Research achievements on
inoculation and partnership for the
dissemination of the technology in
Ghana: AGRA & Africa-Brazi...
Introduction: Soybean
• Ghana produces 85,
000 mt of soybean
annually
• Mean yield is 0.8
mt/ha
• Varieties are
promiscuou...
Cowpea
• Sub-Saharan Africa
produces 5.3 million
tonnes (over 70%) of
world’s cowpea
• Ghana produces 150,000
mt annually
• Grown mainly by
smallholder farmers as
food especially women
• Contains 25% protein
and serves as protein
source for rur...
Cowpea yield in some African countries
462
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Cowpeagrainyield(kg/ha)
Reasons for low yield
•Low yielding varieties
•Low soil fertility (P & N
deficiency)
•No fertilizer use production
• Absen...
• Cowpea highly
promiscuous –i.e.
non-specific
• Large reservoir of
indigenous and
competitive
population of
rhizobia stra...
• Breeding programs had very
limited focus on traits associated
with efficient BNF
• difficulties in developing markets
fo...
Inoculated un-inoculated
Time (Y)
Cowpeayield/nodulewt.Conclusion from Ayanaba’s work
on cowpea inoculation in Africa
Recent work on
inoculation in Ghana
AGRA supported research on
soybean inoculation 2010-2013
Objectives
• Effect of inoculation on soybean yield
• Effect of inoculation on nodulation
• Effect of P & N on soybean yie...
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
Soybean +
no input
Soybean +
rhizobium
Soybean +
60
kgP2O5+30
kg K2O/ha
So...
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
On-station On-farm (7 districts)
Response of soybean to rhizobium inoculation and fertilization
...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
No Fert Inoc PK NPK Inoc +PK
5WAP 8WAP
Nodulenumber/plant Effect of inoculation and fertilization on...
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
No Fert Inoc PK NPK Inoc +PK
5WAP 8WAP
Nodulewt/plant(mg) Effect of...
Effect of Rhizobium inoculation on
soybean nodulation
No inoculation
Inoculated
August 16, 2011
Project Objectives
• Tested 3 high-
performance rhizobium
strains from Brazil on
local cowpea varieties
• Introduced rhizo...
Effect of inoculation on nodulation in
cowpea, Northern Ghana 2011
Treatment
DMS: 629
Numbernodulesplant-1
0
5
10
15
20
25...
Treatment
Dry Biomass
Weight(kgha
-1
)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
A
B B
E
B
DMS: 561
Control
40 Kg N ha-1
Strain ...
Effect of inoculation on grain yield of cowpea, on-
farm in Northern Ghana in 2011
Treatment
DMS: 2578
Grain yield
Weight(...
Effect of inoculation on
Total dry matter at final harvest
Site
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Drymatteryield(kgha
-1
)
0
2000
40...
Grain yield
Site
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Grainyield(kgha
-1
)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
Non-inoculated
40 kg N ha-1
S...
Treatment
DMS: 629
Grain Yield
GrainYield(kgha-1)
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Non Inoculated
40 Kg N ha-1
80 Kg N ha-1
Strai...
Nodule
weight
Shoot
Biomass
Shoot
Biomass
Grain Yield
--mg Plant-1 -----gPlant-1 --------kgha-1-------
Non
Inoculated 170 ...
Field days and
Farmer
Field Schools
Training
in inoculant
Production
May 2013
Next steps
•Increase inoculant
production for widespread
testing
•At least 2,000 farmers in
2013
• Train 2 addition techni...
Research
Education
Market
Private
sector
production
Out/Up-
scaling
Inoculant
technology
Quality
control
Isolate introduced strains
and use for inoculant
production-adaptation &
resilience
Local strains
•Need for identification of
efficient local strains for use in
the program
Quality Control-
EMBRAPA and
SARI
Merci
Samuel
Inoculation of cowpea and soybean in ghana
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Inoculation of cowpea and soybean in ghana

  1. 1. Research achievements on inoculation and partnership for the dissemination of the technology in Ghana: AGRA & Africa-Brazil partnership Mathias Fosu, R. M. Boddey, W. Atakora, G.R. Xavier, A.P. Guimaraes, B. Ahiabor
  2. 2. Introduction: Soybean • Ghana produces 85, 000 mt of soybean annually • Mean yield is 0.8 mt/ha • Varieties are promiscuous • Bred to nodulate with local rhizobia strains
  3. 3. Cowpea • Sub-Saharan Africa produces 5.3 million tonnes (over 70%) of world’s cowpea • Ghana produces 150,000 mt annually
  4. 4. • Grown mainly by smallholder farmers as food especially women • Contains 25% protein and serves as protein source for rural poor and children • Used for many home and street food in Africa-kose, Akara, red-red etc.
