WEST AFRICA AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY
PROGRAMME (WAAPP-NIGERIA)
REPORT OF A BASELINE STUDY ON STATUS OF USE,
REGISTRATION ...
CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES .....................................................................................................
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19

5

MARKETERS’ PROVISIONS/ARRANGEMENTS FOR DISPOSAL OF EXPIRED PESTICIDES............
List of Tables
Table 1. Sources of pesticides purchased by farmers in nine states of Nigeria ............................ ...
Table 23.Types of advice on disposal of used pesticide containers by pesticide marketers ........ 36
Table 24. Pesticide m...
Abbreviations and acronyms
ABU
ADP(s)
BARDA
CPC
CRIN
EA(s)
ECOWAS
FMARD
FAO
FCT
FRIN
GDP
GWP
IAR
IAR & T
IFDC
IITA
KASCO
K...
Executive Summary
Baseline studies were carried out in nine states of Nigeria to document the present status of the
use, r...
Based on our studies, the consultants have made the following seven recommendations:
Recommendation 1: The consultants str...
1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Preamble
The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO of UN) defines pesticide
a...
according to registered label directions, will be effective and efficient for the purposes
claimed, and safe. Thus, regist...
2

APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY OF STUDIES

The studies were implemented by four consultants comprised of three Zonal Consulta...
WAAPP-Nigeria provided the consultants with letters of introduction (on WAAPP-Nigeriaheaded paper) to the various stakehol...
Table 1.Sources of pesticides purchased by farmers in nine states of Nigeria

State
Abia
Benue
Edo
Gombe
Imo
Kaduna
Kano
N...
Table 2.Formulation of marketed pesticides and farmer’s satisfaction with sizes of pesticides
offered for sale
% of pestic...
Farmers’ knowledge about how to mix pesticide with water to obtain the spray mixture was
derived from instructions on the ...
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

Vegetable (Spinach)
Melon
Fluted pumpkin
Onio...
Table 5.Crops grown in nine states of Nigeria
Abia
Maize
Cassava
Eggplant
Fluted pumpkin
Yam
Cocoa
Rice
Okra
Spinach
Peppe...
3.5 Types of pesticides used by farmers
The results of the survey showed that the farmers use many types of pesticides. Mo...
Table 7.Types of diseases and groups of pests against which farmers apply pesticides in each of nine states of Nigeria
Abi...
Table 8.Types of pesticides being used in 9 states of Nigeria
Abia
Herbicides:
Roundup
Primextra
Razedown
Gramozone
Paraqu...
Actellic dust
Basudin
Best Action
DDT
Demacron
Diazinon
Imidacot
Lindane
Phostoxin
Rogor
Delvap Super
Dimethoate
Kombat C
...
3.6 Farmers’ practices in the use and handling of pesticides
The studies revealed prevailing practices of farmers in the u...
Table 9.Percentage of farmers/hired applicators that read labels on pesticide containers,
and wear personal protective clo...
3.6.5 Proper storage of pesticides
The percentage of farmers across the states that reported storing pesticides out of rea...
Table 12.Location of pesticide storage facility in nine States of Nigeria
Storage facility and/or location
Farm store
Back...
Table 13. Disposal of used/empty pesticide containers and packages in nine states of Nigeria
Pesticide container disposal ...
Table 14.Awareness of non-chemical methods of pest and disease control in nine states of
Nigeria

State
Abia
Benue
Edo
Gom...
Table 15. Non-Chemical disease and pest control measures identified by farmers in nine states of Nigeria
Disease/pest cont...
3.6.8 Use of pesticides to protect stored primary farm produce
The survey results revealed that farmers use pesticides to ...
contrast, the percentage of farmers that have not been trained on safe and effective use of
pesticides varied from 7.7% (f...
Table 17.Types of synthetic pesticides and substances used to protect stored produce in nine states of Nigeria
Abia

Benue...
Table 18.Remedies used in seven states of Nigeria to minimize adverse effects of pesticides
Remedy taken minimize adverse
...
Table 19.Percentage of farmers that received training on safe and effective use of pesticides

State
Abia
Benue
Edo
Gombe
...
i) Pests and diseases which the Division controls with pesticides, incollaboration with
State Ministries of Agriculture, a...
i.
ii.

iii.
iv.

v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

Using banned pesticides, especially persistent organic pollutants, (e.g. DDT, Aldrin,...
and pesticide applicators in all aspects of best practices in the procurement, handling and
use of pesticides and on the p...
4.7 Labelling of re-packaged products
Of the wholesalers/retailers that repackage their products, 66% fully label the pack...
Table 24.Pesticide marketers’ perception of their relationship with NAFDAC
S/no
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Nature of relationship
Cor...
4.15 Countries from which marketers procure pesticides
The pesticide marketers purchase their pesticides from various coun...
4.18 Status of Pesticide Retailing in Rural Markets in Nine States of Nigeria
A total of 19 rural markets (two each in Abi...
Table 27. Status of pesticide retailing in rural markets in Imo, Benue and Kano States
Names of market,
LGA and state

Typ...
Ede Okpoga market;
Okpokwu LGA;
Benue State

i. Insecticides; ii. Herbicides – both without specific list of pesticides

...
Names of market, LGA
and state
Nkwoegwu market;
Nkata Nkwoegwu,
Ohuhu, Umuahia North
LGA, Abia State.

Types of pesticides...
Names of market, LGA
and state
Tudun Hatsi market in
Gombe; Gombe LGA;
Gombe State

Types of pesticides marketed

Location...
Names of market, LGA
and state
Ogunpa market, Ibadan
North West LGA, Oyo
State

Types of pesticides marketed

Location of ...
4.19 Consultants’ Recommendations
4.19.1 Recommendation 4:
It is strongly recommended that the appropriate regulatory auth...



Written undertaking, that every advertisement of the pesticide shall be
approved by NAFDAC before publication, and
Sp...
b) Distinguishing name (proprietary name)
c) Use category (herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, rodenticide, etc)
d) Type of...
Table 31.List of banned chemicals in Nigeria
S/No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Ba...
Table 32.Restricted chemicals(To be used with permit from NESREA)
S/No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Restricted chemicals
Actin...
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
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Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
Baseline studies on pesticide
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Baseline studies on pesticide

