Acid bases

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Acid bases

  1. 1. Acid is a chemical substance that Acids Basesionises in water to producehydrogen ion, H + . Organic Mineral Ethanoic HNO3 Methanoic HCl H2SO 4 H Cl H Hydrogen Cl chloride Cl H
  2. 2. Acid is a chemical substance that Acids Bases Substance that reactsionises in waterthehydrogenof ionisable Basicity – to produce number with acid to form a salt of atom perhydrogen ion, H + . molecule of an acid and water only Organic Mineral Na2O + 2HCl g 2NaCl+ H2O Ionisation of acidEthanoic Basicity HNO3 Methanoic HCl NaOH + HCl g NaCl + H2O HClg H++ Cl- monoprotic H2SO Bases 4 H2SO4g2H++ SO42- diprotic All metal oxide and metal hydroxide. alkali H3PO4g 3H++ PO42- triprotic Bases that dissolve in water and produce Hydroxide ion, OH- CH3COOH gCH3COO- + H+ H H + + Soluble base Insoluble base Cl- (alkali) (base) Hydrochloric Cl- Cl- acid H+ Sodium oxide Copper(II) oxide Hydroxonium ions Potassium oxide Copper(II) hydroxide H2O Sodium hydroxideHCl g H3O+ + Cl- Zinc hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Aluminium Oxide HClgH++ Cl Barium hydroxide - H3O+ g H+ + H2O Lead(II) hydroxide Ammonia Magnesium hydroxide
  3. 3. Acids Bases pH Scale acid neutral alkali pH1 pH2 pH3 pH6 pH7 pH8 pH12 pH13 pH14 Strong acid Weak acid Weak alkali Strong alkalian acid that an alkali that an acid that partially ionisesionises completely partially ionises in water to produce an alkali thatIn water to produce in water to produce low concentration ionises completelyhigh concentration low concentration of hydroxide ions, In water to produceof hydrogen ions, of hydrogen ions, OH-. high concentrationH+. H+. of hydroxide ions, OH-. Indicator acid neutral alkali Litmus solution RED PURPLE BLUE Methyl orange RED ORANGE YELLOW Phenolphthalein COLOURLESS COLOURLESS PINK Universal RED GREEN PURPLE indicator
  4. 4. To investigate the relationship between concentration of hydrogen ions and pH value 1.21 pH value 2.98 0.1mol dm-3 0.01mol dm-3 Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acidHCl g H+ + Cl- HCl g H+ + Cl-0.1 mol dm-3 0.1 mol dm-3 0.1 mol dm-3 0.01 mol dm-3 0.01 mol dm-3 0.01 mol dm-3 Concentration hydrogen ion in 0.1 mol dm-3 Of hydrochloric acid is higher than 0.01 mol dm-3 of hydrochloric acid.
  5. 5. Acids BasesAn acid only shows its acidic Role of waterproperties when water is present. Properties Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid in dry in water methylbenzene Litmus It does not paper change the colour of blue litmus paper Electrical conductivity Hydrochloric acid in dry methylbenzene
  6. 6. Acids BasesAn acid only shows its acidic Role of waterproperties when water is present. Properties Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid in dry in water methylbenzene Litmus It does not paper change the colour of blue litmus paper Electrical The bulb does conductivity not lights up. It does not conduct electricity Hydrochloric acid in dry methylbenzene
  7. 7. Acids BasesAn acid only shows its acidic Role of waterproperties when water is present. Properties Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid in dry in water methylbenzene Litmus It does not It turns the blue paper change the colour litmus paper to red. of blue litmus paper Electrical The bulb does conductivity not lights up. It does not conduct electricity Hydrochloric acid in water
  8. 8. Acids BasesAn acid only shows its acidic Role of water An alkali only shows its alkalinityproperties when water is present. properties when water is present. Properties Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid in dry in water Properties ammonia in dry ammonia in water methylbenzene trichloromethane Litmus It does not It turns the blue Litmus It does not paper change the colour litmus paper to red. paper change the colour of blue litmus of red litmus paper paper Electrical The bulb does The bulb lights up. Electrical conductivity not lights up. It conducts conductivity It does not electricity. conduct electricity ammonia in Hydrochloric acid dry in water trichloromethane
  9. 9. Acids BasesAn acid only shows its acidic Role of water An alkali only shows its alkalinityproperties when water is present. properties when water is present. Properties Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid in dry in water Properties ammonia in dry ammonia in water methylbenzene trichloromethane Litmus It does not It turns the blue Litmus It does not paper change the colour litmus paper to red. paper change the colour of blue litmus of red litmus paper paper Electrical The bulb does The bulb lights up. Electrical The bulb does conductivity not lights up. It conducts conductivity not lights up. It does not electricity. It does not conduct electricity conduct electricity Hydrochloric acid ammonia in dry in water trichloromethane
