Karen W Alexandra B
<ul><li>To introduce some alternatives to western/European psychologies </li></ul><ul><li>To rise awareness of differences...
<ul><li>Science of mental life  </li></ul><ul><li>(W. James, US Psychologist, 1890 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Encompasses behavio...
 
<ul><li>• Individualism – communalism + (collectivism) </li></ul><ul><li>• Cognitivist – emotionalism  </li></ul><ul><li>•...
<ul><li>The works of Alfred Adler suggest a strong human desire to be part of a group that we can contribute to and work t...
<ul><li>… . the complete range of human potential cannot be fully developed unless one has the opportunity to be engaged i...
<ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Shamans </li></ul>Sources of help in non-Eurocentric psychologies
Yanomami Leader and Shaman Davi Kopenawa, Yanomami leader and shaman surrounded by children, Demini, Brazil 1990.
Mongol Shaman
Siberian Shaman
Inuit Shaman What is life? It is the flash of a firefly in the night. It is the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It ...
Shaman of South Africa South Africa has a strong emphasis on health, harmony, and balance as it is seen in the practices o...
Healing Among The Zulu … . centers on uMvelinqangi (God), the amadlozi (ancestors), nature, and how a traditional healer, ...
Healing Among The Zulu Zulu Traditional Healers: the invanga (traditional doctor/herbalist) the isangoma (diviner/counselo...
<ul><li>The South African government has taken a major step towards the formal recognition of traditional healing with the...
<ul><li>“ …  organise about 29,000 traditional health practitioners in S.A.  </li></ul><ul><li>It’s values are: Profession...
<ul><li>It is a quality that includes the essential human virtues; compassion and humanity.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is a gui...
Ubuntu Psychology  [collectivistic philosophy] &quot;A person with Ubuntu is open and available to others, affirming of ot...
Ubuntu video from Arizona State University http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgEwV4X3aB8&NR=1
Buddhism psychology <ul><li>Purpose of life is to be happy and end the suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Pain of existence is ex...
 
<ul><li>In Buddism the elephant symbolizes a strong mind and calmness </li></ul>
Japanese perception  <ul><li>“ We”  vs.  “I” </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion  vs.   Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Deru kugi wa ...
Don't be afraid to cry. It will free your mind of sorrowful thoughts.  (Hopi)
<ul><li>“ Man's law changes with his understanding of man. Only the laws of the spirit remain always the same.”   </li></u...
<ul><li>An Umbuntu Poem in Three Parts, by Sam Pierstorff was presented at &quot;An Evening with Archbishop Desmond Tutu,”...
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Noneurocentricpsychologies