  1. 1. WEST AFRICA AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY PROGRAMME (WAAPP-NIGERIA) REPORT OF A BASELINE STUDY ON STATUS OF USE, REGISTRATION AND REGULATION OF PESTICIDES IN NIGERIA BY WEST AFRICA AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY PROGRAMME (WAAPP-NIGERIA) Consultants: Professor A. M. Emechebe (National Consultant) Professor F. Ekeleme (Zonal Consultant) Dr. S. R. Yusuf (Zonal Consultant) Dr. C. Isanbor (Zonal Consultant) OCTOBER, 2013
  2. 2. CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS .......................................................................................................................... 5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................ 6 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................... 8 1.1 1.2 PREAMBLE ............................................................................................................................................ 8 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES AND TERMS OF REFERENCE OF THE STUDIES ............................................................ 9 2 APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY OF STUDIES .............................................................................................. 10 3 STATUS OF USE OF PESTICIDES IN NIGERIA ................................................................................................... 11 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 FARMERS’ PRACTICES AND KNOWLEDGE .................................................................................................... 11 PROCUREMENT AND FIELD APPLICATION OF PESTICIDES BY FARMERS ............................................................... 11 TYPES OF CROPS GROWN BY FARMERS ...................................................................................................... 14 TYPES OF PESTS AND DISEASES AGAINST WHICH FARMERS APPLY PESTICIDES ..................................................... 14 TYPES OF PESTICIDES USED BY FARMERS .................................................................................................... 17 FARMERS’ PRACTICES IN THE USE AND HANDLING OF PESTICIDES .................................................................... 21 3.6.1 Reading of manufacturers’ labels on pesticide containers prior to use of pesticides .............. 21 3.6.2 Wearing personal protective clothing during handling and use of pesticides ......................... 21 3.6.3 Observing pre-harvest waiting period ...................................................................................... 21 3.6.4 Waiting for at least 12 hours before entering sprayed fields ................................................... 22 3.6.5 Proper Storage of Pesticides .................................................................................................... 23 3.6.6 Disposal of empty/used pesticides containers and packages .................................................. 23 3.6.7 Awareness of non-chemical methods of pest and disease control........................................... 23 3.6.8 Use of pesticides to protect stored primary farm produce....................................................... 28 3.6.9 Remedies taken to minimize adverse effects/damage due to pesticides applied to stored produce or to crops, or due to exposure of applicators to pesticides ..................................................... 28 3.7 TRAINING GIVEN TO FARMERS ON SAFE AND EFFECTIVE USE OF PESTICIDES ....................................................... 28 3.8 USE OF PESTICIDES TO CONTROL MAJOR PEST OUTBREAKS BY DIVISION OF PEST CONTROL SERVICES OF THE FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCK AND PEST CONTROL, FEDERAL MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT ............. 32 3.9 CONSULTANTS’ COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................ 33 3.9.1 Comments: ............................................................................................................................... 33 3.9.2 Recommendations: .................................................................................................................. 34 4 ROLE OF PESTICIDE MARKETERS IN PESTICIDE USE IN NIGERIA .................................................................... 35 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 TYPES OF MARKETERS............................................................................................................................ 35 SUPPLIERS OF PESTICIDES SOLD BY MARKETERS: .......................................................................................... 35 STORAGE OF PESTICIDES BY MARKETERS .................................................................................................... 35 CLASSES OF PESTICIDE MARKETERS ........................................................................................................... 35 TYPES OF PESTICIDES SOLD BY MARKETERS ................................................................................................. 35 PACKAGING OF PESTICIDES IN DIFFERENT SIZES TO MEET PURCHASING POWERS OF VARIOUS CLASSES OF FARMERS ... 35 LABELLING OF RE-PACKAGED PRODUCTS .................................................................................................... 36 TRAINING OF FARMERS ON SAFE AND APPROPRIATE USE OF PESTICIDES ........................................................... 36 ADVICE GIVEN ON PROPER DISPOSAL OF USED PESTICIDE CONTAINERS ............................................................. 36 NATURE OF RELATIONSHIP WITH NAFDAC ............................................................................................... 36 REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDES WITH NAFDAC ........................................................................................... 37 1
  3. 3. 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 5 MARKETERS’ PROVISIONS/ARRANGEMENTS FOR DISPOSAL OF EXPIRED PESTICIDES............................................. 37 MARKETING OF PESTICIDE APPLICATION EQUIPMENT BY PESTICIDE MARKETERS ................................................. 37 MARKETING COMPANIES DO NOT MANUFACTURE OR PRODUCE PESTICIDES ...................................................... 37 COUNTRIES FROM WHICH MARKETERS PROCURE PESTICIDES.......................................................................... 38 TRAINING OF RETAILERS OF PESTICIDES ..................................................................................................... 38 TRAINING OF FARMERS BY RETAILERS........................................................................................................ 38 STATUS OF PESTICIDE RETAILING IN RURAL MARKETS IN NINE STATES OF NIGERIA ............................................ 39 CONSULTANTS' RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................................... 45 4.19.1 Recommendation 4: .......................................................................................................... 45 4.19.2 Recommendation 5: .......................................................................................................... 45 STATUS OF REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDES IN NIGERIA ................................................................................. 45 5.1 CONSULTANT RECOMMENDATION ........................................................................................................... 49 5.1.1 Recommendation 6: ................................................................................................................. 49 6...... ROLES OF MINISTRIES, DEPARTMENTS & AGENCIES IN THE USE & REGULATION OF PESTICIDES IN NIGERIA .............................................................................................................................................................................. 49 6.1 ROLES OF MDAS IN THE USE AND REGULATION OF PESTICIDES IN THE THREE STUDY ZONES ............................... 49 6.1.1 Roles of MDAs in the North-East/ North-West study zone ...................................................... 50 6.1.2 Roles of MDAs in the South-East/South-South study zone....................................................... 56 6.1.3 Roles of MDAs in the South-West/North-Central zone ............................................................ 61 6.2 ROLES OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT MDAS IN THE USE AND REGULATION OF PESTICIDES IN NIGERIA ..................... 66 6.2.1 Roles of NAFDAC ...................................................................................................................... 66 6.2.2 Roles of NESREA (National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency) 67 6.2.3 Roles of Pest Control Division of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 68 6.2.4 Roles of the Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON) ............................................................. 68 6.2.5 Roles of Headquarters of Federal Ministry of Environment ..................................................... 69 6.3 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF STAKEHOLDERS IN THE NATIONAL POLICY ON CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT ............. 69 6.3.1 Federal Ministry of Environment and its Parastatals: .............................................................. 69 6.3.2 Federal Ministry of Health and its Parastatals: ........................................................................ 70 6.3.3 Federal Ministry of Agriculture and its Parastatals:................................................................. 70 6.3.4 Federal Ministry of Commerce and Industries and its Parastatals: ......................................... 71 6.3.5 Federal Ministry of Labour: ...................................................................................................... 71 6.3.6 Federal Ministry of Transportation: ......................................................................................... 71 6.3.7 Federal Ministry of Justice:....................................................................................................... 71 6.3.8 Federal Ministry of Science and Technology and its Parastatals: ............................................ 71 6.3.9 Consumer Protection Council of Nigeria (CPC): ........................................................................ 72 6.3.10 Nigeria Customs Services: ................................................................................................. 72 6.3.11 Federal Road Safety Corps: ............................................................................................... 72 6.3.12 Nigeria Police Force and other relevant security agencies :.............................................. 72 6.4 CONSULTANTS’ COMMENTS, SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................... 72 6.4.1 Comments: ............................................................................................................................... 72 6.4.2 Recommendation ..................................................................................................................... 74 7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................................................................... 75 8 DOCUMENTS CONSULTED ............................................................................................................................. 75 2
  4. 4. List of Tables Table 1. Sources of pesticides purchased by farmers in nine states of Nigeria ............................ 12 Table 2. Formulation of marketed pesticides and farmer’s satisfaction with sizes of pesticides offered for sale ............................................................................................................. 13 Table 3. Pesticide application equipment and their applicators in nine states of Nigeria ............ 13 Table 4. Types of crops grown across nine states of Nigeria and percentage of farmers that produce them ............................................................................................................... 14 Table 5. Crops grown in nine states of Nigeria .............................................................................. 16 Table 6. Types of diseases and groups of pests against which farmers apply pesticides across nine states of Nigeria.................................................................................................... 17 Table 7. Types of diseases and groups of pests against which farmers apply pesticides in each of nine states of Nigeria ............................................................................................... 18 Table 8. Types of pesticides being used in 9 states of Nigeria ...................................................... 19 Table 9. Percentage of farmers/hired applicators that read labels on pesticide containers, and wear personal protective clothing during handling and use of pesticides .................. 22 Table 10. Percentage of farmers that observe pre-harvest waiting period after applying pesticides, and wait for at least 12 hours before entering sprayed field .................... 22 Table 11. Storage of pesticides in relation to children’s reach in nine states of Nigeria .............. 23 Table 12. Location of pesticide storage facility in nine States of Nigeria ...................................... 24 Table 13. Disposal of used/empty pesticide containers and packages in nine states of Nigeria .. 25 Table 14. Awareness of non-chemical methods of pest and disease control in nine states of Nigeria .......................................................................................................................... 26 Table 15. Non-Chemical disease and pest control measures identified by farmers in nine states of Nigeria............................................................................................................ 27 Table 16. Use of pesticides (synthetic and plant-derived) to protect stored primary produce in nine states of Nigeria.................................................................................................... 29 Table 17. Types of synthetic pesticides and substances used to protect stored produce in nine states of Nigeria............................................................................................................ 30 Table 18. Remedies used in seven states of Nigeria to minimize adverse effects of pesticides ... 31 Table 19. Percentage of farmers that received training on safe and effective use of pesticides . 32 Table 20. Percentage contribution by organizations to training of farmers across the states ..... 32 Table 21. Pesticides recommended by the Division for the control of above pests ..................... 33 Table 22. Types of training given to farmers by pesticides marketers .......................................... 36 3
