (leading  to  25%  of  the  global  working  age    population   by   2025)   provides   India   great   prospects   of   becoming   the   human   capital   to   the   world.i  However,   this   opportunity   can   only   be   harnessed   if   our   youth   is   trained  and   skilled   to   be   productive  in   the   global   economy.   It   is   estimated   that   top   Industry   sectors   will   need   around   250   million  additional  employees  by  2022.ii  The  PM  has  called  for  skilling  (or  re-­‐skilling)  500  million  people  in  this  time   frame.   Where   will   these   jobs   be?   Across   the   board   as   depicted   in   Fig.   1.   and   many  organizations,   including   NSDC   are   addressing   the   lower   categories   of   jobs.   However,   a   concerted  effort  in  skilling  knowledge  workers  at  scale  is  sorely  missing  and  in  a  knowledge  economy  ,  jobs  will  be  increasingly  migrating  to  a  hitherto  under-­‐equipped  category  of  “knowledge  workers”  as  shown  in  Fig.  1:     Fig.1  Knowledge  Workers  are  under-­‐served  by  current  Education  and  Training  India’s   growth   ensures   a   push   towards   a   knowledge   economy   involving   millions   of   skilled   people  across   all   sectors..   Even   traditional   blue   collared   jobs   (like   Automotive)   are   gaining   a   knowledge  work  status  with  advances  in  technology.  Creating  a  pool  of  such  knowledge  professionals  is  going  to  be  crucial  in  growing  industries  and  attracting  FDI.  Hence,  rightly,  the  12th  plan  targets  to  increase  higher  education  from  current  12.4%  to  21%  (see  Fig.2  below).  Confidential   4        
  • 5.    Comparisons  of  higher  education  beyond  12th  standard  (See  Fig.  2  below)  indicate  that  this  is  a  dire  need   as   India   lags   behind   other   countries.   About   64%   students   stop   after   12th   class   because   of  affordability,   accessibility   and   employability.   Lack   of   options   is   also   said   to   increase   dropouts   in  earlier   classes.   While   obtaining   a   college   degree   is   a   matter   of   prestige   for   most   Indians,   the   sad  reality   is   that   it   doesn’t   significantly   improve   employability   of   students.   Degree   colleges   have   also  grown  from  7,350  in  1990  to  18,500  in  2007,  but  only  around  40%  graduates  are  employableiii  and  Degree  colleges  do  not  focus  on  Intermediate  skills.  It  is  said,  the  current  Indian  college  education  just  delays  unemployment  by  three  to  four  years!                                         th ivFig.2 High Dropout after 12 Class Low GER % for Higher Ed. .To  summarize,  the  reasons  to  pursue  a  “community  college”  like  model  include:   1. Demand  for  Knowledge  Worker  Skills  by  Industry/Employers  Economic  growth  of  India  is  fuelled  by  growth  in  domestic  as  well  as  global  demand.  Technological  advances  causes  need  for  higher  skilled  workers  across  sectors  in  the  domestic  market.  Our  young  population’s  demographic  dividend  demand  attracts  global  jobs  but  needs  a  higher  level  of  educated  workforce   for   multinationals.   Community   Colleges   aim   to   impart   quality   and   quantity   of   such  industry  relevant  post-­‐secondary  education  which  can  cater  to  this  demand   2. Lack  of  Employable  Skills  from  Educational  Institutes  Current  tertiary  education  doesn’t  produce  employable  graduates  for  various  reasons  including  lack  of   industry   drivers   or   orientation.   Community   Colleges   focuses   on   meeting   the   needs   of   local  industry  and  community  through  practical,  industry  driven  education   3. Poor  Higher  Education  Gross  Enrollment  Ratio  Only   a   minority   pursue   higher   education   after   secondary   studies   due   to   reasons   of   employability,  accessibility   and   affordability.   Community   Colleges   addresses   these   issues   through   short-­‐term  courses   aimed   at   meeting   immediate   and   future   needs   of   the   students   (and   local   industries),   thus  encouraging   students   to   start   higher   education   and   put   them   on   a   pathway   to   future   growth   –  educational  and  professional.  In   absence   of   pertinent   employable   skills   training,   companies   often   resort   to   in-­‐service   training  whose   rigour   and   quality   varies   widely.   A   few   progressive   companies   have   even   outsourced   their  internal   trainings   to   independent   educational   and   training   institutions.   However,   all   these   are   ad-­‐Confidential   5        
  • 6.    hoc,   company   and   job   specific   training   which   doesn’t   necessarily   enhance   skills   for   growing   in   a  career  or  even  in  the  company.  The  analysis  of  relative  merits  and  issues  of  the  options  are  summarized  in  the  table  below:     Levers   Formal   Vocational   Corporate  Training     Outdated,  Not   Customised  for   Curriculum   Industry  Oriented   Trade  Focus   Specific  Company     Low  Industry   Govt.  or  Industry   Teachers   Exposure   Trainers     Industry  Trainers       Pedagogy   Theory   Practical     Practical     Industry  Connect   Low   Low   High   Social  Acceptability   High   Low   High     Up  skilling/   Reskilling   Longer  Duration   Low   Limited     Cost   High   Low   High   Duration   Long   Short   Short     Over  qualified  -­‐     Student  Profile   Under  Skilled   Skilled   Skilled   Accessibility   Limited   Good   Limited   Fig.  3a  Analysis  of  Current  Skill  Development  Options  It   is   clear   that   an   innovative   model   is   needed   to   transform   higher   education   to   address   the   above  mentioned   shortcomings.   