  10. 10. Acids BasesAn acid only shows its acidic Role of water An alkali only shows its alkalinityproperties when water is present. properties when water is present. Properties Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid in dry in water Properties ammonia in dry ammonia in water methylbenzene trichloromethane Litmus It does not It turns the blue Litmus It does not It turns the red paper change the colour litmus paper to red. paper change the colour litmus paper to of blue litmus of red litmus blue. paper paper Electrical The bulb does The bulb lights up. Electrical The bulb does conductivity not lights up. It conducts conductivity not lights up. It does not electricity. It does not conduct electricity conduct electricity Hydrochloric acid Ammonia in water in water
  11. 11. Acids BasesAn acid only shows its acidic Role of water An alkali only shows its alkalinityproperties when water is present. properties when water is present. Properties Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid in dry in water Properties ammonia in dry ammonia in water methylbenzene trichloromethane Litmus It does not It turns the blue Litmus It does not It turns the red paper change the colour litmus paper to red. paper change the colour litmus paper to of blue litmus of red litmus blue. paper paper Electrical The bulb does The bulb lights up. Electrical The bulb does The bulb lights up. conductivity not lights up. It conducts conductivity not lights up. It conducts It does not electricity. It does not electricity. conduct electricity conduct electricity Hydrochloric acid Ammonia in water in water
  12. 12. react Acids Bases react with with Chemical Properties etal id Mg + 2 HCl g MgCl2 + H2 HNO3 + KOH g KNO3 + H2O lkali HNO3 + NaOH g NaNO3 + H2O monium salt NaOH+NH4Cl g NaCl + NH3 + H2OMetal arbonateH2SO4+ CaCO3g CaSO4 + CO2 + H2OMetal xide K2O + HCl g 2 KCl + H2O
  13. 13. Concentration of a solution Concentrationis the quantity of solute in 0.01 mol dm-3a given volume of solutionwhich is usually 1 dm-3 Acids Basesof solution. Number of mol of solute (mol) Concentration / Molarity (mol dm-3) = Solute Volume of solution (dm3) a) Number of mol of solute (mol) = Molarity x Volume(dm3)Solution Number of mol (mol) = M x V (cm3) b) 1000 Mass of solute (g) Concentration (g dm-3) = Volume of solution (dm3) Concentration = Mass of solute (g)Molarity = Concentration Volume of solution (dm3) Molar mass = Number x Molar mass of mol Volume of solution (dm3) Concentration = Molarity x Molar mass
  14. 14. Standard solution Standard Solutionis a solution which itsconcentration is accuratelyknown. Acids Bases You are given solid sodium hidroxide. Describe the procedure to prepare 500cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hidroxide solution. [Relative atomic mass: H=1; 0=16; Na=23] 1. Calculate the mass of solute needed to give the required volume and molarity.Number of mol, = M V (cm3) Number of mol, = Mass, NaOHNaOH NaOH 1000 Molar mass = 1.0 mol dm-3 (500cm3 ) Mass, = Number of mol x Molar mass 1000 NaOH = 0.5 mol = 0.5 mol x (23 + 16 +1) g mol-1 = 20.0 g 2. The solute is weighed. 20.0g Electronic Balance
  15. 15. Standard solution Standard Solutionis a solution which itsconcentration is accuratelyknown. Acids Bases You are given solid sodium hidroxide. Describe the procedure to prepare 500cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hidroxide solution. [Relative atomic mass: H=1; 0=16; Na=23] 3. Dissolve the solute in distilled water in a beaker. 20.0g Sodium hydroxide glass rod Sodium hydroxide Distilled water solution
  16. 16. Standard solution Standard Solutionis a solution which itsconcentration is accuratelyknown. Acids Bases You are given solid sodium hidroxide. Describe the procedure to prepare 500cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hidroxide solution. [Relative atomic mass: H=1; 0=16; Na=23] 4. Transfer the content into a 500cm3 volumetric flask. Calibration mark Volumetric flask 500cm3
  17. 17. Standard solution Standard Solutionis a solution which itsconcentration is accuratelyknown. Acids Bases You are given solid sodium hidroxide. Describe the procedure to prepare 500cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hidroxide solution. [Relative atomic mass: H=1; 0=16; Na=23] 5. Rinse the beaker with distilled water and transfer all the content into the volumetric flask. Wash bottle
  18. 18. Standard solution Standard Solutionis a solution which itsconcentration is accuratelyknown. Acids Bases You are given solid sodium hidroxide. Describe the procedure to prepare 500cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hidroxide solution. [Relative atomic mass: H=1; 0=16; Na=23]6. Distilled water is added to the volumetric flask untill the calibration mark.