  5. 5. Table 23.Types of advice on disposal of used pesticide containers by pesticide marketers ........ 36 Table 24. Pesticide marketers’ perception of their relationship with NAFDAC ............................ 37 Table 25. Arrangement made by markets for disposal of expired pesticides ............................... 37 Table 26. Countries from which pesticide marketers in nine states of Nigeria obtain their pesticides ...................................................................................................................... 38 Table 27. Status of pesticide retailing in rural markets in Imo, Benue and Kano States ............... 40 Table 28. Status of pesticide retailing in rural markets in Abia and Edo States ............................ 41 Table 29. Status of pesticide retailing in rural markets in Gombe and Kaduna States ................. 42 Table 30. Status of pesticide retailing in rural markets in Oyo and Niger States .......................... 43 Table 31. List of banned chemicals in Nigeria................................................................................ 48 Table 32. Restricted chemicals (To be used with permit from NESREA) ....................................... 49 Table 33. Control of pests and diseases of crops/animals by farmers using pesticides as recommended by National Research Institutes in Borno and Kaduna States ........... 53 Table 34. Control of pests and diseases of crop/animals by farmers using pesticides as instructed by Gombe, Kaduna and Kano states Ministries of Agriculture and ADPs... 54 Table 35. Pesticide marketers operating in the north-east and north-west zones of Nigeria ...... 56 Table 36. Pesticides recommended to farmers by National Agricultural Research Institutes in Abia, Imo and Edo States for control major pests and diseases .................................. 58 Table 37. Pesticides recommended to farmers by Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, State Ministry of Agriculture and the State ADPs in Abia, Imo and Edo States for control major pests and diseases ......................................................... 59 Table 38. Control of pests and diseases of crops/animals by farmers using pesticides as instructed by National Agricultural .............................................................................. 62 Table 39. Control of pests and diseases of crops/animals by farmers using pesticides as instructed by National Agricultural Research Institutes in Niger and Oyo States ...... 64 Table 40. Pesticides recommended to farmers by Benue State Ministry of Agriculture and Benue State ADP ........................................................................................................... 66 4
  6. 6. Abbreviations and acronyms ABU ADP(s) BARDA CPC CRIN EA(s) ECOWAS FMARD FAO FCT FRIN GDP GWP IAR IAR & T IFDC IITA KASCO KNARDA LCRI LGA(s) MDAs MLOs MRLs MTRMs NAERLS NAFDAC NAPRI NARIs NCCM NCRI NESREA NGO (s) NIFOR NIHORT NRCRI PIC PIM RLOs SMA SON UN WHO Ahmadu Bello University Agricultural Development Programme(s) Benue State Agricultural Development programme Consumer Protection Council Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria Extension Agent(s) Economic Community of West African States Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Food and Agricultural Organization Federal Capital Territory Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Good Distribution Practice Good Warehouse Practice Institute for Agricultural Research Institute of Agricultural Research and Training International Fertilizer Development Center International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Kano State Agricultural Supply Company Kano State Agricultural& Rural Development Authority Lake Chad Research Institute Local Government Area(s) Ministries, Departments and Agencies Mycoplasma-Like Organisms Maximum Pesticide Residue Limits Monthly Technical Reviews National Agricultural Extension Research Liaison Services National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control National Animal Production Research Institute National Agricultural Research Institute National Committee on Chemical Management National Cereals Research Institute National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency Non-Governmental Organization Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research National Institute for Horticultural Research National Root Crops Research Institute Prior Informed Consent Product Information Management Rickettsia-Like Organisms State Ministry of Agriculture Standard Organization of Nigeria United Nations World Health Organization 5
  7. 7. Executive Summary Baseline studies were carried out in nine states of Nigeria to document the present status of the use, registration and regulation of pesticides. The objectives of the study was to (i) identify the extent of use of pesticides in Nigeria; (ii) identify the procedure for registration, production, importation and sales and usage of the pesticides; (iii) identify the approved procedures for regulation and registration of pesticides by ECOWAS and other international communities; and (iv) make recommendations on how to streamline Nigeria’s procedures with international standards. A total of 360 farmers were interviewed in 57 Local Government Areas (LGAs) across the nine states through questionnaires. In each state also, key informant interviews through questionnaires were administered to relevant Federal and State Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs). In addition, five pesticide marketers were interviewed in each state. Also the consultants visited two rural produce markets in each State. The result of the survey showed that most of the farmers interviewed were males (83%); within the age group 41-50 years, (41%) and above 50 years, (29%). About 92% of farmers interviewed use pesticides and this varied among the states. Farmers purchased their pesticides from the open markets (74%); farmergroups and cooperatives (8%); government agencies (12%) and NGOs (4%).A small proportion of farmers (2%) sourced pesticides from other sources. Across the states, 43% of pesticide applications were done by farmers while 30% and 26% of the applications were made by hired applicators and farmers’ family members, respectively using knapsack sprayer (87%). Overall, farmer’s decision on how to apply pesticides was mainly based on advice by EAs (23%), and the type of pest (22%). Farmers’ knowledge about how to mix pesticide with water to obtain the spray mixture was derived from instructions on the product label, information by fellow farmers or advice of pesticide marketer or hired applicator. Across the nine states, 72% of the farmers use pesticides to protect stored primary farm produce from storage pests. Type of pesticides used by farmers was crop specific and in some cases location dependent. Although some similarities exist, the method of storing pesticides, place of storage and disposal of empty pesticide cans varied from state to state. Across the states, 49% of farmers received training on the safe and effective use of pesticides. The MDAs give advice and recommend synthetic pesticides to farmers for control of pests and diseases in their zones. However, only about 8% of the MDAs were aware of the World Health Organization classification of pesticides by hazards. Although, the MDAs have no power/authority to enforce the rules & regulations on labelling, packaging and storage of pesticides, the ADPs in all the states studied organize meetings and awareness campaign to address the issues. Majority of the MDAs provide necessary training on safe and efficient use of pesticides to extension agents. NAFDAC has the responsibility for pesticide registration in Nigeria. Although, the National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) is actively involved in ensuring safe use and management of pesticides, in Nigeria, its major function of enforcing the regulation on pesticide use is hindered by the absence of a national pesticide legislation. 6
  8. 8. Based on our studies, the consultants have made the following seven recommendations: Recommendation 1: The consultants strongly recommend that farmers should store pesticides in locked pesticide store away from residence and out of reach of children and unauthorized persons. Recommendation 2: The consultants recommend that farmers should be most strongly advised to always dispose used/empty containers of pesticides as directed on the label or, where this directive is unavailable, by puncturing or shredding, burning or deep burial in soil. Alternatively, such containers/packages can be returned to the agro-dealers who will dispose of them in special disposal sites. On no account should used pesticide containers be sold to the public. Recommendation 3: Convinced that the above improper actions of farmers with respect to pesticide use are due to ignorance or misinformation, the consultants strongly recommend that the State ADPs and NGOs intensify regular, informative and widely distributed training of farmers and pesticide applicators in all aspects of best practices in the procurement, handling and use of pesticides and on the proper disposal of spent/used/empty pesticide packages and containers. Recommendation 4: It is strongly recommended that the appropriate regulatory authority make every effort to enforce regulation that requires that all re-packaged products bear the same label as the original product. Recommendation 5: The consultants strongly recommend that appropriate regulatory authority make it mandatory that all pesticides retail/wholesale outlets, stores or facilities within the markets are located at one designated corner of the market, and must be separated from food/feed-selling outlets, stores or facilities. Recommendation 6: The consultants recommend that a complete list of banned and restricted chemicals be widely circulated to all stakeholders in both the public and private sectors. Recommendation 7: The consultants, recognizing the urgent need to develop a legal framework for the control of pesticides in Nigeria, strongly recommend that the Federal Government facilitate the enactment into law, Agricultural Chemicals (Pesticides) Regulation Law. The purpose of legislation on the control of and use of pesticides is to enable the Nigerian society to obtain the benefits from the use of pesticides with minimal adverse effect to man and livestock health and the environment. 7
  9. 9. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Preamble The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO of UN) defines pesticide as any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal diseases, unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transporting or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances which may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids or other pests in or on their bodies. The term also includes substances applied to crops either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage and transport. In agricultural crop production, the term “pest” is used in the broad (FAO of UN) concept to refer to arthropod pests (insects, mites and millipedes), pathogens (viroids, viruses, MLOs, RLOs, eu-bacteria, fungi, algae, and nematodes), vertebrates (rodents and birds), parasitic flowering plants, and non-parasitic weeds (both annuals and perennials). Although agricultural pesticides constitute one of the effective techniques for the management of pests, there are international guidelines on pesticide use, pesticide legislation and pesticide registration. Judicious and effective use of pesticides, among others:    Promotes practices which reduce risks in the handling of pesticides, including minimizing adverse effects on humans, livestock, wildlife and the environment and preventing accidental poisoning resulting from improper handling; Ensures that pesticides are used effectively and efficiently for the improvement of agricultural production and of human, animal and plant health; Promotes integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques, and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasizes the growth of healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystem (i.e.,pesticides that are, as far as possible, target specific and degrade into innocuous constituent parts or metabolites after use) and encourages natural pest control mechanisms, including biological control agents, as well as non-chemical pesticides. Pesticide Registration involves the process whereby responsible national government or regional authority approves the sale and use of a pesticide, following the evaluation of comprehensive scientific data demonstrating that the product is effective for the intended purpose and does not pose an unacceptable risk to human, animal health or the environment. The purpose of registration is to ensure that pesticides, when applied 8