We   need   a   new   paradigm   that   rectifies   the   dropout   and   employability  problems,   thereby   creating   knowledge   workers   who   are   also   trained   hands   on   sectoral   skills.   The  logical  prescription  for  such  a  program  that  addresses  the  current  limitations  is  summarized  below:       Levers   Current  Need     Curriculum   Contemporary,  Industry  Relevant     Teachers   Trained  &  Certified  by  Industry/  Bodies     Pedagogy   Theory  +  Practical     Industry  Connect   High     Social  Acceptability   High       Up  skilling/  Reskilling   Easy  Mobility  for  Incremental  Employability     Cost   Low     Duration   Moderate     Student  Profile   Right  Skilled     Accessibility   Widespread     Fig  3b.  Program  Prescription  to  Overcome  Current  Limitations       2. NVEQF  based  Skill  Colleges  in  higher  education  The  NVEQF  framework  provides  the  ideal  pathway  for  fulfilling  the  academic  gaps  and  bridging  the  Industry   –   Academia   disconnect.   The   layered   certifications   allow   easy   mobility   and   upskilling   for  career  progression.  Confidential   6        
  • 7.      This  was  recognized  as  early  as  1986  in  the  National  Policy  on  Education  which  stated,  inter-­‐alia,  that  “The  introduction  of  systematic,  well-­‐planned  and  rigorously  implemented  programme  of  vocational  education   is   crucial   in   the   proposed   educational   re-­‐organization…   Vocational   education   will   be   a  distinct   stream   intended   to   prepare   students   for   identified   vocations   spanning   several   areas   of  activity.”    HRD  Minister  Kapil  Sibal  reiterated  this  when  he  emphasized  that  the  NVEQF  will  help  in  making   the   vocational   course   more   acceptable   to   the   people   who   now   give   importance   to   other  plain  paper  degreesv.    As  prescribed,  the  various  levers  of  the  skill  based  education  can  be  explained  under  the  context  of  NVEQF  framework.  This  seeks  to  make  the  system  Employable  and  Relevant  having  industry  drivers  in   all   aspects   -­‐   definition   of   curriculum,   teachers,   student   exposure,   etc.;   allows   Flexibility   in   Time  and  Cost  through  offering  educaiton  in  modular  building  blocks;  improves   Access  by  integrating  with  mainstream  education  and  using  technology;  and  offers  Future  Growth  through  vertical  mobiity.      Curriculum    Curriculum  is  imperative  to  integrating  the  skills  into  education.  The  program  will  ground  students  in  general   educational   knowledge   and   functional   skills   so   as   to   give   student   broad   grounding   on  fundamentals.   This   will   prevent   pigeonholing   him   or   her   into  a  very  specific  industry  and  will   enable  future  lateral  mobility  across  industries  depending  upon  changing  economic  situation  in  demand  and  opportunities.  Hence  the  curriculum  will  have  general  skills  courses  as  it’s  foundation,  professional  and  functional  courses  as  the  pillars  and  industry  specific  courses  will  round   off   the   course   as   shown  in  Fig.  4  below       Fig.4.  Curriculum  –  Broad  Foundation  &  Functional  base;  Industry  finishing    Teachers  The   teachers   for   vocational   courses   will   ideally   have   prior   industry   experience   or   at   the   very   least  should   have   industry   exposure   and   contact.   Industry   should   be   involved   in   their   selection   and  training  on  an  ongoing  basis  to  keep  them  current  on  the  latest  industry  trends.      Pedagogy  Workshop   based   lecture   demo,   industry   exposure,   group   study   to   increase   collaborative   and   peer  learning  is  recommended.    Each  teacher  to  act  as  a  mentor;  being  a  facilitator  than  just  an  instructor  will   prevent   rote   learning   and   increase   participation   from   the   students.   Multi-­‐mode   training  methods,   consisting   of   class-­‐room,   satellite   (using   hub-­‐and-­‐spoke   model),   e-­‐Learning   and   on-­‐the-­‐job  training,  will  offer  access  and  effectiveness  even  in  remote  areas.    Industry  Connect  Select   Industry   partners   will   meet   often   with   faculty   and   deans   to   review   admission   criteria,  curriculum,  faculty  training,  exams  and  the  like.  Visiting  Faculty/Trainers,  exposure  to  local  industry  through  visits  and  assignments,  industry  based  internships,  etc.  will  further  reinforce  development  Confidential   7        
  • 8.    of  work  relevant  education.  The  continuous  industry  connect  will  keep  the  entire  ecosystem  warm  to  the  economic  developments  affecting  job  requirements.    Social  Acceptability  By   mainstreaming   the   programs   through   existing   higher   education   Institutes   and   by   creating  pathway  to  merge  into  mainstream  education,  the  candidates  will  also  pick  up  a    formal  education  qualification.  This  would  be  deeply  impact  the  social  quotient  of  the  vocational  programs.    Up  skilling/  Reskilling  (Mobility)  NVEQF  offers  a  continuous  credit  based  systems  with  intermediate  certificate,  diploma  or  associate’s  degree  awards.  Prior  learning  is  also  transferable  to  higher  levels  leading  up  to  a  degree  programs  or  Skill   Competence   certificates   (NCC   –   National   Certificate   of   Competence).   This   gives   options   for  upward/vertical  mobility  in  both  education  and  career  rather  than  being  a  dead-­‐end  option.    Cost  Shorter   term   courses   (1   year   Diploma   (NVEQF   Level   5),   2   year   Advanced   Diploma   or   Associate’s  Degree   (NVEQF   Level   6)   or   modules   thereof)   would   make   it   affordable   and   attractive   to   more  students.    Students  can  pick  up  entry  level  skills  or  upskill  to  get  into  supervisory  role.    