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Just In Time Learning Implementing Principles Of Multimodal Processing And Learning For Education
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Just In Time Learning Implementing Principles Of Multimodal Processing And Learning For Education

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  • 1. Just in Time Learning Implementing Principles of Multimodal Processing and Learning for Education
  • 2. Outline  Introduction  Animated Tutors  Vocabulary Learning  Direct Vocabulary Instruction  Graded Word Information  Need For Language Tutoring  Effectiveness of Tutoring  Hard Of Hearing Children  Autistic Children  English Language Learners  Lesson Creator  Errorless Learning  Building Lessons with the Lesson Creator  Example Lesson  Evaluation
  • 3. Introduction  To provid both a theoretical and empirical framework for addressing the important issue of the presentation of multimodal displays to the user  The major assumption is that multiple sensory influences are continuously combined during perception, categorization, and language processing  Results from a variety of experiments on speech, emotion, and gesture have supported this type of framework for language processing
  • 4. Animated Tutors  Baldi, a 3-D computer-animated talking head  The goal in this paper is to review applications in language tutoring using this technology, propose a user-friendly Lesson Creator that can be used to implement research and tutoring applications, and suggest how it can be evaluated more formally  Several advantages of our technology and pedagogy  the popularity of interactive agents  instruction can be tailored exactly to the student’s need  the ability to seamlessly meld spoken and written language  provide a semblance of a game-playing experience while actually learning
  • 5. Vocabulary Learning  vocabulary knowledge is positively correlated with both listening and reading comprehension and predicts overall success in school  Direct Vocabulary Instruction  Graded Word Information  Need For Language Tutoring
  • 6. Direct Vocabulary Instruction  some direct teaching of vocabulary is essential for appropriate language development  Contrary to a common belief that learning vocabulary is a necessary outcome of reading in which new words are experienced in a meaningful context, context seldom disambiguates the meaning of a word completely
  • 7. Graded Word Information  Knowing a word is not an all-or-none proposition  the dimension of vocabulary depth (as measured by synonymy, polysemy, and collocation) is as important as that of vocabulary size in predicting performance on academic reading  Thus, it is important to over-train vocabulary, and to present the items in a variety of contexts in order to develop rich representations
  • 8. Need For Language Tutoring  The need for language tutoring is pervasive in today’s world  There are millions of elementary school children who face language and speech challenges  All of these groups have or are at high risk for language learning disabilities and require additional instruction in language learning.  there are not enough skilled teachers and professionals to give them the one-on- one attention that they need  Other available resources are not easily personalized to the students’ needs, lack the engaging capability of a teacher  we developed a Vocabulary Tutor to provide direct instruction in vocabulary learning (3)
  • 9. Effectiveness of Tutoring  Several evaluation experiments with the Vocabulary Tutor have carried out with three different groups of children with language challenges: hard of hearing, autistic, and English learners  Hard Of Hearing Children  Autistic Children  English Language Learners
  • 10. Hard Of Hearing Children  eight children with hearing loss, who needed help with their vocabulary building skills as suggested by their regular day teachers  The experimenter developed a set of lessons with a collection of vocabulary items that was individually composed for each student.  Each collection of items was comprised of 24 items, broken down into 3 categories of 8 items each.  Three lessons with 8 items each were made for each child
  • 11. Hard Of Hearing Children (cont.)  the results from one student in this study, because of the value of single-student analyses and the fact that this student was representative of all of the students tested
  • 12. Hard Of Hearing Children (cont.)
  • 13. Autistic Children  evaluating vocabulary acquisition, retention and generalization in eight children diagnosed with autism, ranging in age from 7-11 years  The results indicated that the children learned many new words, grammatical constructions and concepts, proving that the application provided a valuable learning environment for these children.  In addition, a delayed test given more than 30 days after the learning sessions took place showed that the children retained over 85% of the words that they learned
  • 14. Autistic Children (cont.)  a second investigation used the single subject multiple probe design  Given training, all of the students attained our criterion(accurately identify at least 5 out of 6 vocabulary items) for identification accuracy for each word set and were also able to generalize accurate identification to four instances of untrained images  These results show that our tutoring program is effective for autistic children, as well for hard of hearing children
  • 15. English Language Learners  Nine children ranging in age from 6-7 years were tested in the summer before first grade  Three different lessons were tested, corresponding to the three sets of items used in the multiple baseline design  Each child was pretested in order to find vocabulary that was unknown to him or her  The test session: two select one, No feedback  A training session: error correct, Imitation
  • 16. Lesson Creator  A new application, the Lesson Creator, adds flexibility and many new pedagogical features  Teachers, parents, and even students with minimal computer experience can build original lessons with personalized vocabulary and pictures  Errorless Learning  Building Lessons with the Lesson Creator  Example Lesson  Evaluation
  • 17. Errorless Learning  A giraffe is an animal with a long neck  An elephant is an animal with a long trunk  With this type of supportive and corrective feedback, the student learns about both animals, and is encouraged to think about their differences
  • 18. Building Lessons with the Lesson Creator  We know that educational instructors are overworked, and it is a challenge to ask teachers to create new lessons for their students rather than simply using existing content  Lesson Creator was developed to provide a highly flexible framework to include a variety of content while simultaneously providing a user-friendly interface to design, create, and pilot test the lesson  Each screen allows the coach to specify the greeting and instructions, the questions, and the feedback, or the coach can simply accept the general default dialog
  • 19. Building Lessons with the Lesson Creator
  • 20. Example Lesson
  • 21. Evaluation  First, although user feedback and testimonials have their limitations, they provide an initial source of the application’s effectiveness  There appear to be two approaches to formal tests The first would be to use a think-aloud protocol to monitor both novice and experience users while they are composing lessons The second would be to ask teachers to think of a lesson that they would like to implement in an interactive tutoring situation
  • 22. Think-Aloud Protocol  Users are asked to say whatever they are looking at, thinking, doing, and feeling, as they go about their task.  This enables observers to see first-hand the process of task completion (rather than only its final product).  Observers at such a test are asked to objectively take notes of everything that users say, without attempting to interpret their actions and words.  Test sessions are often audio and video taped so that developers can go back and refer to what participants did, and how they reacted.  The purpose of this method is to make explicit what is implicitly present in subjects who are able to perform a specific task

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