  10. 10. according to registered label directions, will be effective and efficient for the purposes claimed, and safe. Thus, registration allows availability of suitable pesticides and ensures their proper, effective and safe use. Many countries have set up regulatory procedures to control trade practices and the production and use of pesticides. These regulatory procedures are embedded in pesticide registration procedure and in pesticide legislation. Pesticide legislation means any laws or regulations introduced to regulate the manufacture, marketing, distribution, labelling, packaging, use and disposal of pesticides in their qualitative, quantitative, health and environmental aspects. Judicious and effective use of pesticides in Nigeria involves shared responsibility by many actors, including Nigerian government and pesticide exporting countries, national and international research and development organizations; ADPs; NGOs; Federal and State ministries of agriculture, environment, trade and health; NAFDAC; Federal and State departments of agriculture; local government departments of agriculture; farmers and farmer associations;extension delivery services and agents; manufacturers and marketers of biological pesticides and application equipment; food industry and marketers of agricultural produce. The present study will provide information on the present status of the use, registration and regulation of pesticides in Nigeria through baseline studies on these aspects of the pesticide sector of the country. 1.2 Purpose and objectives and terms of reference of the studies The objectives of the studies are to:     Identify the extent of use of pesticides in Nigeria; Identify the procedure for registration, production, importation and sales and usage of the pesticides; Identify the approved procedures for regulation and registration of pesticides by ECOWAS and other international communities; and Make recommendations on how to streamline Nigeria’s procedures with international standards. It is expected that the studies will result in the following: (i) (ii) (iii) Creation of a conducive environment for trans-boundary trade in pesticides; Recommendations on effective quality control mechanisms for pesticides in Nigeria; Check-mating the sale of unauthorised pesticides in Nigeria. The Terms of reference for the studies are given in Annex 1. 9
  11. 11. 2 APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY OF STUDIES The studies were implemented by four consultants comprised of three Zonal Consultants and one National Consultant. The country was divided into three study zones, namely; (i) South-East and South-South zone, (ii) South-West and North-Centralzone, and (iii) NorthWest and North-East zone. Professor Friday Ekeleme covered the South-East and SouthSouth zone, while Dr. Chukwuemeka Isanbor covered the South-West and North-Central zone; the North-West and North-East zone was covered by Dr. Sani Ringim Yusuf. The National Consultant (Professor Alphonse Mgbanu Emechebe) covered one state in each of the three zones, as well as some Federal Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), most of which are located in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The zonal consultantsimplemented the studies in two states in each of the three study zones, the choice of states being restricted to those with at least one National Agricultural Research Institute (NARI). The six states that met this criterion were Abia and Edo (for South-South and South-East), Oyo and Niger (for South-West and North-Central) and Kaduna and Borno (for North-East and North-West). However, the consultants noted that there is limited use of pesticides in millet-based cropping systems (that is prevalent in Borno State), while more useful information on pesticide usage would be obtained from Gombe State, in the same zone, where there is wide-spread cultivation of horticultural crops on which considerable amount of pesticides are applied. Consequently, the North-East and North-West zonal consultant visited Lake Chad Research Institute (LCRI), Maiduguri (Borno State) but conducted field work on pesticide usage in Gombe State. In each state, the consultant trained two enumerators (sourced from the ADP) to administer questionnaires to forty (40) farmers/farmer organisations. The 40 farmers interviewed in each state were selected with the aid of the ADP from 10-25% of the LGAs of the state. In each state also, the consultant administered questionnaires and conducted key informant interviews with relevant MDAs, especially the State Ministry of Agriculture,State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP), the State Agricultural Supply Company and the NARIs. In addition, the consultants interviewed five pesticide marketers and visited two rural markets in each state. The following six instruments for data collection were used for the studies (Annexes 2-7): A. B. C. D. E. F. Questionnaire for farmers and farmer organizations Questionnaire for pesticide marketers Questionnaire for key informant interview for NAFDAC Questionnaire for key informant interview for MDAs Questionnaire for key informant interview for SON Notes on what to look-out for in rural markets and large produce markets (where available). 10
  12. 12. WAAPP-Nigeria provided the consultants with letters of introduction (on WAAPP-Nigeriaheaded paper) to the various stakeholders. On completion of the field work, the consultants re-convened for three days at the WAAPPNigeria office in Abuja to consider the collected data and agree on the next line of action. To assist with data analysis, the consultants spent all three days to code answers provided in the farmer questionnaire and that of the pesticide marketers. One of the consultants (Professor F. Ekeleme) hired data entry technicians to enter the data in computer before analysis. The coded data were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency distribution of respondents and tabulation) using Procedure Frequency in SAS version 9.3 [SAS Institute Inc., 2001].The results of the other questionnaires for the zones were written-up by the respective consultants. They were then integrated into one comprehensive report. 3 STATUS OF USE OF PESTICIDES IN NIGERIA 3.1 Farmers’ practices and knowledge On the whole, a total of 360 farmers were interviewed in 57 Local Government Areas (LGAs) across the nine States (Abia, Benue, Edo, Gombe, Imo, Kaduna, Kano, Niger and Oyo). Most of the farmers were males (82.8%) while the rest (17.2%) were females. The distribution of farmers according to their ages was as follows: aged less than 20 years, (0.6%); aged 20-30 years, (7.1%); aged 31-40 years, (22.6%); aged 41-50 years, (40.8%) and above 50 years, (28.8%). The present status of the use of pesticides by farmers is presented in six different sub-headings. About 92.3% of farmers across the nine states use pesticides; the figure among the states varies from 77.5% in Imo to 100% in Benue and Oyo. 3.2 Procurement and field application of pesticides by farmers Farmers purchase pesticides from various retail and wholesale sources, namely open market (comprised of shops of pesticides marketers and mobile pesticide vendors), farmer groups and cooperatives, government agency (e.g., ADPs and government input supply companies) and NGOs. Across the nine states, farmers purchased their pesticides from the open markets (73.9%), farmer groups and cooperatives (8.0%), government agencies (12.1%) and NGOs (4.1%), while a very small proportion of farmers (1.8%) sourced pesticides from other sources (Table 1). 11
  13. 13. Table 1.Sources of pesticides purchased by farmers in nine states of Nigeria State Abia Benue Edo Gombe Imo Kaduna Kano Niger Oyo Across States Percentage of farmers’ pesticide need purchased from: Open Farmer Government NGOs Other market groups agency sources cooperatives 80.0 5.0 2.5 12.5 0.0 95.1 0.0 2.4 2.4 0.0 60.5 29.0 2.6 7.9 0.0 40.4 7.7 51.9 0.0 0.0 75.0 2.8 5.6 8.3 8.3 75.0 8.3 6.3 6.3 0.0 74.5 2.1 19.5 0.0 0.0 83.8 10.8 5.4 0.0 0.0 87.5 8.3 2.8 2.1 0.0 73.9 8.0 12.1 4.2 1.8 Among the states, the quantity of pesticides that farmers purchased from the open market varied from 40.4% in Gombe State to 95.1% in Benue State. The quantities of pesticides sourced from farmer groups and cooperatives, government agencies and NGOs varied from 0.0% (for Benue State) to 29.0% (forEdo State), 2.1% (for Oyo State) to 51.9 (forNiger State), and 0.0% (for Kano and Niger States) to 12.5% (forAbia State), respectively. There were no other sources of pesticide in all states, except Imo (8.3%) and Kano (3.9%). Across the nine states, the pesticides are purchased as liquid formulation (61.9%) or as powder, including tablets (38.1%). Among the states, the percentage of pesticides procured as liquids varied from 50% (for Abia and Benue) to 91.9% (for Niger State)[Table 2]. The sizes of the pesticide packages/packs offered for sale was satisfactory to 81% of the farmers. However, among the states, farmers’ satisfaction with the sizes of pesticide packs available in the market varied from 53.9% (for Abia) to 100% (for Kano) [Table 2]. The pesticides were applied with the knapsack sprayer, motorized back pack, and Ultra Low Volume (ULV) applicator or weedwiper (Table 3). Across the states, 87.4% of the applications were done with the knapsack sprayer, the corresponding figures for motorized back pack, weed wiper, and ULV applicator being 5.5%, 2.8% and 0.8%, respectively. Only 2.5% of the applications were made with other techniques/methods (Table 3). 12
  14. 14. Table 2.Formulation of marketed pesticides and farmer’s satisfaction with sizes of pesticides offered for sale % of pesticides Farmers’ satisfaction with size of pesticide packs marketed State Abia Benue Edo Gombe Imo Kaduna Kano Niger Oyo Across States Liquid 50.0 50.0 78.1 76.9 58.8 52.1 60.9 91.9 61.9 61.9 Powder 50.0 50.0 22. 23.1 41.2 47.9 39.1 8.1 38.1 38.1 Satisfied 53.9 92.5 87.9 73.7 68.8 79.0 100.0 94.7 77.3 81.0 Not satisfied 46.2 7.5 12.1 26.3 31.3 21.1 0.0 5.3 22.7 19.0 The pesticides were applied by the farmer, a family member or a hired applicator. Across the states, 42.8% of pesticide applications were done by farmers while 29.7% and 27.5% of the applications were made by hired applicators and farmers’ family members, respectively (Table 3). Among the states, applications made with the knapsack, motorized backpack, weed wiper and ULV applicator varied from 73.7% (Imo) to 100% (Abia and Benue); 0.0% (Abia, Benue and Imo) to 20% (Gombe); 0.0% (Abia, Benue, Gombe, Kaduna and Kano) to 13.2% (Imo) and 2.6% (Edo, Imo, and Niger). Across the states, farmers decision on how to apply pesticides was based on advice by EAs (23.4%), advice by pesticide marketers (13.8%), the type of pest (22.0%), past experience (11.3%), extent of pest damage (8.7%), type of crop (6.2%), recommendation by other farmers (6.2%), training received (1.7%), cost and/or availability of pesticide (1.1%), advice by hired pesticide applicator (0.9%) and type of pesticide (0.3%). Table 3.Pesticide application equipment and their applicators in nine states of Nigeria State Abia Benue Edo Gombe Imo Kaduna Kano Niger Oyo Across States % of applications made with Motorized Weed Knapsack back pack wiper 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 81.6 13.2 2.6 80.0 20.0 0.0 73.7 0.0 13.2 97.5 2.5 0.0 97.5 2.5 0.0 76.3 7.9 7.9 90.7 2.3 2.48 87.4 5.5 2.8 ULV applicator 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.0 2.6 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.0 0.8 Persons applying pesticides (%) Farmer Family Hired member applicator 57.4 18.5 24.1 23.2 39.1 37.7 51.3 10.8 18.0 37.0 39.1 23.9 41.5 17.1 41.5 30.4 28.3 41.3 26.1 28.3 45.7 58.7 26.1 15.2 63.2 26.3 10.5 42.8 27.5 29.7 13
  15. 15. Farmers’ knowledge about how to mix pesticide with water to obtain the spray mixture was derived from instructions on the product label, information by fellow farmers or advice of pesticide marketer or hired applicator. The reasons that were given across the states by farmers that do not apply pesticides included:  Lack of funds (45.8%)  Fear of hazards associated with use of pesticides (20.3%)  High cost of pesticides (13.6%)  Ignorance of the value of pesticides in agricultural production (11.9%)  No incidence of pests and diseases in their farm (8.5%) 3.3 Types of crops grown by farmers The farmers in the study zones grew a wide range of crops which varied with state and agroecological zone.The types of crops grown across the nine states and the percentage of farmers that cultivate them are given in Table 4. Also, the crops grown in each of the nine states are listed in Table 5. 3.4 Types of pests and diseases against which farmers apply pesticides The farmers interviewed in the nine states reported that they use pesticides to control a large number of pests and diseases of crops in the field and in stored products, as well as ticks on ruminants. In most cases, farmers provided information only on the pest groups and very rarely on specific name of the pest or disease. Table 6 lists the types of pests and diseases that farmers control with pesticides across the nine states surveyed in these studies, while the types of pests and diseases listed by farmers in each of the states is presented inTable 7. Table 4.Types of crops grown across nine states of Nigeria and percentage of farmers that produce them. S/No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Crop Maize Cassava Yam Cowpea Rice Groundnut Sorghum Millet Soybean Tomato Egg plant Pepper Okra % of farmers producing crop 20.8 10.4 8.9 8.4 7.1 5.7 5.3 3.6 3.6 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 14
  16. 16. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. Vegetable (Spinach) Melon Fluted pumpkin Onion Pineapple Cocoa Cucumber Cocoyam Citrus Sugarcane Mango Sweet potato Bambara groundnut Oil palm African yambean Cashew Mucuna Cabbage Cotton 2.2 1.9 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 15