The  “earn-­‐and-­‐learn”   model   would   take   care   of   subsistence   aspects   during   training.    Duration  (Flexibility)  The   courses   will   be   modular   and   short-­‐term   allowing   multiple   entry   and   exits   at   3   or   6   months  (certificates),  12  months  (diplomas),  etc.  NVEQF  Level  6  could  correspond  to  “Associate’s  Degree”  as  per  the  general  global  practice  and  existing  framework  in  IGNOU.  Each  module  enabling  competence  to   a   certain   job   capability   and   carrying   over   logically   into   the   next   module.   Recongition   of   prior  learning   and   carryover   of   credits   earned   from   prior   coursework   will   be   integral   to   overcome   the  issues   of   affordability   and   accessibility   and   open   the   programs   up   to   students   who   hitherto   dropped  out.    Student  Profile  The  courses  would  be  very  focussed  on  developing  sector  specific  skills  and  therefore  the  candidates  will   be   right   skilled   and   job   ready.   Rather   than   one   size   fits   all,   the   job   requirements   would  determine  the  compentence  and  educational  level  and  intermediate  student  qualifciations.      Accessibility  By   accrediting   existing   higher   education   Institutes   and   other   registered   VET   providers,   using   their  infrastructure   in   the   evenings,   accessibility   and   availability   of   the   programs   will   help   widespread  reach.  Vocational  component  and  recognition  of  prior  learning  would  also  open  it  up  to  otherwise  academically   challenged   population.   Technology   enablement   through   ICT,   eLearning,   etc.   would  further  enhance  reach.    So  Skill  Colleges  can  be  defined  in  Indian  context  as  institutions  of  which  meets  the  needs  of  Industry  and   Students   by   providing   job-­‐oriented   short-­‐cycle   Higher   Education   with   pathways   to   further  education.  They  offer  short-­‐term  certificates,  Diplomas  and  Associate’s  degree.      Key  characteristics  of  this  model  are:   1. Higher  Education.    These   clearly   are   in   the   domain   of   tertiary   education   catering   to   post-­‐secondary   students.    NOTE:   Those   who   haven’t   passed   12th   could   have   to   get   their   HSLC   certificate   through   open  schooling  or  bridge  courses  with  possible  help  from  CCs  (E.g.  in  US,  CCs  help  prior  dropout  students  Confidential   8        
  • 9.    get  their  GEDs  in  this  way).  However,  that  is  just  a  path  to  the  end;  the  mainstay  is  higher  education.  The   transfer   of   credits   or   hours   of   study   towards   degree   programs   also   ensures   that   this   builds  bridges   between   school   and   colleges,   encouraging   more   students   to   pursue   higher   education  degrees.     2. Employment  Oriented  Unlike  pure  arts/science  or  even  commerce/engineering,  the  objective  is  to  meet  the  aspirations  of  the   students   –   which   is   to   find   a   good   job   after   the   course.   It   also   meets   the   needs   of   the   local  industries   –   which   often   are   sponsors   and   associates   of   the   CC.   The   combination   of   Knowledge   &  Skills   for   meeting   certain   skilled   job   roles   that   the   industry   need   is   the   mainstay   of   the   program.   The  duration  of  the  course  depends  upon  the  training  needs  for  the  particular  job.  Adjunct  teachers  from  the  industry  may  be  used;  as  may  industry  facilities  be  leveraged  for  practicals.   3. Accessible/Cheaper  By   offering   a   combination   of   shorter   duration   and/or   part-­‐time   courses   (allowing   earlier   start   to  earning   or   earning-­‐while-­‐learning),   lower   fees   (through   government   funding/   subsidies),   paid  internships,   etc.,   they   address   many   reasons   students   do   not   pursue   higher   education   and   degree  programs.   4. Modular/  NVEQF  Compliant  The   courses   will   be   modular   and   in   accordance   with   NVEQF.   These   will   cater   to   Level   5,   6   and   7  correposnding  to  year  1,  2  and  3  of  degree  colleges.  There  are  key  differences  between  current  educational  insitutes  and  Community  Colleges.  They  are  represented  in  Fig.  5  below:     Skill  Colleges   Degree  Colleges   Polytechnics   ITIs   MES  Job  Orientation   High   Low   Med   High   High  Industry  Sectors   Cross-­‐Functional   Cross-­‐Functional   Engineering   Mfg.   Mfg,  Service  Type  of  Jobs   Knowledge  Workers   White-­‐Collared   Engineering   Blue  Collared   Blue  Collared  Industry  Involvement   High   Low   Med   Med   Med  Education  Focus   Higher  Education   Higher  Education   Intermediate   Lower-­‐Inter   Lower-­‐Inter  Duration   Flexible:  6m-­‐2y   3-­‐4  years   3  years   1-­‐2  years   Few  months  Tranferability   High   High   Med   Low   Low         Fig.  1  What’s  the  difference?  Comparison  of  Various  Existing  Programs    Confidential   9        