  5. 5. Cowpea yield in some African countries 462 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Cowpeagrainyield(kg/ha)
  6. 6. Reasons for low yield •Low yielding varieties •Low soil fertility (P & N deficiency) •No fertilizer use production • Absence of inoculants
  7. 7. • Cowpea highly promiscuous –i.e. non-specific • Large reservoir of indigenous and competitive population of rhizobia strains •Mixture of low & high efficacy strains Inoculation–some challenges
  8. 8. • Breeding programs had very limited focus on traits associated with efficient BNF • difficulties in developing markets for inoculants • expertise to produce inoculants • Low support for research on BNF Challenges
  9. 9. Inoculated un-inoculated Time (Y) Cowpeayield/nodulewt.Conclusion from Ayanaba’s work on cowpea inoculation in Africa
  10. 10. Recent work on inoculation in Ghana AGRA supported research on soybean inoculation 2010-2013
  11. 11. Objectives • Effect of inoculation on soybean yield • Effect of inoculation on nodulation • Effect of P & N on soybean yield
  12. 12. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Soybean + no input Soybean + rhizobium Soybean + 60 kgP2O5+30 kg K2O/ha Soybean + 25 kg N+60 kgP2O5+30 kg K2O/ha Soybean + rhizobium +60 kgP2O5+30 kg K2O/ha Grainyieldkg/ha Treatment 95% 142% 58% 81% Lsd (5%) on-station Lsd (5%) on-farm: 7 dist. Response of promiscuous soybean to inoculation in Ghana, 2010
  13. 13. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 On-station On-farm (7 districts) Response of soybean to rhizobium inoculation and fertilization Results 2011
  14. 14. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 No Fert Inoc PK NPK Inoc +PK 5WAP 8WAP Nodulenumber/plant Effect of inoculation and fertilization on nodulation
  15. 15. 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 No Fert Inoc PK NPK Inoc +PK 5WAP 8WAP Nodulewt/plant(mg) Effect of inoculation and fertilization on nodulation
  16. 16. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation on soybean nodulation No inoculation Inoculated
  17. 17. August 16, 2011
  18. 18. Project Objectives • Tested 3 high- performance rhizobium strains from Brazil on local cowpea varieties • Introduced rhizobium technology to farmers • Trained one graduate level technician in inoculant production at EMBRAPA • Built capacity of SARI laboratory to produce rhizobium inoculants
  19. 19. Effect of inoculation on nodulation in cowpea, Northern Ghana 2011 Treatment DMS: 629 Numbernodulesplant-1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 A A B B DMS: 4,3 Non Inoculated 40 Kg N ha-1 BR 3262 BR 3299 Number of nodules A
  20. 20. Treatment Dry Biomass Weight(kgha -1 ) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 A B B E B DMS: 561 Control 40 Kg N ha-1 Strain 3267 Strain 3299 Effect of inoculation and N application on total biomass on farm 2011
  21. 21. Effect of inoculation on grain yield of cowpea, on- farm in Northern Ghana in 2011 Treatment DMS: 2578 Grain yield Weight(kgha -1 ) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 A B D C DMS: 170 Non Inoculated 40 Kg N ha-1 Strain 3267 Strain 3299 Source: Africa Brazil Innovative Marketplace, 2011 C
  22. 22. Effect of inoculation on Total dry matter at final harvest Site 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Drymatteryield(kgha -1 ) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Non-inoculated 40 kg N ha-1 Strain BR 3267 Strain BR 3299 2012 Source: Africa Brazil Innovative Marketplace, 2012
  23. 23. Grain yield Site 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Grainyield(kgha -1 ) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Non-inoculated 40 kg N ha-1 Strain BR 3267 Strain BR 3299 On-Farm: Effect of inoculation on grain yield of cowpea in Northern Ghana, 2012 Source: Africa Brazil Innovative Marketplace report, 2012
  24. 24. Treatment DMS: 629 Grain Yield GrainYield(kgha-1) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Non Inoculated 40 Kg N ha-1 80 Kg N ha-1 Strain BR 3262 Strain BR 3267 Strain BR 3299 Mixture 3267/3299 A A A A B B B On-station-1: Effect of inoculation on cowpea grain yield, N. Ghana 2012
  25. 25. Nodule weight Shoot Biomass Shoot Biomass Grain Yield --mg Plant-1 -----gPlant-1 --------kgha-1------- Non Inoculated 170 C 7.8 C 2255 CD 1368 CD 40 Kg N ha-1 156 C 19.2 A 1923 D 978 D 80 Kg N ha-1 90 C 16.6 B 1896 D 942 D Strain 3262 530 A 6.8 C 3333 BC 1649 BC Strain 3267 318 B 6.4 C 4788 AB 1829 ABC Strain 3299 298 B 7.0 C 4083 ABC 2153 A Mix 67/99 399 B 6.8 C 5852 A 1909 AB CV % 35 19 25 23 Field station, second planting, 2012. Nodule weight and shoot biomass at 35 day after planting (DAP) and yield parameters at final harvest Values are means of five replicates. Means within the same column followed by the same letter are not different at p< 0.05
  26. 26. Field days and Farmer Field Schools
  27. 27. Training in inoculant Production May 2013
  28. 28. Next steps •Increase inoculant production for widespread testing •At least 2,000 farmers in 2013 • Train 2 addition technicians at EMBRAPA
  29. 29. Research Education Market Private sector production Out/Up- scaling Inoculant technology Quality control
  30. 30. Isolate introduced strains and use for inoculant production-adaptation & resilience
  31. 31. Local strains •Need for identification of efficient local strains for use in the program
  32. 32. Quality Control- EMBRAPA and SARI
  33. 33. Merci Samuel

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