Биологические макромолекулы <ul><li>Белки </li></ul><ul><li>Углеводы </li></ul><ul><li>Липиды </li></ul><ul><li>Нуклеиновы...
Organic Compounds <ul><li>Molecules unique to living systems contain carbon and hence are organic compounds </li></ul><ul>...
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Their major function is to supply a source of...
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Disaccharides or double sugars </li></ul>Figure 2.14b PLAY Disaccharides
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Polysaccharides or polymers of simple sugars </li></ul>Figure 2.14c PLAY Polysaccharides
Lipids <ul><li>Contain C, H, and O, but the proportion of oxygen in lipids is less than in carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li...
Neutral Fats (Triglycerides) <ul><li>Composed of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule </li></ul>Figure 2.15a
Other Lipids <ul><li>Phospholipids – modified triglycerides with two fatty acid groups and a phosphorus group </li></ul>Fi...
Other Lipids <ul><li>Steroids – flat molecules with four interlocking hydrocarbon rings </li></ul><ul><li>Eicosanoids – 20...
Representative Lipids Found in the Body <ul><li>Neutral fats – found in subcutaneous tissue and around organs </li></ul><u...
Representative Lipids Found in the Body <ul><li>Fat-soluble vitamins – vitamins A, E, and K </li></ul><ul><li>Eicosanoids ...
Amino Acids <ul><li>Building blocks of protein, containing an amino group and a carboxyl group </li></ul><ul><li>Amino gro...
Amino Acids Figure 2.16a–c
Amino Acids Figure 2.16d, e
Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li>...
Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li>...
Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li>...
Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li>...
Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li>...
Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li>...
Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li>...
Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li>...
Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li>...
Structural Levels of Proteins <ul><li>Primary – amino acid sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary – alpha helices or beta pl...
Structural Levels of Proteins <ul><li>Tertiary – superimposed folding of secondary structures </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary...
Structural Levels of Proteins Figure 2.18a–c
Structural Levels of Proteins Figure 2.18b,d,e
Fibrous and Globular Proteins <ul><li>Fibrous proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended and strand-like proteins  </li></ul>...
Fibrous and Globular Proteins <ul><li>Globular proteins  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact, spherical proteins with tertiary a...
Protein Denuaturation <ul><li>Reversible unfolding of proteins due to drops in pH and/or increased temperature </li></ul>F...
Protein Denuaturation <ul><li>Irreversibly denatured proteins cannot refold and are formed by extreme pH or temperature ch...
Molecular Chaperones (Chaperonins) <ul><li>Help other proteins to achieve their functional three-dimensional shape </li></...
Characteristics of Enzymes <ul><li>Most are globular proteins that act as biological catalysts </li></ul><ul><li>Holoenzym...
Characteristics of Enzymes <ul><li>Frequently named for the type of reaction they catalyze </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme names ...
Characteristics of Enzymes Figure 2.20
Mechanism of Enzyme Action <ul><li>Enzyme binds with substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Product is formed at a lower activation e...
Figure 2.21 Active site Amino acids Enzyme (E) Enzyme-substrate complex (E-S) Internal rearrangements leading to catalysis...
Figure 2.21 Active site Amino acids Enzyme (E) Enzyme-substrate complex (E-S) Substrates (S) H 2 O +
Figure 2.21 Active site Amino acids Enzyme (E) Enzyme-substrate complex (E-S) Internal rearrangements leading to catalysis...
Figure 2.21 Active site Amino acids Enzyme (E) Enzyme-substrate complex (E-S) Internal rearrangements leading to catalysis...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Their structural un...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Five nitrogen bases contribute to nucleotide structure – adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thy...
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) <ul><li>Double-stranded helical molecule found in the nucleus of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
Structure of DNA Figure 2.22a
Structure of DNA Figure 2.22b
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) <ul><li>Single-stranded molecule found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of a cell </li></ul><u...
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) <ul><li>Source of immediately usable energy for the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine-containing...
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Figure 2.23
Figure 2.24 Solute Solute transported Contracted smooth muscle cell Product made Relaxed smooth muscle cell Reactants Memb...
Figure 2.24 Solute Membrane protein P ATP (a) Transport work
Figure 2.24 Solute Solute transported Membrane protein P P i ATP (a) Transport work P i + ADP
Figure 2.24 Relaxed smooth muscle cell ATP (b) Mechanical work
Figure 2.24 Contracted smooth muscle cell Relaxed smooth muscle cell ATP (b) Mechanical work P i + ADP
Figure 2.24 Reactants ATP P X Y + (c) Chemical work
Figure 2.24 Product made Reactants ATP P X X Y Y + (c) Chemical work P i P i + ADP
Figure 2.24 Solute Solute transported Contracted smooth muscle cell Product made Relaxed smooth muscle cell Reactants Memb...
<ul><li>МЕТАБОЛИЗМ </li></ul>
<ul><li>Catabolism provides the building blocks and energy for anabolism. </li></ul>Figure 5.1
<ul><li>A metabolic pathway is a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Metab...
Oxidation-Reduction <ul><li>Oxidation is the removal of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction is the gain of electrons. <...
Oxidation-Reduction <ul><li>In biological systems, the electrons are often associated with hydrogen atoms. Biological oxid...
The Generation of ATP <ul><li>ATP is generated by the phosphorylation of ADP. </li></ul>
The Generation of ATP <ul><li>Substrate-level phosphorylation is the transfer of a high-energy PO 4 –  to ADP.  </li></ul>
The Generation of ATP <ul><li>Energy released from the transfer of electrons (oxidation) of one compound to another (reduc...
The Generation of ATP <ul><li>Light causes chlorophyll to give up electrons. Energy released from the transfer of electron...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