  • 10.    Industries  (and  job  types  within  them)  who  could  be  good  consumer  for  such  candidates  may  include  IT/ITES   (Low   level   Testing   Analysts,   BPO   Associates),   Retail   (Senior   Customer   Service   Associates),  Hospitality   (Operations   Managers   in   Front   Office,   Housekeeping   and   Food   &   Beverage,   Travel  Agents),   Automotive   (Service   Associates),   Banking,   Financial   Services   and   Insurance/BFSI   (Sales,  Desk  Associates),  etc.  A  more  comprehensive  list  of  courses  is  enclosed  in  Appendix  A.     3. Implementation  Model  The   NVEQF   Levels   5   and   6   (and   modules   thereof)   can   be   implemented   within   “Skills   College”  programs   offered   within   Higher   Educational   setup   with   equivalance   and   transferability   to   regular  streams  as  reflected  in  Fig.  5  below:     Fig.5  Higher  Education  Industry  Job  oriented  NVEQF  Programs  via  Skill  Colleges    Skills   Colleges   offering   Associate   Degrees   would   integrate   such   programs   within   Current   System  (existing   Institutions,   but   Distinct).   They   also   could   be   standalone   Associate   Degree   Colleges.   Skills  Colleges   will   either   be   part   of   or   affiliated   with   existing   colleges/universities   to   assure   transferability  of  NVEQF  and  cross-­‐fertilization  between  skills  training  &  academia.  However,  the  programs  would  be  specifically  designated  and  run  as  distinct  programs  within  the  general  offerings.       Fig.  6  Programs  offered  within  existing  institutions  but  with  distinct  identity  and  execution    They   could   also   be   offered   by   Registered   Education   and   Training   providers   (RETPs)   in   a   similar  manner   with   appropriate   safeguards   and   academic   accreditation   offered   by   relevant   bodies   in   the  region/domain   as   prescribed   by   NVEQF.   This   entity   could   evolve   into   a   new,   dedicated   Associate  Confidential   10        
  • 11.    Degree   (upto   Level   6)   granting   institution   which   is   aligned   with   these   principles   right   from   the  inception   stage   and   hence   builds   the   appropriate   DNA   within   its   systems   and   personnel.  Infrastructure   needed   for   practical   labs   or   industrial   training   can   be   inhouse   or   arranged   from  external  institutes  (ITIs,  Industries,  etc.)  as  shown  in  Fig.  6.    There  is  evidence  from  the  experience  of  other  countries  that  such  skill  or  community  colleges  will  improve  accessibility,  increase  inclusiveness,  lower  costs  and  create  upward  mobility.    3.1 Challenges  for  implementing  NVEQF  in  Higher  Education  The  collegiate  system  imposes  certain  additional  conditions  on  implementing  NVEQF  as  in  Fig.  7:     Fig.  7.  School  vs.  Higher  Education  NVEQF  Requirements    NVEQF  rollout  has  initially  been  targeted  at  school  education,  which  is  probably  simpler  because  of  monolithic   streams   or   syllabi,   central/state   control   for   both   public   and   private   schools   and   limited  pre-­‐requisites   as   it   begins   here.   The   Higher   Education   collegiate   and   University   System   is   more  fragmented   with   multiple   programs/specializations   offered   under   several   autnomous   universities  and   complex   regulatory   systems   as   indicated   in   Fig.8   below.   Colleges   are   fewer   with   uneven  geographical   spread   and   much   more   discretionary   from   a   student   enrollment   standpoint.   Since   they  start  at  NVEQF  Level  5,  students  will  need  to  meet  the  pre-­‐requisites  of  Level  1-­‐4.       Fig.8  Fragmented  and  Distributed  Higher  Education  System  Needs  Focused  Implementation  Confidential   11        
  • 12.      To   effectively   introduce   this   new   system   in   such   a   diverse,   distributed   and   well   established   network,  the  strategy  and  implementation  needs  to  be  well  thought  out  and  focused  to  ensure  fidelity  to  the  original  concept  of  NVEQF,  its  design  and  desired  results.      3.2 Anchors  for  Deployment  In  order  to  actualize  the  vision  of  NVEQF  a  measured  and  well  thought  out  implementation  approach  is  necessary.    At  the  highest  level,  there  can  be  a  two  pronged  approach:   1. Within   Current   System.   Such   programs   –   certificate,   diplomas   and   leading   upto   a   2-­‐year   associate’s   degree   –   can   be   implemented   within   existing   Higher   Education   Universities/   Colleges   physical   infrastructure,   but   with   distinct   identity   and   separation   in   terms   of   soft   infrastructure   (content,   teachers,   industry   linkages,   assessments,   etc.).   Classes   and   Labs   could  be  used  after-­‐hours  to  increase  capacity.  This  has  been  described  above  in  section  2.   2. As   new   Dedicated   “Skills   Colleges”   granting   Associate   Degrees.   This   could   be   tied   to   new   vocational   universities   that   would   be   setup   and   would   be   focused   on   meeting   Knowledge   Economy  skills  needs  from  the  beginning.  Hence  they  could  be  designed  and  evolved  with  a   NVEQF  system  in  mind  –  much  like  the  Community  Colleges  in  the  US,  Professional  Colleges   in  the  UK  or  Vocational  Colleges  in  Germany  or  Switzerland,  etc.    The   advantage   of   implementing   within   the   existing   Colleges   under   University   system   is   that   the  transferability   of   the   1   year   or   2   year   program   to   higher   education/degree   courses   will   be   easier  under   the   same   system.   At   the   same   time,   keeping   it   separate   frees   it   from   the  constraints   –   so   that  it  can  be  developed  as  a  truly  employment  driven  system  with  high  industry  involvement.  3.3 Approach  for  Rolling  Out  In  the  12th  5-­‐year  plan,  a  proposal  to  implement  100  community  colleges  on  a  pilot  basis  has  been  mooted.   This   is   expected   to   evaluate   the   suitability   of   this   model   to   address   the   needs   for   higher  skilled   knowledge   workers   and   adapt   it   to   suit   India’s   needs.   A   7-­‐member   committee   of   state  ministers   have   been   setup   under   whose   direction   detailed   concepts   and   plans   are   being   put  together.  Based  upon  this  initial  pilot,  a  3  phase  rollout  plan  is  suggested  which  would  comprise  of  Piloting  the  100  community  colleges  housed  within  exiting  Colleges  and  infrastructure  (80  colleges,  20  polytechnics),  Expand  and  Saturate  as  shown  in  Fig.9  below:    Confidential   12        