  19. 19. Standard solution Standard Solutionis a solution which itsconcentration is accuratelyknown. Acids Bases You are given solid sodium hidroxide. Describe the procedure to prepare 500cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hidroxide solution. [Relative atomic mass: H=1; 0=16; Na=23]7. The volumetric flask is closed tightly with stopper and inverted a few time to get homogeneous solution.
  20. 20. Standard solution Standard Solutionis a solution which itsconcentration is accuratelyknown. Acids Bases You are given solid sodium hidroxide. Describe the procedure to prepare 500cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hidroxide solution. [Relative atomic mass: H=1; 0=16; Na=23]7. The volumetric flask is closed tightly with stopper and inverted a few time to get homogeneous solution.
  21. 21. Standard solution Standard Solutionis a solution which itsconcentration is accuratelyknown. Acids Bases You are given solid sodium hidroxide. Describe the procedure to prepare 500cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hidroxide solution. [Relative atomic mass: H=1; 0=16; Na=23]7. The volumetric flask is closed tightly with stopper and inverted a few time to get homogeneous solution.
  22. 22. Standard solution Standard Solutionis a solution which itsconcentration is accuratelyknown. Acids Bases You are given solid sodium hidroxide. Describe the procedure to prepare 500cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hidroxide solution. [Relative atomic mass: H=1; 0=16; Na=23]7. The volumetric flask is closed tightly with stopper and inverted a few time to get homogeneous solution. 500 cm3 1.0 mol dm-3, Sodium hydroxide solution
  23. 23. Dilute the solution by Dilutionadding water to thestandard solution. Acids Bases You are asked to dilute the standard sodium hydroxide solution that you had made before to 250cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3. Describe how you would prepare the dilute solution.1. Calculate the volume of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide used. M1 V1 = M2 V2 1.0 mol dm-3 V1 = 0.1 mol dm-3 (250 cm3) -3 V1 = 0.1 mol dm (250 cm3) 1.0 mol dm-3 = 25 cm3
  24. 24. Dilute the solution by Dilutionadding water to thestandard solution. Acids Bases You are asked to dilute the standard sodium hydroxide solution that you had made before into 250cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3. Describe how you would prepare the dilute solution.2. Pipette 25cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hidroxide solution. 25 cm3 Sodium hidroxide pipette
  25. 25. Dilute the solution by Dilutionadding water to thestandard solution. Acids Bases You are asked to dilute the standard sodium hydroxide solution that you had made before into 250cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3. Describe how you would prepare the dilute solution.3. Transfer the 25 cm3 sodium hydroxide solution into 250cm3 volumetric flask.
  26. 26. Dilute the solution by Dilutionadding water to thestandard solution. Acids Bases You are asked to dilute the standard sodium hydroxide solution that you had made before into 250cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3. Describe how you would prepare the dilute solution.4. Distilled water is added to the volumetric flask untill the calibation mark. Volumetric flask 500cm3
  27. 27. Dilute the solution by Dilutionadding water to thestandard solution. Acids Bases You are asked to dilute the standard sodium hydroxide solution that you had made before into 250cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3. Describe how you would prepare the dilute solution.5. The volumetric flask is closed tightly with stopper and inverted a few time to get homogeneous solution.
  28. 28. Dilute the solution by Dilutionadding water to thestandard solution. Acids Bases You are asked to dilute the standard sodium hydroxide solution that you had made before into 250cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3. Describe how you would prepare the dilute solution.5. The volumetric flask is closed tightly with stopper and inverted a few time to get homogeneous solution.
  29. 29. Dilute the solution by Dilutionadding water to thestandard solution. Acids Bases You are asked to dilute the standard sodium hydroxide solution that you had made before into 250cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3. Describe how you would prepare the dilute solution.5. The volumetric flask is closed tightly with stopper and inverted a few time to get homogeneous solution.
  30. 30. Dilute the solution by Dilutionadding water to thestandard solution. Acids Bases You are asked to dilute the standard sodium hydroxide solution that you had made before into 250cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3. Describe how you would prepare the dilute solution.5. The volumetric flask is closed tightly with stopper and inverted a few time to get homogeneous solution. 250 cm3 0.1 mol dm-3, Sodium hydroxide solution
  31. 31. Neutralisation is the Neutralisationreaction between an acidand a base to form onlysalt and water Acids + Bases salt + water An acid-base titration Daily Lifeis a technique used todetermine the volume Agricultureof an acid requiredto neutralise a fixed Industriesvolume of an alkaliwith the help of HealthAcid-base indicator 1. An exact volume of alkali is measured with a pipette and poured into a conical flask. 2. A few drops of indicator is added to the alkali. acid dropper 3. A burette is filled with an acid. 4. The acid is added drop by drop into the alkali in the conical flask until the indicator changes colour alkali (indicating the pH of neutral solution produce).
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