MolBiol #3.1

954 views
857 views

Published on

Биохимия (макромолекулы)
Аминокислоты и белки
Жирные кислоты и липиды
Нуклеотиды и нуклеиновые кислоты
Домашнее задание 1

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
954
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
299
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

MolBiol #3.1

  1. 1. Биологические макромолекулы <ul><li>Белки </li></ul><ul><li>Углеводы </li></ul><ul><li>Липиды </li></ul><ul><li>Нуклеиновые кислоты </li></ul>
  2. 2. Organic Compounds <ul><li>Molecules unique to living systems contain carbon and hence are organic compounds </li></ul><ul><li>They include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Their major function is to supply a source of cellular food </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides or simple sugars </li></ul></ul>Figure 2.14a
  4. 4. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Disaccharides or double sugars </li></ul>Figure 2.14b PLAY Disaccharides
  5. 5. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Polysaccharides or polymers of simple sugars </li></ul>Figure 2.14c PLAY Polysaccharides
  6. 6. Lipids <ul><li>Contain C, H, and O, but the proportion of oxygen in lipids is less than in carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral fats or triglycerides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eicosanoids </li></ul></ul>PLAY Fats
  7. 7. Neutral Fats (Triglycerides) <ul><li>Composed of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule </li></ul>Figure 2.15a
  8. 8. Other Lipids <ul><li>Phospholipids – modified triglycerides with two fatty acid groups and a phosphorus group </li></ul>Figure 2.15b
  9. 9. Other Lipids <ul><li>Steroids – flat molecules with four interlocking hydrocarbon rings </li></ul><ul><li>Eicosanoids – 20-carbon fatty acids found in cell membranes </li></ul>Figure 2.15c
  10. 10. Representative Lipids Found in the Body <ul><li>Neutral fats – found in subcutaneous tissue and around organs </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids – chief component of cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids – cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D, sex hormones, and adrenal cortical hormones </li></ul>
  11. 11. Representative Lipids Found in the Body <ul><li>Fat-soluble vitamins – vitamins A, E, and K </li></ul><ul><li>Eicosanoids – prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes </li></ul><ul><li>Lipoproteins – transport fatty acids and cholesterol in the bloodstream </li></ul>
  12. 12. Amino Acids <ul><li>Building blocks of protein, containing an amino group and a carboxyl group </li></ul><ul><li>Amino group NH 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Carboxyl groups COOH </li></ul>
  13. 13. Amino Acids Figure 2.16a–c
  14. 14. Amino Acids Figure 2.16d, e
  15. 15. Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li></ul>Figure 2.17
  16. 16. Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li></ul>Figure 2.17 Amino acid Amino acid Dehydration synthesis Hydrolysis Dipeptide Peptide bond + N H H C R H O N H H C R C C H O H 2 O H 2 O N H H C R C H O N H C R C H O OH OH OH
  17. 17. Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li></ul>Figure 2.17 Amino acid Amino acid + N H H C R H O N H H C R C C H O OH OH
  18. 18. Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li></ul>Figure 2.17 Amino acid Amino acid Dehydration synthesis + N H H C R H O N H H C R C C H O H 2 O OH OH
  19. 19. Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li></ul>Figure 2.17 Amino acid Amino acid Dehydration synthesis Dipeptide Peptide bond + N H H C R H O N H H C R C C H O H 2 O N H H C R C H O N H C R C H O OH OH OH
  20. 20. Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li></ul>Figure 2.17 Dipeptide Peptide bond N H H C R C H O N H C R C H O OH
  21. 21. Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li></ul>Figure 2.17 Hydrolysis Dipeptide Peptide bond H 2 O N H H C R C H O N H C R C H O OH
  22. 22. Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li></ul>Figure 2.17 Amino acid Amino acid Hydrolysis Dipeptide Peptide bond + N H H C R H O N H H C R C C H O H 2 O N H H C R C H O N H C R C H O OH OH OH