  • 13.       Fig.9  National  Implementation  Approach  –  Pilot,  Expand,  Saturate  An  holistic  4S  approach  comprising  of  Select,  Scope,  Standardize  and  Support  is  proposed  for  rolling  out  this  program.  This  is  illustrated  in  Fig.10.     Fig.10  NVEQF  Higher  Education  Implementation  Success  Approach  –  4-­‐S  Model    Each  of  these  components  is  elaborated  below:   1. SELECT:   1-­‐2   states   to   be   selected   for   the   pilot   who   show   willing   leadership   and   hunger   to   adopt  NVEQF  in  higher  education  and  who  also  have  the  economic/demographic  conditions   conducive   to   such   mezannine   level   jobs   should   be   selected.   1-­‐2   universities   should   be   designated  as  “Innovative”  universities  which  can  be  a  prestigious  tag  so  that  universities  are   incented  to  participate  in  introducing  NVEQF.  Better  Colleges,  ideally  autonomous  (to  adapt   their   own   curriculum),   within   the   selected   universities,   located   close   to   the   relevant   and   possible  partner  industry/  companies  should  be  selected.  Some  accredited  private  colleges   or  VET  providers  may  also  be  selected.   Selecting  Initial  Pilots   I.  SELECT  INITIAL  STATES.   These  need  to  be  selected  based  upon  various  categories  including:   a.  Motivation  of  the  state  government   If  the  Education  Minster/Chief  Minister  is  enthusiastic  about  it,  the  necessary  top  level  push   will  come.  Existance  of  similar  initiatives,  political  and  adminstrative  support,  etc.  will  help  Confidential   13        
  • 14.     b.  Favourable  Socio-­‐economic  conditions  in  the  state   Existance  of  high  demand  industry  struggling  for  skilled  workforce,  Need  for  knowledge   workforce,  supply  of  surplus  students  (many  post-­‐12th  students),  Economic  need  for   population,  joblessness,  etc.   c.  Infrastructure  &  Insitutions  in  the  state   Existance  of  progressive  universities  and  strong  school  systems.   II.  WITHIN  THESE  STATES,  SELECT  STRONG  INDUSTRY  SECTORS  AND  COMPANIES   Sector  Selection   a.    High  Growth  sectors   b.    Skill  Gap/  Need  for  higher  skilled  knowledge  workers   c.    Need  for  large  numbers  of  workers   d.    Strong  roots  in  the  state   Company  Selection   e.    Take  within  top  5  leaders  within  the  sector  and  state   f.    Ideally  with  multiple  locations  in  the  state  and/or  large  supplier  base   g.    Progressive,  open  to  hiring   h.    Located  close  to  major  universities  (who  are  candidates)  or  geographies  /districts  which   have  good  schools/collleges,  good  student  hinterland   III.  POSSIBLY  IN  PARALLEL  WITH  (2)  SELECT  STRONG  UNIVERSITIES/COLLEGES   Select  strong  universities/  colleges   a.  Progressive  Vice  Chancellor  and  management  –  willing  to  embrace  new  models   b.  Strong,  innovative  track  record  (should  be  over  x  years  old?)   c.  Existing  Industry  Linkages  if  possible  –  in  the  above  sectors/companies   d.  On-­‐campus  Placement  cells  that  are  active   e.  Wide  array  of  (industry-­‐relevant)  courses  offered  like  B  Com,  BA,  BBA/MBA,  etc.   f.  Located  close  to  Industrial  centers/  connected  hub   D.  POSSIBLY  IN  PARALLEL  WITH  OR  AS  INPUT  TO  (2)  AND  (3)  SELECT  STRONG  DISTRICTS   Select  good  districts   a.  Strong  District  Educaitonal  and  general  adminstration   b.  Good  center  for  people  /  Students  and  industry  as  well  as  colleges   c.  Accessible  by  road/rail/air  with  good  infrastructure   2. SCOPE.  Within  these  colleges,  focus  on  specific  industries  and  jobs  that  are  defined  by  Sector   Skill   Council’s   defined   NOS   (National   Occupational   Standards).   Select   the   jobs   that   map   to   the  local  industry   3. STANDARDIZE.  Each  of  the  institutions  needs  to  take  the  given  NVEQF  framework  and  NOS   requirements   and   instantiate   into   delivery.    The  NVEQF  framework  being  a  modular  multi-­‐ tier  architecture,  efficient  execution  and  consistency  in  quality  of  delivery  will  require  huge   efforts  in  standardisation,  e.g.  in  Curriculum  and  Assessments,  as  well  as  enabling  teachers.  Confidential   14        
  • 15.     As   these   programs   will   have   to   be   developed   in   close   coordination   with   local   industries,   a   fine  balance  of  customisation/localisation  and  standardisation  will  be  the  key.   4. SUPPORT.  For  the  pilot,  the  initial  insitutions  offering  this  will  have  to  be  jump  started  with   curriculum  and  courseware,  teacher  training,  etc.  Common  efforts  that  are  needed  shouldn’t   be  duplicated.  Global  and  domestic  best  practices  should  be  adapted  into  common  offerings   and  an  enabling  technology  platform  should  be  provided  to  allow  standardization  and  multi-­‐ media,  interactive  props,  etc.  Both   Standardization   and   support   need   an   institutional   support   infrastructure   not   just   to   ensure  right  effective  initial  pilots,  but  also  enable  quick,  robust  ramp-­‐up  of  subsequent  programs.  3.4 Plan  and  Supporting  Elements  A  suggested  plan  for  the  rollout  of  the  program  based  upon  leading  with  100  pilots  is  based  upon  the  typical  bell  curve  adoption  of  new  concepts  of  innovators,  early  adopters,  early  and  late  majority  and  laggards.  A  rough  cut  plan  is  depicted  in  Figure  11  below:     Fig.  11  Proposed  Timeline  for  Implementing  Community  Colleges  in  Pilot  and  Mainstreaming  it  The   100   community   colleges   can   be   established   within   the   first   2   years   followed   by   a   mid-­‐term  evaluation  and  consolidation  period  in  the  3rd  year.  If  successful,  from  the  fourth  year  onwards,  this  model  can  start  to  be  scaled  up  to  larger  numbers  as  shown  above.  Organization  The  Organization  to  implement  this  program  needs  to  be  both  driven  and  supported  by  a  central  team  to  provide  the  overall  framework,  guidelines  and,  perhaps,  initial  funding.  The  states  will  have  a  self-­‐contained  implementation  unit    which  will  oversee  all  activities  and  drive  the  state  colleges.  Each  University/College  in  turn  will  have  to  drive  their  own  programs  at  the  course  offering  and  Confidential   15        