  17. 17. Table 5.Crops grown in nine states of Nigeria Abia Maize Cassava Eggplant Fluted pumpkin Yam Cocoa Rice Okra Spinach Pepper Melon Plantain Cucumber African yambean Mucuna Groundnut Oil palm Pineapple Benue Yam Cassava Maize Groundnut Cowpea Rice Sorghum Citrus Soybean Mango Sweet potato Bambaranut Okra Spinach Millet Cocoyam Melon Pepper Sugarcane Tomato Edo Cassava Maize Plantain Groundnut Cocoa Okra Pepper Pineapple Tomato Cocoyam Cowpea Melon Oilpalm Spinach Rice Gombe Cowpea Maize Groundnut Millet Rice Sorghum Soybean Spinach Cotton Pepper Tomato Imo Maize Cassava Yam Eggplant Pineapple Cucumber Okra Melon Cocoyam Fluted pumpkin Spinach Pepper Plantain Citrus Groundnut Oil palm Sweet potato Tomato Kaduna Maize Cowpea Soybean Sorghum Rice Groundnut Sugarcane Tomato Cocoyam Millet Onion Kano Maize Rice Sorghum Cowpea Millet Onion Tomato Groundnut Soybean Melon Sugarcane Pepper Cucumber Egg plant Bambara nut Cabbage Fluted pumpkin Niger Maize Rice Sorghum Millet Yam Groundnut Cowpea Okra Soybean Oyo Maize Cassava Yam Cowpea Tomato Pepper Spinach Cocoyam Cashew Egg plant Groundnut Melon Okra Plantain Cocoa Sorghum Sweet potato Note: In each state, the crops are listed in descending order of importance, beginning with one grown by highest percentage of farmers and ending with that grown by lowest percentage of farmers. 16
  18. 18. 3.5 Types of pesticides used by farmers The results of the survey showed that the farmers use many types of pesticides. Most of the pesticides are herbicides and insecticides with the rest being fungicides, rodenticides, acaricides and nematicides. Many of pesticides were recorded with their trade names; consequently many of them contain the same active ingredients. Among the states, the number of types of pesticides being used to control pests and diseases varied from 14 (for Niger State) to 54 (for Abia State); these are listed in Table 8. Table 6.Types of diseases and groups of pests against which farmers apply pesticides across nine states of Nigeria Serial No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Pest/Disease type Insects in general Weeds Termites Grasshopper and Locust Storage Bruchids Cocoa blackpod disease Aphids Caterpillars Stemborers Whiteflies Rodents Smuts Ants Mealybug Ticks Nematodes Millipedes Birds Crickets Mites % Farmers controlling pest/diseases with pesticide 25.4 20.3 12.0 9.2 6.9 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.1 2.7 2.3 1.3 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.3 17
  19. 19. Table 7.Types of diseases and groups of pests against which farmers apply pesticides in each of nine states of Nigeria Abia Grasshoppers& Locusts Weeds Blackpod disease Caterpillars Insects Stemborers Bruchids Termites Whiteflies Rodents Aphids Crickets Nematodes Benue Insects Weeds Termites Aphids Birds Blackpod disease Millipedes Rodents Nematodes Edo Termites Insects Weeds Aphids Grasshoppers & Locust Bruchids Ants Blackpod disease Stemborers Whiteflies Millipedes Rodents Gombe Insects Weeds Smuts Aphids Stemborers Imo Insects Blackpod Disease Termites Weeds Grasshoppers & Locust Birds Rodents Bruchids White flies Kaduna Weeds Insects Termites Bruchids Ticks Smuts Whiteflies Nematodes Kano Weeds Insects Aphids Caterpillars Termites Whiteflies Niger Insects Termites Grasshoppers & Locusts Mealybug Rodents Bruchids Ants Nematodes Ticks Whiteflies Oyo Grasshoppers & Locusts Bruchids Termites Caterpillars Stemborers Mealybug Insects Millipedes Mites Nematodes Rodents Whiteflies = Insects grouped together 18
  20. 20. Table 8.Types of pesticides being used in 9 states of Nigeria Abia Herbicides: Roundup Primextra Razedown Gramozone Paraquat Tackle Rizene Touchdown Uproot Benue Herbicides: Atrazine Delsate Sarosate Vinash Glyphosate Weed burner 2, 4-D Gramozone Paraquat Edo Herbicides: Paraforce Roundup Tochdown Delsate Atrazine Weed burner Sarosate Slasher Tackle Gombe Herbicides: Gramozone Paraquat Primextra Glyphosate Atrazine Galex Insecticides: Termex Best Action Imo Herbicides: Roundup Glyphosate Glycol Gramozone Paraquat Touchdown Uproot Atrazine Butachlor Atrazine Codal Gold Galex Oryzo Plus ParaForce Sandoz H Insecticides: Karate Decis Action 40 DD Force DDVP Gamalin Aldrin dust Furandan Marshal Shogun Oryzo Plus Roundup Clear weed Galex Pendimethalin Tackle Touchdown Butachlor Cutlass Fusilade Atrachlor Primextra Uproot Insecticides: Best Action Karate Dragon Uproot Insecticides: Termex Action 40 DD force DDVP Zap-PZap Snipper Vetox 85 Biovan 100EC Perfect killer Delvap super Uppercott Aldrin dust Best Action Cypermethrin Delta force Actellic dust Perfect killer Karate Attacke Cypermethrin Dragon Tricel Nuvan 100EC Seven 85 Cotspring VIP Vetox 85 Delta force Aldrin Delvap super Kombat C Zap-Pzap Dragon Karto DDT Phostoxin Laraforce Parathion Fungicides: Ridomil Tackle Weedoff Insecticides: Aldrin dust Cypermethrin Karate DD force DDVP Termex Decis Perfect killer Attacke DDT Force up Lindane Rogor Sharp shooter Snipper Fungicides: Kaduna Herbicides: Gramozone Paraquat Atrazine Glyphosate Butachlor Roundup Slasher Weed killer Weed crusher Atrachlor Control Total Glytex Grasscutter Magic Sarosate Touchdown Vinash Wacot H Insecticides: Phostoxin DD force Kombat C Ranbo Marshal Cypermethrin Delthrin Kano Herbicides: Butachlor Gramozone Paraquat Oryzo Plus Glyphosate Glycol Pendimethalin Atrazine 2, 4-D Niger Herbicides: Gramozone Paraquat Atrazine Insecticides: Cypermethrin Actellic dust Carbofuran Gamalin Karate Oyo Herbicides: Paraforce Multhrazine Gramozone Towndown Roundup Paraquat Atrazine Insecticides: DDVP Delsate Control Total Disburn Paraforce Ronstar 25EC Roundup Tackle Laso Insecticides: Kombat C Best Action DD force Uppercott Cypermethrin Rocket Tricel Delvap super Rodenticides: Klerat Nematicides: Carbofuran Laraforce Gamalin Quickforce Extra force Nuvacron Rocket Penta Force Endoforce Force Up Imidatcot Phostoxin Snipper Termex Termidust Karate Perfect killer Cotspring Decis 19
  21. 21. Actellic dust Basudin Best Action DDT Demacron Diazinon Imidacot Lindane Phostoxin Rogor Delvap Super Dimethoate Kombat C Parathion Malathion Sharp shooter Termex Vetox 85 Fungicides: Apron Plus Z-Force Rodomil Benlate Copper sulphate Contizeb Mancozeb Fungi Kill Captan Nematicides: Furadan Nemagon Karto DD Force Perfect Killer Termex Action 40 Aldrin Cypermethrin Furadan Fungicides: Rodomil Copper sulphate Fernasan D Nematicides: Furadan Nemagon Rodenticides: Malathion Perfeckthion Wormforce Fungicides: Apron Star Rodomil Aldrex T Fernasan D Rodenticides: Klerat Aldrex T Benlate Mancozeb Captan Pextox Laraforce Actellic dust Furadan Uppercott Cypercott Fungicides: Alstar Mancozeb Nematicides: Furadan Dimethoate Force up Perfect killer Rambo Sharp shooter Terminator Vitoate Fungicides: Mancozeb Profit Ratax 20
  22. 22. 3.6 Farmers’ practices in the use and handling of pesticides The studies revealed prevailing practices of farmers in the use and handling of pesticides. The practices are as follows:(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) Reading of manufacturers’ labels on pesticide containers prior to use of pesticides Wearing personal protective clothing during handling and use of pesticides Observing pre-harvest waiting period after applying pesticides Waiting for at least 12 hours before entering sprayed field Storage of pesticides Disposal of empty/used pesticide containers and packages Awareness of non-chemical methods of pest and disease control Use of pesticides to protect stored primary farm produce Remedies taken to minimise adverse effects/damage due to pesticides applied to stored produce or to crops, or due to exposure of applicators to pesticides. The extent of compliance of farmers and their hired pesticide applicators to the above practices is summarized below. 3.6.1 Reading of manufacturers’ labels on pesticide containers prior to use of pesticides Across the nine states, 78% of the farmers/hired applicators read manufactures’ labels and follow the instructions before using pesticides; by contrast, 22% of the farmers do not read these labels (Table 9). Among the states, the percentage of farmers that read labels varied from 51.3% (Kano State) to 90.0% (Gombe State). By contrast, the percentage of farmers that do not read labels varied from 10.0% (Gombe State) to 48.7% for Kano State (Table 9). 3.6.2 Wearing personal protective clothing during handling and use of pesticides The percentage of farmers, their family members or hired pesticide applicators that wear personal protective clothing during handling or application of pesticides, across the nine states surveyed was 54.3%, compared to 45.7% that do not wear personal protective clothing. Among the states, the percentage of farmers, their family members or hired applicators that wear personal protective clothing varied from 53.3% (Oyo State) to 93.9%, for Edo State (Table 9). [The percentages of farmers that claimed to be using protective clothing across and amongst the States are apparently higher than what obtains in practice.] 3.6.3 Observing pre-harvest waiting period Across the states, the percentage of farmers that observe pre-harvest waiting period after applying pesticides was 80.5%; thus, 19.5% of the farmers do not observe this waiting period (Table 10). However, among the states, the percentage of farmers that observe the waiting period varied from 97.5% (Gombe State) to 55% in NigerState, while that of the farmers that do not observe the waiting period varied from 2.5% (for Gombe State) to 45.0%, for Niger State (Table 10). 21
  23. 23. Table 9.Percentage of farmers/hired applicators that read labels on pesticide containers, and wear personal protective clothing during handling and use of pesticides State Read labels Abia Benue Edo Gombe Imo Kaduna Kano Niger Oyo Across States 89.5 82.5 87.9 90.0 81.3 55.3 51.3 94.4 75.0 78.2 Do not read labels 10.5 17.5 12.1 10.0 18.8 44.8 48.7 5.6 25.0 21.8 Wear protective clothing 61.9 60.5 93.9 82.9 84.4 86.8 55.0 62.2 53.3 54.3 Do not wear protective clothing 38.1 39.5 6.1 17.1 15.6 13.2 45.0 37.8 46.7 45.7 Table 10.Percentage of farmers that observe pre-harvest waiting period after applying pesticides, and wait for at least 12 hours before entering sprayed field State Abia Benue Edo Gombe Imo Kaduna Kano Niger Oyo All States Observe preharvest waiting period 80.0 85.0 76.5 97.5 87.9 81.6 82.5 55.0 79.1 80.5 Do not observe pre-harvest waiting period 20.0 15.0 23.5 2.50 12.1 18.4 17.5 45.0 20.9 19.5 Wait at least 12 hours before entering sprayed field 76.9 72.5 73.5 97.5 87.9 65.8 70.0 76.9 86.4 78.7 Do not wait 12 hours before entering sprayed field 23.1 27.5 26.5 2.5 12.1 34.2 30.0 23.1 13.1 21.3 3.6.4 Waiting for at least 12 hours before entering sprayed fields Across the states, percentage of farmers that wait for at least 12 hours before entering sprayed fields was 78.7%, compared to 21.3% that do not wait before entering fields after applying pesticides (Table 10). Among the states, however, the percentage of farmers that wait for at least 12 hours before entering sprayed fields ranged from 65.8% (Kaduna State) to 97.5%, for Gombe State, while the percentage of those that do not wait varied from 2.5% (for Gombe State) to 34.2%, for Kaduna State (Table 10). 22
  24. 24. 3.6.5 Proper storage of pesticides The percentage of farmers across the states that reported storing pesticides out of reach of their children was 94.8%, with 5.2% not bothering to store pesticides out of children’s reach. Among the states, the percentage of farmers that stored their pesticides out of reach of children varied from 85% (Abia) to 100% in Benue State (Table 11). Across the states, the location of pesticide store included: the farm store, the back-yard out of reach of children, cupboard or wooden box, the same place as farm produce, hidden place in farm, shade outside the residence, ceiling in the residence, uncompleted building, wardrobe in residence, tree top in the farm, in implements’ shade, under the bed, with hired applicator, and round pot in residence. The situation of pesticide storage in the states is presented in Table 12. Table 11.Storage of pesticides in relation to children’s reach in nine states of Nigeria State Abia Benue Edo Gombe Imo Kaduna Kano Niger Oyo All States Stored out of reach 85.0 100.0 91.2 95.0 96.9 97.4 95.0 97.4 95.5 94.8 Not stored out of reach 15.0 0.0 8.8 5.0 3.2 2.6 5.0 2.6 4.6 5.2 3.6.6 Disposal of empty/used pesticides containers and packages The survey results show that farmers dispose of used and/or empty pesticide containers or packages in different ways which include: burning, burying in soil, puncturing and throwing away, washing and use to purchase fuel, washing and use for ablution/donation to mosques, washing and re-using, returning to marketer/government agency, sale to agrodealer, throwing into river, and selling to buyers. The situations in each state and across the states are given in Table 13. 3.6.7 Awareness of non-chemical methods of pest and disease control About 67% of the farmers across the states indicated that they are aware of non-chemical methods of pest and disease control. Table 14 shows the percentages of farmers that are aware or unaware of non-chemical methods of pest and disease control in each of the nine states. Thenon-chemical methods identified by farmers included: manual weeding, handpicking of insects, crop rotation, planting resistant varieties, deep ploughing/harrowing, cultural methods, use of neem products, bio-control, spreading ash and detergent washing powder, bush burning, mulching, scarecrows, early planting/harvesting, mixed cropping, healthy seed, fallowing, rogueing, and mechanical traps for rodents/monkey. The specific ones identified in each state are presented in Table 15. 23
  25. 25. Table 12.Location of pesticide storage facility in nine States of Nigeria Storage facility and/or location Farm store Back-yard Cupboard/wooden box Hidden place in farm Same place as farm produce Shade outside residence Ceiling of residence Uncompleted building Wardrobe in residence Tree top in farm Farm implement shade Under bed With hired applicator Round pot in residence States Across X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Abia X X X X Benue X X X Edo X X X X X X X X X Gombe X X X X Imo X X X X X X X X X X Kaduna X Kano X X Niger X X X X Oyo X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 24
  26. 26. Table 13. Disposal of used/empty pesticide containers and packages in nine states of Nigeria Pesticide container disposal method Burning Burying in soil Puncturing & throwing away Washing and use to purchase fuel Washing & use for ablution Washing and re-using Return to marketer/ government agency Sale to agro-dealer Throwing into river/stream Wash and sell to buyers Throwing away in farm Across States X X X X X X X X X X X Abia X X X Benue X X Edo X X X Gombe X X X Kaduna X X X X X Kano X X X X X Imo X X X X X X X X Niger X X X X Oyo X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 25