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  • Some societies distinguish shamans who cure from sorcerers who harm
  • http://www.krupar.com/index.php?file=www/en/gallery/gallery.html&amp;cat=5
  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c33505/
  • http://africanshamanism-anth375.blogspot.com/  “… for most Africans, illness is caused not only by infections and other medical conditions but by spiritual trouble, brought about by the dissatisfaction of the ancestors (still alive and active) with the ways of the living” (Turner, 887). Therefore, spirits must be respected by the living and when dissatisfied, an individual who is invulnerable to their power and recognized as a spiritual equal must handle them. This is the role a shaman takes, as described by Mercia Eliade in his work, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy :“The shaman controls his ‘spirits’, in the sense that he, a human being, is able to communicate with the dead, “demons” and “nature spirits”, without thereby becoming their instrument” (6).Thus, the role of a shaman is crucial in that he is the only mediator between the spirit world, the source of illness and affliction, and the patient who suffers from it. This sentiment of shaman as intercessor implies that he has the power to reverse the afflictions caused by spirits as well through his mediations, as is echoed in African Therapeutic Systems:“In most of the essays the authors indicate the dominant belief in the spiritual causation of diseases and other ailments…since most of the people believe that spirits cause disease they also see treatment and cure as obviously within the realm of the spiritual or supernatural” (1).The implication then is that, because the shaman is the only individual who can access the realm of the spiritual, he is the sole individual endowed with the knowledge of healing. As we will see, this healing takes many forms, all of which are brought about with the guidance of the spirits.            Secondly, there is a belief in some African societies that individuals have the power to use witchcraft against other members of the community. This witchcraft may invoke malevolent spirits or merely put a curse on the object of that individual’s dissatisfaction, often causing disease or illness. The shaman thus uses his connection with the spirits to heal the afflicted individual and restore harmony to the community. South Africa has a strong emphasis on health, harmony, and balance as it is seen in the practices of traditional healing systems.
  • Healing among the Zulu centers on uMvelinqangi (God), the amadlozi (ancestors), nature, and how a traditional healer, in western terminology, connects to these forces in a profound manner. The traditional healer is always a person of great respect in the community and a medium between the uMvelinqangi and the amadlozi. People who visit the spiritual healer must engage with the community in a beneficial way that shows ones efforts to restore order and balance within the self and the community. Throughout history, the traditional healers have played many roles within Zulu society. The three main types of healers are the inyanga (traditional doctor/herbalist), the isangoma (diviner/counselor), and the umthandazi (faith healer). Inyanga is usually a male who has gone through a period of training with an accomplished inyanga for at least one year. They typically use amakhambi (herbal medicines) for immunization, tonic, and preventative measures, body cleanser, laxatives, among other things. Another type of traditional healer is the isangoma who is chosen by the spiritual realm to be a sangoma after a life transforming experience (ukuthwasa). It is usually a woman that shares knowledge of medicine with the inyanga. Also, it is during the ukuthwasa, a transforming experience such as a seizure or a near death experience, that the person communicates with entities of the spiritual realm that inform her or him what needs to be done. Following this experience, the person goes to study under an accomplished isangoma who diagnosis illness through communicating with the amadlozi (ancestral spirits). The third traditional healer is the umthandazi (faith healer) who has the ability to prophesize, heal and divine using prayer, holy water, baths, enemas and steaming baths. It has become a complicated part of the combination of traditional Afrikan religion and Christianity. http://africanshamanism-anth375.blogspot.com/p/zulu-shamanism.html
  • Healing among the Zulu centers on uMvelinqangi (God), the amadlozi (ancestors), nature, and how a traditional healer, in western terminology, connects to these forces in a profound manner. The traditional healer is always a person of great respect in the community and a medium between the uMvelinqangi and the amadlozi. People who visit the spiritual healer must engage with the community in a beneficial way that shows ones efforts to restore order and balance within the self and the community. Throughout history, the traditional healers have played many roles within Zulu society. The three main types of healers are the inyanga (traditional doctor/herbalist), the isangoma (diviner/counselor), and the umthandazi (faith healer). Inyanga is usually a male who has gone through a period of training with an accomplished inyanga for at least one year. They typically use amakhambi (herbal medicines) for immunization, tonic, and preventative measures, body cleanser, laxatives, among other things. Another type of traditional healer is the isangoma who is chosen by the spiritual realm to be a sangoma after a life transforming experience (ukuthwasa). It is usually a woman that shares knowledge of medicine with the inyanga. Also, it is during the ukuthwasa, a transforming experience such as a seizure or a near death experience, that the person communicates with entities of the spiritual realm that inform her or him what needs to be done. Following this experience, the person goes to study under an accomplished isangoma who diagnosis illness through communicating with the amadlozi (ancestral spirits). The third traditional healer is the umthandazi (faith healer) who has the ability to prophesize, heal and divine using prayer, holy water, baths, enemas and steaming baths. It has become a complicated part of the combination of traditional Afrikan religion and Christianity. http://africanshamanism-anth375.blogspot.com/p/zulu-shamanism.html
  • http://www.info.gov.za/view/DownloadFileAction?id=67974
  • http://www.traditionalhealth.org.za/t/aboutus.html
  • Healing among the Zulu centers on uMvelinqangi (God), the amadlozi (ancestors), nature, and how a traditional healer, in western terminology, connects to these forces in a profound manner. The traditional healer is always a person of great respect in the community and a medium between the uMvelinqangi and the amadlozi. People who visit the spiritual healer must engage with the community in a beneficial way that shows ones efforts to restore order and balance within the self and the community. Throughout history, the traditional healers have played many roles within Zulu society. The three main types of healers are the inyanga (traditional doctor/herbalist), the isangoma (diviner/counselor), and the umthandazi (faith healer). Inyanga is usually a male who has gone through a period of training with an accomplished inyanga for at least one year. They typically use amakhambi (herbal medicines) for immunization, tonic, and preventative measures, body cleanser, laxatives, among other things. Another type of traditional healer is the isangoma who is chosen by the spiritual realm to be a sangoma after a life transforming experience (ukuthwasa). It is usually a woman that shares knowledge of medicine with the inyanga. Also, it is during the ukuthwasa, a transforming experience such as a seizure or a near death experience, that the person communicates with entities of the spiritual realm that inform her or him what needs to be done. Following this experience, the person goes to study under an accomplished isangoma who diagnosis illness through communicating with the amadlozi (ancestral spirits). The third traditional healer is the umthandazi (faith healer) who has the ability to prophesize, heal and divine using prayer, holy water, baths, enemas and steaming baths. It has become a complicated part of the combination of traditional Afrikan religion and Christianity. http://africanshamanism-anth375.blogspot.com/p/zulu-shamanism.html
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgEwV4X3aB8&amp;NR=1
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYP23hUi2Kg&amp;feature=related
  • Noneurocentricpsychologies