  • 16.    industry  interaction  level.  At  each  level,  governance  will  be  provided  by  cross-­‐functional  committees  which  will  comprise  of  industry  as  well  as  academics/government.  This  is  depicted  in  Fig.  12  below.       Fig.  12.  Proposed  Organization  for  Implementation  Rollout  The  roles  and  composition  of  each  of  the  units  in  the  above  organogram  can  be  further  elaborated  as  in  the  following  table:   Level   Implementation  Team   Governing  Council   Others  Centre   • Defines  the  concept,   • Provides  overall   • Group  of  State   selects  the  states  and   guidance  and  validation   Ministers  –  for  initial   (with  them)  pilots,   for  national  direction   Direction  and  overview   program  guidelines  and   • MHRD,  Central  Univs   • Advisory  Team  –  select   support  with  capacity   Academics,  Industry   Academics,  Industry   building   Associations,  NSDC,  etc.   and  Consultants   • MHRD,  Nonrofit,  Few   • Capacity  Building  –  via   Comm.  Colleges   Nonprofits,  etc.   Consultants,  etc.  State   • Implementation  Cell  in   • Guides  State  Activities   • State  level  capacity   State  Dept  of  Higher  Ed.   • Govt,  Academics,  State   building   • Govt,  Select  Academic   Industry  Assoc.,   assigns,  Nonprofits   Nonprofits  District   • District  Education  Officer,   • N/A   •   DICs,  etc.  College   • Sets  up  Infrastructure,   • Academic  Board  –   •   staff,  material,  etc.  and   consisting  of  University,   readies  for  offering   College  and  Industry   courseware   • Drives  admission   • 1  Industry,  Consultant   criteria,  curriculum,   and  College  officials  –   assessments,  faculty   Professors,   trainer,  exams   Adminsistration,  etc.    Confidential   16        
  • 17.    Funding  Funding  will  be  needed  for  3  main  reasons:   1. Provide  Catalyst/  Impetus  for  States  to  launch  the  program  (via  a  CSS/  Scheme  of  co-­‐funding   from  centre  and  state)  and  do  the  initial  investment.   2. Get  engagement  and  involvement  from  key  implementing  players  –  Colleges  and  Industries   –  as  well  as  possible  implementing  agencies  to  invest  in  launching  this  program   3. Make  this  program  affordable  for  deserving  end  students.    The  areas  which  will  need  funding  /  investment  are:   1. Infrastructure  needs  for  running  labs,  etc.   2. Courseware  content  development  and  assessment   3. Teachers  –  hiring  and  training   4. Industry  involvement  –  for  internships,  etc.   5. Adminstrative  overhead  –  implementation  teams,  etc.   6. Cost  of  Monitoring  and  Evaluation   7. Cost  of  implementing  agencies  if  any  (?)    Funding  can  be  provided  by  various  sources:   1. Central  Scheme  for  partial  funding  –  on  a  per  program  basis  for  each  of  the  100  colleges  (can   be  50  –  75%  for  initial  work)  –  for  soft  infrastructure  provision  (content,  additional   infrastructure  (incremental),  program  management  (partial),  initial  Capacity  Building,  etc.)   2. State  share  of  funding  and  physical  infrastructure  provision  (funding  for  ongoing  capacity,   running  and  operational  costs,  teachers)   3. Consortium  of  Foundation  who  are  interested  in  Employment  driven  Higher  Education  like   Wadhwani  Foundation,  Dell  Foundation,  etc.   4. Other  Stakeholders   a. Colleges  (from  allocated  UGC  and  other  funding)   b. Industries  (for  stipend,  in  kind  with  sharing  of  infrastructure,  internships,  etc.)   c. Students  (in  terms  of  tuition,  etc.)    Principles  of  funding:   1. Each  entity  provides  funding  for  the  areas  that  cater  to  their  objectives   2. Partial  funding  –  not  complete  –  for  each  entity  to  have  skin  in  the  game  and  be  vested  in   making  this  program  successful   a. Centre  –  to  catalyze  this  effort.  Initial,  creation  of  new  material  (soft  infrastructure)   and  subsidies  for  hard  infrastructure)   b. State  –  Physical  Infrastructure,  state  capacity  development  (teachers,  etc.)   c. Industry  –  to  develop  skilled  resources,  get  community  outreach   d. Student  –  get  a  job  Confidential   17        
  • 18.    4 Driving  Success  by  nurturing  implementations  in  Pilot  and  beyond:  All   the   above   four   components   of   implmentation   need   an   institutional   support   infrastructure   that  will   be   essential   for   the   initial   pilots   and   which   will   also   support   implementations   beyond   that   to  ramp-­‐up  quickly  and  effectively.    In  the  cycle  of  NVEQF  implementations  (Fig.  11),  delivery  lies  squarely  with  the  delivery  institutions.  However   to   get   started,   what   to   teach   (curriculum   and   courseware),   who   can   teach   (Faculty  Development)  and  how  to  teach  (enabling  technology  for  content  and  reach   –  eLearning,  Satellite,  etc.)  are  areas  they  need  help.  Not  just  for  the  initial  period  where  much  of  this  is  being  defined,  but  also  in  the  future  where  new  insitutions  or  new  industries  come  on  or  older  material  needs  update.         