  27. 27. Table 14.Awareness of non-chemical methods of pest and disease control in nine states of Nigeria State Abia Benue Edo Gombe Imo Kaduna Kano Niger Oyo Across States Awareness of non-chemical control methods 76.9 Unaware of non-chemical control methods 23.1 100.0 73.5 97.5 80.0 63.1 57.5 76.9 86.4 66.9 0.0 26.5 2.5 20.0 36.8 42.5 23.1 13.64 33.1 26
  28. 28. Table 15. Non-Chemical disease and pest control measures identified by farmers in nine states of Nigeria Disease/pest control measures Manual weeding Hand-picking of insects Crop rotation Planting resistant varieties Deep ploughing/harrowing Cultural methods Use of neem products Bio-control Spreading ash & washing powder Bush burning Mulching Scarecrow Pruning Early planting/harvesting Mixed cropping Fallowing Rouging Mechanical traps for rodents and monkey Healthy seed Across states X X X X X X X X X X X X Abia X X X X X X Benue X X X X Edo X X X X X X X Gombe X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Imo X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Kano X X Niger X X Oyo X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Kaduna X X X X 27
  29. 29. 3.6.8 Use of pesticides to protect stored primary farm produce The survey results revealed that farmers use pesticides to protect stored primary farm produce from storage pests and diseases. Across the nine states, 72.2% of the farmers use pesticides to protect stored primary farm produce from storage pests, while 26.8 do not use pesticide in this respect. Table 16, gives the percentage of farmers using these pesticides in each of the nine states. The percentage of farmers that protect their stored produce with pesticides in the nine states varied from 51.3% (Imo State) to 100% for Gombe State (Table 16).The types of pesticides used to protect stored produce in each of the states are listed in Table 17. 3.6.9 Remedies taken to minimize adverse effects/damage due to pesticides applied to stored produce or to crops, or due to exposure of applicators to pesticides The farmers were asked to list the remedies they take to minimize adverse effects on their health or damage due to pesticide applied to stored produce or to crops in the field. The remedies listed by the farmers across the states include the following:            Drinking milk Wearing protective clothing Washing body after applying pesticides Strict observance of waiting time Follow expert instructions Careful handling of pesticides Following manufacturer’s instructions on label Carefulness plus timely application of pesticides Wash produce before consumption Do not store pesticide in bedroom Using small quantity of pesticide Taking milk and septrin (antibiotic) The use of these remedies in seven of the states is given in Table 18. It is noted that some of the remedies are applied before or during use of pesticides while others are used to mitigate effect of exposure to pesticides, or accidental ingestion of pesticides. 3.7 Training given to farmers on safe and effective use of pesticides The results of these studies showed that some farmers have received training on the safe and effective use of pesticides. Across the states, percentage of farmers that received this training was 49.4%; thus the remaining 50.6% of the farmers have not received training on the safe and effective use of pesticides. Among the states, the percentage of farmers that have received training varied from 25% (Imo) to 92.3%, for Gombe state (Table 19). By 28
  30. 30. contrast, the percentage of farmers that have not been trained on safe and effective use of pesticides varied from 7.7% (for Gombe State) to 75%, for Imo State. Table 16.Use of pesticides (synthetic and plant-derived) toprotect stored primary produce in nine states of Nigeria State Abia Benue Edo Gombe Imo Kaduna Kano Niger Oyo Across States Pesticide used on stored produce 53.7 92.5 86.5 100.0 51.3 72.5 85.0 58.3 67.4 72.2 Pesticides not used on stored produce 46.3 7.5 13.5 0.0 48.7 27.5 15.0 41.7 32.6 27.8 29
  31. 31. Table 17.Types of synthetic pesticides and substances used to protect stored produce in nine states of Nigeria Abia Benue Edo Gombe Imo Kaduna Kano Niger Oyo Actellic dust Phostoxin Phostoxin Actellic dust Ash + pepper Phostoxin Phostoxin Phostoxin Power force Phostoxin Rat Killer Apron Plus Cypermethrin Methylbromide DDVP Gamalin Apron plus Pifpaff Darafin 500 EC Neem Ash Furadan Rat Killer Aldrin dust Actellic dust DDVP Furadan Ultra force Gamalin Apron Plus Dry pepper Phostoxin Vetox 85 Best Rambo Gamalin Laraforce Rambo Furadan Orange peel Ranbo Apron Plus Snipper Actellic dust DDT Phostoxin Refina Otapiapia Darafin500EC Karate Furadan Dry pepper Pifpaff DDVP Apron plus Apron Plus Actellic dust Aldrin dust Furadan Dry pepper Cypermethrin Karate Actellic dust Furadan Furadan Ash + pepper Karate Pepper+ ginger Best Laraforce Aldrin dust Snipper Ash + pepper Dry pepper DDVP Neem Ash Dry pepper Rat Killer Neem Ash Termik Pepper+ginger Termex Karate Termex Tobacco leaf 30
  32. 32. Table 18.Remedies used in seven states of Nigeria to minimize adverse effects of pesticides Remedy taken minimize adverse effect of pesticides Drink milk or various oils Wear protective clothing Wash body after applying pesticide Observe waiting period Wash produce before consumption Handle pesticide carefully Follow instructions on label Timely application of pesticide Do not store pesticide in bedroom Follow expert instructions Use small quantity of pesticide Across States X X X X X X X X X X X Abia X X X X X X X X X X X Benue X X X X X X X X Take milk and septrin (antibiotics) X X X Edo X X X X X Kano X X Niger X X X X X X Imo X X Oyo X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X The organizations or groups that train farmers on the safe and effective use of pesticides include the following:        ADPs through EAs Fellow farmers NGOs (local and international) Marketers Research institutes (national and international) Schools Hired pesticide applicator. The contribution of the above across the states is given in Table 20. 31
  33. 33. Table 19.Percentage of farmers that received training on safe and effective use of pesticides State Abia Benue Edo Gombe Imo Kaduna Kano Niger Oyo Across States % farmers that % farmers that have not received received training trained 40.0 60.0 55.0 45.0 61.8 38.2 92.3 7.7 25.0 75.0 57.9 42.1 50.0 50.0 66.7 33.3 31.8 68.1 49.4 50.6 Table 20.Percentage contribution by organizations to training of farmers across the states Organization/group ADPs Fellow farmers NGOs Marketers Research Institutes Schools Hired pesticide applicator % of farmers trained by organization/group 65.4 7.3 13.3 6.2 3.4 2.8 1.7 3.8 Use of pesticides to control major pestoutbreaks by Division of Pest Control Services of the Federal Department of Livestock and Pest Control, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development The Division of Pest Control Services of the Federal Department of Livestock and Pest Control is the technical arm of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development that is responsible for issues about pesticides. The information below was, therefore, provided by the Division of Pest Control Services, on behalf of the Ministry. 32
  34. 34. i) Pests and diseases which the Division controls with pesticides, incollaboration with State Ministries of Agriculture, and farmers,and the pesticides used are as presented in Table 21. Table 21.Pesticides recommended by the Division for the control of above pests Pest Quelea/ Village weaver birds Grasshoppers Locusts Rodents Aphids Tsetseflies Armyworms Pesticide used to control pest Fenthion, DDVP Lamdacyhalothrin, Cypermethrin Fenthion, DDVP Rocumin, Phostoxin Cypermethrin, Lamdacyhalothrin Cislin, Deltamethrin DDVP, Cypermethrin ii) The Division reported that it trains EAs on the safe and efficient use of pesticides. The trained EAs then train farmers and pesticide applicators on the safe use, handling, storage and disposal of pesticides. iii) Although, the Division promotes adoption of IPM in principle, its main national assignment is the control of major (widespread) outbreaks of the above pests by application of synthetic chemicals. To do this, it adopts the “fire brigade approach” that demands rapid response through application of synthetic pesticides. iv) The pesticides used to control the above pest outbreaks are purchased by the Division from “reputable and trusted” marketers. The application of the pesticides is implemented and/or coordinated by the Division, with the collaboration of the State Ministries of Agriculture, using the following techniques and application equipment:  Aerial spraying with aircraft to control Quelea birds.  Both ground spraying with knapsack (if localised) and aerial spraying with aircraft (if several LGAs, whole state or several states are affected) to control locusts and grasshoppers.  Both ground spraying with knapsack (if localised) and aerial spraying with aircraft (if several LGAs, whole state, or several states are affected) to control armyworms. 3.9 Consultants’ comments and recommendations 3.9.1 Comments: The following practices, actions and activities of farmers in the handling and use of pesticides constitute risks to human or animal health and the environment: 33
  35. 35. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Using banned pesticides, especially persistent organic pollutants, (e.g. DDT, Aldrin, Lindane, Gamalin) in crop production. Not reading manufacturers’ label on pesticide packages/containers before handling/using pesticides. This was the practice of 22% of the farmers across the nine states and 49% of farmers in Kano State. Not wearing personal protective clothing during handling and use of pesticides. About 46% of the farmers across the states do not wear personal protective clothing. Not observing pre-harvest waiting period before harvesting sprayed crop. A total of 20% and 45% of farmers across the states and in Niger State, respectively do not observe the waiting period. Not waiting for at least 12 hours before entering sprayed fields. This occurred with 21% of farmers across the states and 34% of farmers in Kaduna State. Not storing pesticides out of the reach of children. Fortunately, this was not reported in Benue State but was reported in 5% of farmers across the states and 15% in Abia State. Storing pesticides in improper places (e.g. same place as farm produce, wardrobe inside residence, tree top in the farm, under the bed, uncompleted building). Improper disposal of empty/used pesticide containers/packages. The improper methods used include: (a) washing and use in ablution; (b) washing and re-use for domestic purposes; (c) throwing away into river/stream; and (d) selling to buyers. 3.9.2 Recommendations: i. Recommendation 1: The consultants strongly recommend that farmers should store pesticides in locked pesticide store away from residence and out of reach of children and unauthorized persons. ii. Recommendation 2: The consultants recommend that farmers should be most strongly advised to always dispose used/empty containers of pesticides as directed on the label or, where this directive is unavailable, by puncturing or shredding, burning or deep burial in soil. Alternatively, such containers/packages can be returned to the agro-dealers who will dispose of them in special disposal sites. On no account should used pesticide containers be sold to the public. iii. Recommendation 3: Convinced that the above improper actions of farmers with respect to pesticide use are due to ignorance or misinformation, the consultants strongly recommend that the State ADPs and NGOs intensify regular, informative and widely distributed training of farmers 34
  36. 36. and pesticide applicators in all aspects of best practices in the procurement, handling and use of pesticides and on the proper disposal of spent/used/empty pesticide packages and containers. 4 ROLE OF PESTICIDE MARKETERS IN PESTICIDE USE IN NIGERIA The role of pesticide marketers in pesticide use in Nigeria is summarized below: 4.1 Types of marketers From the results of the survey, the marketers fall into two broad groups, namely (i) wholesalers/retailers (90%) and (ii) multinational companies (10%). 4.2 Suppliers of pesticides sold by marketers:  Multinationals in Nigeria (60.4%)  Manufacturers overseas (18.9%)  Wholesalers in Nigeria (11.3%)  Open markets in Nigeria (7.6%) 4.3 Storage of pesticides by marketers The marketers store their pesticide in one of two ways: i) ii) Pesticide stored in cartons placed on shelves in small stores in the market (56%). Pesticides stored on elevated wooden stacks in warehouses (44%), reportedly according to WHO recommendations. 4.4 Classes of pesticide marketers The marketers were either wholesalers or retailers or both. Only a few of the multinationals are solely wholesalers, with others being both retailers and wholesalers. On the other hand, the large indigenous companies are both wholesalers and retailers while the smaller ones are only retailers. 4.5 Types of pesticides sold by marketers The wide range of pesticides sold by the marketers (wholesalers and retailer) consists of herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, acaricides, nematicidesand aboricides. 4.6 Packaging of pesticides in different sizes to meet purchasing powers of various classes of farmers On the whole, 90% of the marketers reported that they repackage pesticides in different sizes to meet purchasing powers of various classes of farmers; this is not done by 10% of the marketers. 35