    1. 1. Karen W Alexandra B
    2. 2. <ul><li>To introduce some alternatives to western/European psychologies </li></ul><ul><li>To rise awareness of differences and similarities in non-European psychologies </li></ul><ul><li>To share some insight into Ubuntu, Buddhism and Japanese psychologies </li></ul><ul><li>To encourage personal reflection ( “I” or “We”) </li></ul>Aims and objectives
    3. 3. <ul><li>Science of mental life </li></ul><ul><li>(W. James, US Psychologist, 1890 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Encompasses behaviour, human abilities, functions of the nervous system, irrational behaviour, intelligence and nature of learning </li></ul><ul><li>(Penguin Concise Encyclopedia, London 2007) </li></ul>Psychology
    4. 5. <ul><li>• Individualism – communalism + (collectivism) </li></ul><ul><li>• Cognitivist – emotionalism </li></ul><ul><li>• Freewill – determinism </li></ul><ul><li>• Materialism - spiritualism </li></ul>Four core values which separate western cultures from eastern
    5. 6. <ul><li>The works of Alfred Adler suggest a strong human desire to be part of a group that we can contribute to and work to ensure its well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Rollo May stated, “No one can separate oneself from one’s social group and remain healthy, as the very structure of one’s personality is dependent upon the community” </li></ul><ul><li>Rowan, J. (2004). Ordinary ecstasy. The dialectics of humanistic psychology. New York: Brunner-Routledge . </li></ul>Alfred Adler & Rollo May
    6. 7. <ul><li>… . the complete range of human potential cannot be fully developed unless one has the opportunity to be engaged in relationship with others: </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is from one man to another that the heavenly bread of self- being is passed”. </li></ul><ul><li>Buber, M. (1965). The knowledge of man (M. Freidman, Ed.). New York: Harper & Row. </li></ul>Martin Buber
    7. 8. <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Shamans </li></ul>Sources of help in non-Eurocentric psychologies
    8. 9. Yanomami Leader and Shaman Davi Kopenawa, Yanomami leader and shaman surrounded by children, Demini, Brazil 1990.
    9. 10. Mongol Shaman
    10. 11. Siberian Shaman
    11. 12. Inuit Shaman What is life? It is the flash of a firefly in the night. It is the breath of a buffalo in the wintertime. It is the little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset. (Blackfoot)
    12. 13. Shaman of South Africa South Africa has a strong emphasis on health, harmony, and balance as it is seen in the practices of traditional healing systems
    13. 14. Healing Among The Zulu … . centers on uMvelinqangi (God), the amadlozi (ancestors), nature, and how a traditional healer, in western terminology, connects to these forces in a profound manner. Washington, K. [2010]
    14. 15. Healing Among The Zulu Zulu Traditional Healers: the invanga (traditional doctor/herbalist) the isangoma (diviner/counselor) umthandazi (faith healer)
    15. 16. <ul><li>The South African government has taken a major step towards the formal recognition of traditional healing with the passing of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act [2007] </li></ul>Formal Recognition
    16. 17. <ul><li>“ … organise about 29,000 traditional health practitioners in S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s values are: Professional freedom, Dedication, Ubuntu, Responsibility, Compassion, Integrity, Transparency, Accountability, Collective effort, Excellence, Solution-focused, Collaboration and Cooperation, Knowledge protection and preserving, User-Centred, Gender sensitivity, Acceptance, Learning and Experience </li></ul>Traditional Healers Organisation
    17. 18. <ul><li>It is a quality that includes the essential human virtues; compassion and humanity. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a guiding philosophy that dictates traditional behavior and provides a set of desired goals that communities and individuals alike strive to achieve. </li></ul>Ubuntu Psychology [collectivistic philosophy]
    18. 19. Ubuntu Psychology [collectivistic philosophy] &quot;A person with Ubuntu is open and available to others, affirming of others, does not feel threatened that others are able and good, for he or she has a proper self-assurance that comes from knowing that he or she belongs in a greater whole and is diminished when others are humiliated or diminished, when others are tortured or oppressed.” --Archbishop Desmond Tutu. (1999). No Future Without Forgiveness .
    19. 20. Ubuntu video from Arizona State University http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgEwV4X3aB8&NR=1
    20. 21. Buddhism psychology <ul><li>Purpose of life is to be happy and end the suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Pain of existence is external </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering is internal - exists only in the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Humans suffer because they strive after things that do not give lasting happiness </li></ul>
    21. 23. <ul><li>In Buddism the elephant symbolizes a strong mind and calmness </li></ul>
    22. 24. Japanese perception <ul><li>“ We” vs. “I” </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion vs. Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Deru kugi wa utareru” </li></ul>
    23. 25. Don't be afraid to cry. It will free your mind of sorrowful thoughts. (Hopi)
    24. 26. <ul><li>“ Man's law changes with his understanding of man. Only the laws of the spirit remain always the same.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Crow) </li></ul>
    25. 27. <ul><li>An Umbuntu Poem in Three Parts, by Sam Pierstorff was presented at &quot;An Evening with Archbishop Desmond Tutu,” Modesto Junior College on March 5, 2011. </li></ul>Ubuntu http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYP23hUi2Kg&feature=related

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