Fig.11  Implementing  NVEQF  &  NOS:  into  Content,  Teachers,  Delivery  and  Assessment  Given   the   plethora   of   different   colleges/universities   and   other   Education   and   Training   Providers,   if  each  of  them  interpret  the  requirements  individually  and  develop/  deliver  such  courses,  this  would  result  in  widely  varying  quality  and  consistency  of  interpretation,  not  to  mention  duplicate  efforts.  The   larger   reputed   institutions   may   be   able   to   invest   more   in   creating   better   course   content   and  improve   delivery   capacity   (teacher   training,   systems,   etc.)   whereas   the   smaller,   less-­‐resourced  colleges   efforts   may   be   more   ad-­‐hoc.   However,   in   both   cases,   the   shift   from   an   academically  oriented,   classroom   lecture   type   pedagogy   to   a   industry   jobs   driven,   experiential,   hands-­‐on,   work  oriented  teaching  methodology  will  need  deliberate  paradigm  shifts  and  efforts.  Also,  investing  for  a  “franchisee”   like   depth   and   reusability   across   many   institutions   in   the   curriculum   –   rather   than   a  one-­‐time  teaching  preparation  will  need  external  support.  Such   a   support   infrastructure   will   reduce   duplication   of   efforts,   ensures   more   consistent   quality   and  jump  start  colleges  on  NVEQF  Confidential   18        
  • 19.    4.1 National  Skill  Knowledge  Network  (NSKN)  To   support   such   a   implementation   resource   and   knowledge   network,   Wadhwani   Foundation   is  committed  to  seeding  and  anchoring  a  National  Skill  Knowledge  Network  (NSKN)  as  a  PPP  with  the  Government   and   possibly   other   Foundations.   This   network   can   provide   Implementation   support  services  to  jump-­‐start  Institutes  with  curriculum,  faculty  training  and  best-­‐practices  shown  in  Fig.12:     Fig.  12  National  Skill  Knowledge  Network    (NSKN)  –  Nurturing  NVEQF  Implementations  National  Skill  Knowledge  Network  (NSKN)  will  aim  to  catalyze  the  correct  adoption  of  NVEQF  models  in  India.  Some  characteristics  of  this  entity  could  include:     1. Public   Private   Partnership   in   Mission   Mode.   Wadhwani   Foundation,   the   Government   of   India  (MHRD  or  appropriate  entity),  and  possibly  other  Nonprofits,  etc.  can  join  together   2. Goal.   Is   to   democratize   quality   Implementation   across   all   categories   of   providers   for   scalability  and  equity.  This  will  help  make  NVEQF  in  Higher  Education  successful.   3. Governance   and   Framework.   The   board   of   governors   will   be   a   mix   of   all   stakeholders   –   Government,  Industry,  Nonprofits  and  Academia  as  shown  below  in  Fig.13.     Fig.  13.  Governance  of  NSKN:  Akin  to  the  NSDC  structure  Confidential   19        
  • 20.     Government   –   Secretary   Higher   Education   MHRD,   Labour   &   Employment,   Finance,   etc.   Industry   –   Chairman   NSDC,   CII,   FICCI,   ASSOCHAM,   Select   Sectoral   Associations/Firms   Academia   –   AICTE   Chairman,   UGC,   NAAC,   Select   VCs   from   concerned   States   Nonprofit  –  Wadhwani  Foundation,  others  who  could  be  involved.   The  implementation  team  can  be  two-­‐tiered  at  the  central  and  state  level  as  shown  in  Fig.14   below.   Under   the   State   project   team,   sub-­‐teams   for   working   with   individual   universities   and   colleges  will  exist:     Fig.14  Central  and  State  Coordination  Teams   The  college  structure  would  include  the  standard  framework  with  local  industry  involvment   and   would   include   Governing   Board,   Academic   Committee,   Examination   Committee,   External   Quality   Assurance.   Local   Industry   leaders   and   relevant   state   Industry   sectoral   associations   would   be   an   integral   part   of   these   comittees   for   the   relevant   universities/colleges.   The   Apex   bodies   like   AICTE   would   be   logical   members   of   the   Central   Coordination   Steering   team   and   also   could   possibly   vet   and   approve   the   academic   curriculum  with  Industry  SSCs  vetting  the  vocational  part.   4. National  Scale.  but  with  Regional  Pilots  to  start  with  as  described  above.   5. Shared   Common   Services.     These   would   be   developed   for   the   initial   implemenations   –   adapting  best  in  class  offerings.  These  would  include:   a. Curriculum/Courseware.These   would   include   Industry   (SSCs/NOSes)   Classroom   Instructional   Material,   Learners   Guide,   Faculty   Guide   and   Faculty   Development   material/courses.  These  would  be  codeveloped  along  with  member  Institutes   b. Teacher   Training.   Teachers   would   be   trained   in   soft   skills,   language   skills,   Domain   skills  and  Pedagogy.   c. Enabling   Technology   Platform.   This   would   allow   Content   Management   System   to   access  and  develop  content,  eLearning  and  Satellite  methods,  etc.    Confidential   20        
  • 21.     d. Assessment  Guidelines.  Assessment  guidelines  can  be  developed  jointly  to  meet  the   needs.   6.  Co-­‐Funding,  in  mission  mode  and  for  limited  time,  decreasing  over  time.    The  funding  ratios   could  be  as  shown  in  Fig.  15  below.  Wadhwani+  indicates  that  the  funding  may  come  from   other  foundations  or  organizations  in  addition  to  Wadhwani  Foundation.   The  intent  is  that   over   time,   the   Network   should   be   self-­‐sustaining   (funded   by   beneficiaries   –   Industry,   Institutes  (association),  students):     Fig.15  Co-­‐funding  Model  –  with  Government  and  other  Entities;  Decreasing  over  time.   7. Funding.   The   total   beneficiaries   touched   and   the   total   funding   needed   is   approximately   as   shown  below  in  Fig.  16.  This  needs  to  be  reworked  for  higher  education/updated  costs  :     Fig.  16.  