  37. 37. 4.7 Labelling of re-packaged products Of the wholesalers/retailers that repackage their products, 66% fully label the packages while 34%do not. However, all the multinationals provide full labels on the repackaged products. 4.8 Training of farmers on safe and appropriate use of pesticides Among the marketers, 90% reported that they train farmers on the safe and appropriate use of pesticides, while 10% do not provide such training. The types of training given to the farmers are presented in Table 22. Table 22.Types of training given to farmers by pesticides marketers Types of training 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. How to mix pesticides Safe use and handling of pesticide Precautions in use of pesticides Product knowledge and safety How to calibrate application equipment Safe disposal of pesticide containers Avoiding contamination of food % among types of training 30.0 26.0 14.0 12.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 4.9 Advice given on proper disposal of used pesticide containers All the multinationals provide advice to farmers on the proper disposal of used pesticide container. Among the indigenous wholesalers and retailers, only 2% do not provide such advice. The types of advice given to the farmers are presented in Table 23. 4.10 Nature of relationship with NAFDAC The marketers described their relationship with NAFDAC from different perspectives. While 48% of the marketers described their relationship with NAFDAC as cordial, 29% indicated that they have no relationship with NAFDAC (Table 24). Table 23.Types of advice on disposal of used pesticide containers by pesticide marketers S/no 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Types of training Bury container Burn container Return container to company Throw away into the bush Do not re-use Remove and contact marketer Destroy container % among types of advice 40.6 28.1 7.8 7.8 6.3 4.9 4.6 36
  38. 38. Table 24.Pesticide marketers’ perception of their relationship with NAFDAC S/no 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nature of relationship Cordial relationship No relationship Registered with NAFDAC Formal Provide useful information to NAFDAC % of marketers with relationship 48.1 28.9 11.5 7.7 1.9 4.11 Registration of pesticides with NAFDAC The percentage of marketers whose pesticides are registered with NAFDAC is 97.9%; thus products of only 2.1% of the marketers are not registered with NAFDAC. 4.12 Marketers’ provisions/arrangements for disposal of expired pesticides The provisions/arrangements for disposal of expired pesticides made by marketers vary from burying deeply in soil to return of product to the supplier (Table 25). Table 25.Arrangement made by markets for disposal of expired pesticides S/no 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 10. Arrangement for disposal of expired pesticides Return to the company/supplier Bury deeply in soil No action as do no stock expired pesticide Destroy expired products Throw away in waste bin Return product to government Inform NAFDAC Company disposal unit buries in disposal site Pour into gutter No response to question % of marketers involved 29.8 14.0 12.3 8.8 8.8 5.3 3.5 1.8 1.8 14.0 4.13 Marketing of pesticide application equipment by pesticide marketers A total of 96% of pesticide marketers (including multinationals) also sell pesticide application equipment. The types of equipment sold include: knapsack sprayer (demandedmost), motorizedsprayer, mix duster, ULV sprayer, and wheelbarrow sprayer. About 90% of the marketers reported that they train farmers on how to use theseequipment. 4.14 Marketing companies do not manufacture or produce pesticides All the marketers interviewed in the present study reported that they do not manufacture or produce pesticides. However, 74% of the marketers stated that they are aware that some companies either manufacture/produce or formulate pesticides here in Nigeria. 37
  39. 39. 4.15 Countries from which marketers procure pesticides The pesticide marketers purchase their pesticides from various countries of the world. Most of the indigenous marketers procure most of their products from Nigeria, although they also import them from other countries, especially China and India (Table 26). As expected, the multinationals import their stock of pesticides from various countries, including China, India and Switzerland (Table 26). About 36.2% of the marketers stated that they are licenced to import pesticides by NAFDAC. 4.16 Training of retailers of pesticides Among the retailers, 77% have received training on best practices for marketing of pesticides while 23% have no training in this respect. The trainings were given by a wide range of companies and organizations, including, NAFDAC, ADPs, multinationals (e.g. Dizengoff, Syngenta, Candel, Partem Global, Jubaili, Biostad), national and international research institutes (e.g. IAR & T, IITA, IFDC). 4.17 Training of farmers by retailers The survey results showed that 82% of the retailers train their farmer customers on how best to safely and efficiently apply pesticides; 17% of retailers do not give this training. The training topics included: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Pesticide handling and storage How to mix pesticides with water before spraying Field demonstration of spraying technique Appropriate pesticides for different crops Types of pesticide for target pest Disposal of empty containers Table 26.Countries from which pesticide marketers in nine states of Nigeria obtain their pesticides Countries from which indigenous companies Countries from which multinationals procure procure pesticides pesticides Nigeria China China India India Switzerland Switzerland United kingdom United Kingdom USA USA Chile Israel France Germany Japan Lebanon Spain Note: For each column, countries are listed in descending order of importance as suppliers of pesticides 38
  40. 40. 4.18 Status of Pesticide Retailing in Rural Markets in Nine States of Nigeria A total of 19 rural markets (two each in Abia, Edo, Oyo, Niger, Kaduna and Gombe States; three in Kano State; and four in Benue State) were visited to find out the status of pesticide retailing activities in them. There were several scenarios about the marketing of pesticides in the 19 markets; these are presented in Tables27 to 30. On the whole there were five scenarios: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Pesticide stores/retail outlets are located in distinctly separate location in the market, away from food retail facilities. One example is the Umuna Orlu Market, Orlu LGA, Imo State where pesticide retail stores are located in same place as building materials without any nearby food retail outfits. Another example is Larabar Abasawa Market, Gezawa LGA, Kano State where pesticide retail outlets are located in the textile section of the market, well away from food/feed retail facilities. Pesticides are kept in the same store/shade/building with sacks of grain. Examples include (a) Dawanu Market, Dawakin Tofa LGA, Kano State where pesticide retail outlets are located in same place as sacks of grain, and (b) Tudun Hatsin Market, Gombe LGA, Gombe State, where bags of grain are placed in the same store with pesticides. Pesticides are placed in wheel barrows which contain food items and/or chemicals in addition to pesticides, e.g. Orie Umuna Market, Orlu LGA, Imo State; NkwuNdoro Market, Ndoro Oboro, Ikwuano LGA, Abia State; and Zungeru village Market, Wushishi LGA, Niger State. Pesticide in lock-up stores in main market, with stores located among stores that sell other items, including food items. There are several examples which include New Market in Owerri LGA, Imo State; Orie Umuna Market, Orlu LGA, Imo State; and Aliade Market, Gner-East LGA, Benue State. Pesticides displayed on the ground, next to raw or cooked food items, in the market. Examples include, NkwuNdoro Market, Ikwuano LGA, Abia State; Etiosa Market, Oredo LGA, Edo State; Akande Market, Ogbomoso South LGA, Oyo State; and A.A. Kure Market, Chachanga LGA, Niger State. 39
  41. 41. Table 27. Status of pesticide retailing in rural markets in Imo, Benue and Kano States Names of market, LGA and state Types of pesticides marketed Location of pesticide retail facility in relation to others Umuna Orlu Building Material market; Orlu LGA; Imo State i. Round up; ii. Glyphosate; iii. Delsate;iv. Gamalin 20; v. Termikill; vii. Rocket;viii. DD Force; ix. Termicote; x, Attack, xi. Perfect Killer  Only building materials and pesticides are sold in market.  No food retail facility nearby. New market;Owerri LGA;Imo State Herbicides: i. Deltsate; ii. Roundup;iii. BushFire; iv. Force up; v. Paraforce; vi. Gramozone; vii. Action 1000; viii. Uppercote; ix. Paracote (Super 200); Insecticides: x. Perfect Killer; xi. DD Forcexii. Rocket; xiii. Snipper; xiv.Termicote;xvi. Act Force; xx. Pestox; xxi. Crush; xxii. Termiforce  Pesticide retail shops inside main market are well separated from food retail shops.  Pesticide retail outfits (shops, trucks and wheel barrows) outside main market are scattered and some are next to cooked food and raw food retail facilities. Orie Umuna market; Orlu LGA; Imo State i. DD Force; ii. Gamalin 20; iii. Termikill; Glyphosate; vi. Delsate;vii. Termicate Aliade market; GnerEast LGA; Benue State i. Herbicides; ii. Insecticides;iii. Rodenticides – all three unspecified  Pesticide retails comprise those with lock-up stalls as well as those in mobile trucks/cars and wheel barrows.  Pesticide retail outfits (stalls, trucks and wheel barrows) are located in various places in and around the market and some sell pesticides along with other chemicals and farm produce.  Note: Large packs sold from stall and trucks are labelled; many small packs in small plastic bottles or polyethylene bags are Not labelled  Pesticide lock-up stores inside market are wellseparated from food stores.  Some pesticide retailers display their items alongside those of food vendors. Ede Obi market; Oju LGA; Benue State i. Herbicides; ii. Insecticides – both unspecified iv. Round up;v.  Pesticide stores that operate on daily basis are located at good distance from food vendors.  Some pesticide retailers display their products display their products alongside those of food vendors on market days. 40
  42. 42. Ede Okpoga market; Okpokwu LGA; Benue State i. Insecticides; ii. Herbicides – both without specific list of pesticides  Permanent stores (cooperating daily) are located in between food retailers.  But some pesticide retailers display their products alongside food vendors in the market. Zaki Biam market; Ukum LGA;Benue State i. Herbicides; ii. Insecticides (unspecified)  Permanent pesticide stores are well separated from those of other items.  Other pesticide retailers display their products in open space among sellers of food items. Badume market; Bichi LGA; Kano State Insecticides: i. Zap; ii.Warrior;iii. Lamda Super; iv.DD Forces;v. Rambo Super; vi. Subhiskha; vii. Delvap; viii.Store Force(Pirimiphos methyl); ix.Glo-imida(imidaeloprid); x. Doom (DDVP); xi. Point Blank (DDVP); xii.Hi-Kill Action(lamdacyhalothrin); xiii.Perfect Killer (chlorpyrifos); xiv. Clean Up (cypermethrin); xv. Termicot; xvi.Endocrop. Herbicides: i. Butaforce; ii.Vestrazine;iii. Glycel; iv. Multrazine. Rodenticides: i. Commando; ii. Klerat; iii. Zinc phoaphide. Fungicides:i. Mancozeb; ii. Z-Force; iii. Profit (Tricyclazole 75%WP). Seed Treatment: i.Apron Star;ii. Seed Rex; iii. Dress Force. Insecticides: i. DD Force; ii. VIP (DDVP); iii. Rocket (Chlorpyrifos); iv. Termicot (chlorpyrifos); v. Rambo; vi. Crush(DDVP); vii. Off (DDVP); viii. Lamda Super lamdocyhalothrin); ix. Justoxin (Aluminium phosphide; x. Cotspring (cypermethrin); xi. Agrosect (DDVP); Karto Super 2.5 (lamdacyhalothrin); Warrior (DDVP). Fungicides: i. Golden Both; ii. Master Action. Seed treatment: i. Apron Star; ii. Apron plus 60SD; iii. Dress Force. Herbicides: i. Multrazine (Atrazine). Rodenticides: Commando Insecticides: i. Cot spring (cypermethrin, 10%); ii. Rambo (cypermethrin, 0.6%); iii. Pestix (cypermethrin 2.0%); iv. Pest Off (DDVP); v. VIP (DDVP); vi. DD Force (DDVP);vii. Delvap Super (DDVP); viii. Crush (DDVP 1000 EC); ix. Knock Off (lamdacyhalothrin 2.5EC). Rodenticides: i. Glue trap; ii. Yau Yabushe;iii. Commando (Zinc phosphide 5%); iv. Celphos (Aluminium phosphide); v. Force Toxin; vi. Temik  Pesticide retail shops are located in fertilizer section of the market, away from food items’ retail outfits. Dawanu market; Dawakin Tofa LGA; Kano State (Large Market) Larabar Abasawa Market; Gezawa LGA; Kano State (rural market)  Pesticide retail outlets are located in same place as sacks of grain in the market.  Pesticide retail outlets are located in the textile section of the market, away from food/feed retail facilities. Table 28. Status of pesticide retailing in rural markets in Abia and Edo States 41
  43. 43. Names of market, LGA and state Nkwoegwu market; Nkata Nkwoegwu, Ohuhu, Umuahia North LGA, Abia State. Types of pesticides marketed Nkwu Ndoro market; Ndoro Oboro, Ikwuano LGA, Abia State i. Uproot; ii. Atrazine; iii. Z-force; v. Primextra; vi. Benlate; vii. Gamalin; viii. Decis; ix. Katosuper; x. Gramazone; xi. Killrat; xii. Copper sulphate; xiii. Otapiapia; xiv. Others [different rat poisons i.e. kill and dry]. Etiosa market; Oredo LGA, Edo State. i. Termex; ii. Termidust; iii. DD Force; v. Laraforce; vi. Roundup; vii. Warmforce; viii. Cypermethrin; ix. Tackle; x. Paraforce; xi. Best Action; xii. Rat killer (different types). Ikpoba hill village market; Ikpoba Okha LGA i. Rat killers (different types); ii. Termicot; iii. Atrazine; iv. Weedburner; Aldrin dust; v. Apron Star; vi.Rodomil; vii. Gramazone i. Karate; ii. Roundup; iii. Touchdown; iv. Bush fire; v. Weedoff; vi. Snipper; vii. Action 40; viii. Gamalin; ix. Copper sulphate; x. Furadan; xi. Killrat; xii. Otapiapia; xiii. Others [different rat poisons i.e. kill and dry]. Location of pesticide retail facility in relation to others  Nkwoegwu local market holds every 8 days. Food materials and other wares that can be found in big markets in the town are brought to this market for sale.  Pesticide retails come to this market with different types of pesticides for sale.  Pesticides are displayed on top of mats on the ground close to other materials especially food items and second hand clothing’s.  Rat kippers are advertised by mobile dealers with samples of rats killed by the pesticides.  Nkwo Ndoro market takes place every 8 days.  There are no specific retail shops/stalls for pesticides.  Pesticide retailers display their products on the ground or in wheel barrows which are push around the markets.  Pesticides are displayed near raw food items.  There are a few stalls for pesticide in the market separated from raw food items but close to stores where beverages are sold.  Some pesticides vendors displayed their pesticides on the ground in the open close raw food items and humans.  Some vendor’s carry theirs in wheel borrows and move round the market.  Some pesticide stores exit inside market close to where food items are sold.  Some pesticide retailers display their items on the ground and close to food items. Table 29. Status of pesticide retailing in rural markets in Gombe and Kaduna States 42