Program  Beneficiaries  and  Costs  of  Capacity  Building  Services  development  The  existing  Schemes  should  be  utilized  to  seek  co-­‐funding.  E.g.  the  Model  College  scheme  (targeting  374  backward  districts)  with  significant  fund  outlays  in  11th  plan  has  been  underutilzed  and  is  being  transferred  to  the  12th  plan.  Similarly  the  NVEQF  program  can  be  instantiated  selectively  in  some  of  the  14  Innovative  Universities  in  the  11th  plan.  5.  Benefits  and  Next  Steps:  This   program   if   implemented   right   can   get   3   million   additional   students   into   employable   higher  education  via  such  programs1.  This  innovation  in  employability  driven  short  cycle  higher  education                                                                                                                          1 th  Currently  approximately  4.5  million  out  of  7  million  students  passing  12  class  each  year  do  not  pursue  higher  education.  Assuming  population  growth  and  decreased  school  dropouts  due  to  RTE  and  other   rdgovernment  initiatives,  even  if  we  target  less  than  2/3  of  this  ration,  we  can  create  additional  uptake  of  3  million  students  into  such  programs  Confidential   21        
  • 22.    under   NVEQF   will   benefit   all   stakeholders   –   Students,   Industry,   Educational   Institutions   and  Government  as  shown  in  Fig.  17  below:     Fig.  17  Positive  impact  of  this  new  paradigm  in  Higher  Education  Wadhwani  Foundation  is  committed  to  devote  substantial  effort  and  resources  to  this  cause  in  a  PPP  mode  with  the  Central  and  State  governments.  It  has  already  invested  over  $30  million  (USD)  in  the  last   decade   in   higher   education   and   job-­‐creation   initiatives.   WF   has   significant   investment   in  curriculum   development,   faculty   development,   technology   platforms   as   well   as   international  networks  across  all  levels  as  shown  in  Fig.  18:     Fig.  18  Cross  Spectrum  Engagement  of  Wadhwani  Foundation  in  Industry  Driven  Education  At  a  school  level  in  NVEQF,  it  is  playing  the  Program  Management  role  for  rolling  out  the  project  in  Haryana   and   it   is   also   engaging   with   West   Bengal   in   a   similar   capacity.   It   is   entering   an   MOU   with  PSSCIVE,   a   division   of   NCERT   which   caters   to   vocational   education   at   school   level.   It   is   running  industry   driven   pilots   in   the   BPO   industry   and   launching   a   Faculty   Development   Insitute   in  partnership   with   Jindal   Education   Initiatives   and   Montgomery   College   USA.   It   has   entered   a  partnership   with   Virginia   Community   College   System   to   leverage   the   expertise   of   its   collective   23  community   colleges   in   the   state   in   governance   and   technical   know-­‐how.   It   can   play   a   role   as   an  enabler,  catalyzing  pilots,  start  and  scale-­‐up  of  the  Skill  Colleges  by  providing  common  and  shareable  Professional  Services  (creating  best-­‐practice  soft  infrastructure  like  curriculum  development,  faculty  training   and   technology   platform)   and   coordinating   PPP   efforts   by   interfacing   between   industry,  government,  and  academic  fronts  to  drive  progress  forward.    Confidential   22        
  • 23.    Appendix  A.  Sample  Courses  in  Various  Industries:  A   variety   of   job   roles   could   be   satisfied   by   industry   relevant   focused   short   cycle   higher   education  courses   along   the   lines   of   a   Diploma   or   Associate   degrees.   E.g.   CBSE   plans   to   offer   around   250  competency   based   modules   (some   across   industry   sectors)   to   support   vocational   courses.   These  could  include:  Industry  Sector   Job  Role   Course  Type   Course  Content  IT/IteS   QA/  Unit  Test   Associate’s  Degree   Computer  Basics   Analyst   QA  Systems  &  Process   Basic  Programming   Tech.  Documentation     Programmer  Analyst   Associate’s  Degree   Computer  Basics   Basic  Programming   Language  (Java/C++)   Systems  Architecture     Voice  ERO   Associate’s  Degree   IT  Basics   English  Communication   Soft  Skills     Chat  ERO   Diploma   IT  Basics   Written  Communication   Soft  Skills  Retail   Sr.  Customer  Service   Diploma   Sales  &  Marketing   Associate   Merchandizing   Supply  Chain  Mgmt     Merchandizer/  Buyer   Associate‘s  Degree   Marketing  information   Accounting  in  retail   Merchandise  planning   Sales  promotion   Inventory  mgmt    BFSI  –  Banking  and   Field  Sales   Diploma   Sales  &  Marketing  Financial   Services   Accounting  and  Insurance   Financial  Instruments   IT  Basics   English  Communication   Soft  Skills     Desk  Service   Associate’s  Degree   Accounting  Systems   IT  Basics  Confidential   23        
  • 24.    Industry  Sector   Job  Role   Course  Type   Course  Content   Associates   English  Communication  Hospitality   Front  Desk   Associate’s  Degree   English  Communication   Operations  Manager   Soft  Skills   Grooming   Hotel  Operations     Housekeeping   Associate’s  Degree   English  Communication   Operations  Manager   Soft  Skills   Hotel  Operations     Food  &  Beverage   Associate’s  Degree   Culinary  Science   Manager   Soft  Skills   English  Communication   Kitchen  Management  Automotive   Service  Technician   Associate’s  Degree   Oral  Communication   Soft  Skills   Automotive  Knowledge                                                                                                                                  i TeamLease, 2009.ii IMaCS, 2008.iii CII-Aspire Report, 2008.iv PRS Legislative Research, 2010.v The Hindu, Oct 8th 2011Confidential   24        

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