  44. 44. Names of market, LGA and state Tudun Hatsi market in Gombe; Gombe LGA; Gombe State Types of pesticides marketed Location of pesticide retail facility in relation to others i. DDVP - Dichlorvos 100% EC (1000 EC); ii. Point blank  Some stores were seen containing both pesticides and bags of - Dichlorvos 1000 EC; iii. Doom- Dichlorvos 100% EC grains (mostly cowpea), while other pesticide retail shops that (100% W/V). are within the market are located among the stores of the grain merchants. Tudun Hatsi market in i. DD Force (DDVP EC) – Dichlorvos;ii. Daksh Pesticide retail shops inside the market are located among Kumo; Akko LGA; Dichlorvos; iii. Delvap Super – Dichlorvos; iv. Force grain stores. Gombe State Toxin – Aluminium phosphide; v. Protex – Aluminium phosphide; vi. Jus Toxin – Aluminium phosphide vii. Doom – Dichlorvos 100%; viii. Topcat Dust/powder Shika market; Giwa i. Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc.; ii. Anti Pesticide retail outfits (shops and wheel barrows) are located LGA; Kaduna State helminthes/other animal drugs; in various places in and around the market among the grain shops and other farm produce. The pesticide shops are just a distance away from livestock, poultry and other animals brought to the market for sale. Sunday market Kujama; i. Glyphosate; ii. Sarosate;iii. Perfect killer; iv. Control  Pesticide lock-up shops inside market are located among the Chikun LGA; Kaduna total; v. Root off; vi. Bush fire; vii. Paraquat; viii. DD food stores, while some pesticide retailers display their State force; ix. Laraforce; x. Cyperdicot; xi. Delthrin; xii. products for sale on wheel barrows going round the market. Kombat; xiii. Marshal; xiv. Courage; xv. Best; xvi. Uppercot Table 30. Status of pesticide retailing in rural markets in Oyo and Niger States 43
  45. 45. Names of market, LGA and state Ogunpa market, Ibadan North West LGA, Oyo State Types of pesticides marketed Location of pesticide retail facility in relation to others i. DD Force; ii. DDVP; iii. Paraforce; iv. ACT Force; v. Laraforce; vi. Quickforce; vii. ExtraForce; viii. Rocket; ix. Gammalin; x. Edo Force; xi. Force-up; xii. Phostoxin; xiii. Ramazon; xiv. Snipper; xvi. Trymezin; xvii. Novacron; xviii. Bentaforce; ixx. Imidacot; xx. Termex. Akande market, Ogbomoso South LGA, Oyo State i. Novacron; ii. Bentaforce; iii. Imidacot; iv. Termex; v. Laraforce; vi. Quickforce; vii. ExtraForce; viii. Rocket; ix. Gammalin; x. DD Force; xi. DDVP; xii. Rat Killers i. Gramazone; ii. Paraquat; iii. Altrazine; iv. Furadan; v. Cypermethrin; vi. Klirate; vii. Actellic dust; viii. Arsontol; ix. DDT 20; x. Gammalin; xi. Dicloride; xii. Karate  Ogunpa market holds every day of the week. Food materials and other wares are displayed for sale.  Pesticide retailers have shops in the market and often time besides shops and vendors of household items.  Smaller retailers display their wares in the open market and closed to food vendors and other farm produces from the rural farm farmers.  A large range of pesticides are sold in this market.  The smell from exposed pesticides is strong in the area near some of the shops.  Many of the retailers are members of WAIDA, a marketing trade union.  Akande market takes place every day of the week.  There are a few retail shops for pesticides. Pesticides are displayed in the shops and some on in the open markets.  Pesticides are displayed near raw food items and household items.  There are a few stalls for pesticide in the market separated from raw food items but close to stores where beverages are sold.  Some pesticides vendors displayed their pesticides on the ground in the open close raw food items and humans.  Rat killers are advertised by mobile dealers with samples of rats killed by the pesticides. Zungeru village market, i. Rat killers (different types); ii. Termicot; iii.  Zungeru market holds every 8 days. Food items from the rural farmers and Wushishi LGA, Niger Atrazine; iv. Gramazone; v. Gammalin; vi. other wares that can be found in big markets in the town are brought to Vii. Actellic dust; ix. Karate; x. Furadan; xi. this market for sale. Cypermethrin.  Pesticide retailers come to this market with different types of pesticides for sale. They also display their products on the ground or in wheel barrows which are push around the markets.  Pesticides are displayed near raw food items. A.A. Kure Ultra Modern market, Chachanga LGA, Niger State. 44
  46. 46. 4.19 Consultants’ Recommendations 4.19.1 Recommendation 4: It is strongly recommended that the appropriate regulatory authority make every effort to enforce regulation that requires that all re-packaged products bear the same label as the original product. 4.19.2 Recommendation 5: The consultants strongly recommend that appropriate regulatory authority make it mandatory that all pesticides retail/wholesale outlets, stores or facilities within the markets are located at one designated corner of the market, and must be separated from food/feed-selling outlets, stores or facilities. 5 STATUS OF REGISTRATION OF PESTICIDES IN NIGERIA Pesticide registration has been defined by the FAO of the UN as the process whereby the responsible national government or regional authority approves the sale and use of a pesticide following evaluation of comprehensive scientific data demonstrating that the product is effective for the intended purpose and does not pose unacceptable risk to human or animal health or the environment (FAO, 2002). The National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) was established by decree number 15 of 1993 as amended by decree number 19 of 1999 and now NAFDAC Act CAP N1 LFN 2004. One of the many principal functions of NAFDAC is to undertake the registration of food, drugs, cosmetic, medical devices, bottled water and chemicals (including pesticides). The regulations for pesticides registration in Nigeria are specified in the pesticide Registration Regulations 2005 of the Drugs and Related Products (Registration, etc.) Act 1996 (as amended). The regulations clearly state that no pesticide shall be manufactured, formulated, imported, advertised, sold or distributed in Nigeria unless it has been registered in accordance with the provisions of the regulations. Details of these regulations are given in Annex 8.The regulations stipulate several requirements for the following: i) The pesticide must be manufactured in acceptable and approved establishment while application must be made on a prescribed form, accompanied by non-refundable fee, as prescribed by NAFDAC. ii) Documents/declarations or materials that must be submitted with the completed application form; these include:  Adequate samples of the pesticide product  Certificate of manufacture and free sale of pesticide product  Radio-active test certificate (if demanded by NAFDAC) 45
  47. 47.   Written undertaking, that every advertisement of the pesticide shall be approved by NAFDAC before publication, and Specimen label of the pesticide product. iii) Product chemistry, including: a) Product composition, normal concentration, physical and chemical characteristics. b) Standard laboratory analytical methods for each active ingredients, impurity or inert ingredient that is toxicologically significant. iv) Studies conducted in respect of pesticide product; these include:  Environmental fate  Degradation  Metabolism in plants and animals  Accumulation  Hazards to human or domestic animals  Product performance, including efficiency trials in Nigeria Statement on the residue level for the pesticide in all its intended usage in the Nigeria. v) vi) Information to guide use of pesticide: a) Dosage and direction for use b) Field application c) Method of application vii) Notes on storage (and handling): a) Method of disposal of containers b) Precautions, including first aid c) Note to physician It is noted that the product is issued with a Registration certificate if NAFDAC is satisfied with the submissions in respect of the pesticide. However, the Act has specified penalties for any person who contravenes any of the provisions of the Regulations. Generally, the above requirements comply with the FAO guidelines for the registration of pesticides (FAO, 1985) as well as the ECOWAS regulation on the Harmonization of Rules Governing Pesticide Registration in the ECOWAS Region(ECOWAS, 2008). With respect to the FAO guidelines, the NAFDAC regulations should have complied by stipulating specific requirements for formulated products, given that these are the forms the products are marketed. Such requirements include: i) General description (identity of formulated product): a) Formulator’s name and address 46
  48. 48. b) Distinguishing name (proprietary name) c) Use category (herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, rodenticide, etc) d) Type of formulation (water dispersible power, EC, etc. ii) Composition: a) Content of technical grade active ingredient, b) Content and nature (identity) if possible) of other components, included in the formulation, e.g., adjuvants inert components, and c) Water content (where relevant) iii) Physical/chemical properties of formulated product: a) b) c) d) Appearance Storage stability (in respect to composition and physical properties related to use), Density (for liquids only), Flammability: flashpoint for liquids; a statement must be made as to whether the product is flammable, e) Acidity (where relevant), f) Alkalinity (where relevant). With respect to ECOWAS requirements, the NAFDAC regulations need to include specifications for: a) Full registration of pesticide for a period of five years, renewable b) Provisional sale authorization (PSA) pending further study, for a period of three years, non-renewable c) Keep file open, for further information d) Refuse to grant registration e) Withdraw the registration or the PSA In compliance with international standards, NAFDAC and other regulatory authorities have published lists of banned and strictly restricted pesticides. Thus, NESREA has gazetted a list of 26 banned chemicals and 11 restricted chemicals (the latter can only be used with permit from NESREA) (Tables 31and 32). In addition, some of these pesticides were among about 30 pesticides banned by NAFDAC in May 1998, following reported cases of food poisoning in Cross River, Taraba and Benue States. The list includes organophosphates, lindane, Gamalin, aldrin, binapacryl, captafol, chlordane, chlordimeform, DDT, dieldrin, dinoseb, ethylene dichloride, heptachlor, parathion, phosphamidon, monocrotophos, methamidophos, chlorobenzene, toxapphene, endrin, merix, endosulfan, delta HCH, and ethylene oxide. 47
  49. 49. Table 31.List of banned chemicals in Nigeria S/No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Banned chemicals 2, 4, 5-T Aldrin BinapacryI Captafol Chlordane Chlodimeform Chlorobenzilate DDT Diedrin Dinoseb & dinoseb salts DNOC and its salts (such as ammonium salt, potassium salt and sodium salt) EDB (1,2 dibromoethane) Ethylene dichloride Ethylene oxide Fluoroacetamide HCH (mixed isomers) Heptachlor Hexachlorobenzene Monocrotophos Parathion (all formulations – aerosols, dustable (DP) emulsifiable concentrate (EC), granules (GR) & wettable powders (WP) – of this substance are included, except capsule suspensions (CS), Dustable powder formulations containing a combination of benomyl at or above 7%, carbofuran at or above 10% and thiran at or above15% Methamidophos (Solution liquid formulations of the substance that exceed 600g active ingredient/1) Methyt parathion (emulsifiable concentrates (EC) with 19.5%, 40%, 50%, 60% active ingredient and dusts containing 1.5%, 2% and 3% active ingredient). Phosphamidon (Soluble liquid formulations of the substance that exceed 1000g active ingredient/I) Crocidolite Tris (2,3 dibromopropy I) phosphate 48
  50. 50. Table 32.Restricted chemicals(To be used with permit from NESREA) S/No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Restricted chemicals Actinolite asbestos Amosite, asbestos Polybrominatred Biphenyis (PBBs) Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Polychlorinated Terphenyls (PCTs) Tetraethyl lead Tetramethyl lead Tremolite Arsenic Mercury Alkyi-phenol-ethoxylate A list of more than 500 pesticides registered in Nigeria by NAFDAC is presented in Annex 9. 5.1 Consultants’ Recommendation 5.1.1 Recommendation 6: The consultants recommend that a complete list of banned and restricted chemicals be widely circulated to all stakeholders in both the public and private sectors. 6 ROLES OF MINISTRIES, DEPARTMENTS & AGENCIES IN THE USE & REGULATION OF PESTICIDES IN NIGERIA The crucial roles played by government ministries, departments, and agencies (MDAs) are described in this report in two perspectives, namely: i) The roles of the MDAs in the use and regulation of pesticides in the three study zones (South-South/South-East, South-West/North-Central and North-East/North-West), and ii) The roles of Federal Government MDAs in the use and regulation of pesticides in Nigeria. 6.1 Roles of MDAs in the use and regulation of pesticides in the three study zones The MDAs surveyed in the nine states of the three study zones are similar except for the national agricultural research institutes (NARIs) which varied in number and mandate across the study zones and states as follows: 49

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