  23. 23. Protein <ul><li>Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds </li></ul>Figure 2.17 Amino acid Amino acid Dehydration synthesis Hydrolysis Dipeptide Peptide bond + N H H C R H O N H H C R C C H O H 2 O H 2 O N H H C R C H O N H C R C H O OH OH OH
  24. 24. Structural Levels of Proteins <ul><li>Primary – amino acid sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary – alpha helices or beta pleated sheets </li></ul>PLAY Chemistry of Life : Proteins: Secondary Structure PLAY Chemistry of Life : Proteins: Primary Structure PLAY Chemistry of Life : Introduction to Protein Structure
  25. 25. Structural Levels of Proteins <ul><li>Tertiary – superimposed folding of secondary structures </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary – polypeptide chains linked together in a specific manner </li></ul>PLAY Chemistry of Life : Proteins: Quaternary Structure PLAY Chemistry of Life : Proteins: Tertiary Structure
  26. 26. Structural Levels of Proteins Figure 2.18a–c
  27. 27. Structural Levels of Proteins Figure 2.18b,d,e
  28. 28. Fibrous and Globular Proteins <ul><li>Fibrous proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended and strand-like proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: keratin, elastin, collagen, and certain contractile fibers </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Fibrous and Globular Proteins <ul><li>Globular proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact, spherical proteins with tertiary and quaternary structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: antibodies, hormones, and enzymes </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Protein Denuaturation <ul><li>Reversible unfolding of proteins due to drops in pH and/or increased temperature </li></ul>Figure 2.19a
  31. 31. Protein Denuaturation <ul><li>Irreversibly denatured proteins cannot refold and are formed by extreme pH or temperature changes </li></ul>Figure 2.19b
  32. 32. Molecular Chaperones (Chaperonins) <ul><li>Help other proteins to achieve their functional three-dimensional shape </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain folding integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in translocation of proteins across membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the breakdown of damaged or denatured proteins </li></ul>
  33. 33. Characteristics of Enzymes <ul><li>Most are globular proteins that act as biological catalysts </li></ul><ul><li>Holoenzymes consist of an apoenzyme (protein) and a cofactor (usually an ion) </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are chemically specific </li></ul>
  34. 34. Characteristics of Enzymes <ul><li>Frequently named for the type of reaction they catalyze </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme names usually end in -ase </li></ul><ul><li>Lower activation energy </li></ul>
  35. 35. Characteristics of Enzymes Figure 2.20
  36. 36. Mechanism of Enzyme Action <ul><li>Enzyme binds with substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Product is formed at a lower activation energy </li></ul><ul><li>Product is released </li></ul>PLAY How Enzymes Work
  37. 37. Figure 2.21 Active site Amino acids Enzyme (E) Enzyme-substrate complex (E-S) Internal rearrangements leading to catalysis Dipeptide product (P) Free enzyme (E) Substrates (S) Peptide bond H 2 O +
  38. 38. Figure 2.21 Active site Amino acids Enzyme (E) Enzyme-substrate complex (E-S) Substrates (S) H 2 O +
  39. 39. Figure 2.21 Active site Amino acids Enzyme (E) Enzyme-substrate complex (E-S) Internal rearrangements leading to catalysis Substrates (S) H 2 O +
  40. 40. Figure 2.21 Active site Amino acids Enzyme (E) Enzyme-substrate complex (E-S) Internal rearrangements leading to catalysis Dipeptide product (P) Free enzyme (E) Substrates (S) Peptide bond H 2 O +
  41. 41. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Their structural unit, the nucleotide, is composed of N-containing base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group </li></ul>
  42. 42. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Five nitrogen bases contribute to nucleotide structure – adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) </li></ul><ul><li>Two major classes – DNA and RNA </li></ul>
  43. 43. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) <ul><li>Double-stranded helical molecule found in the nucleus of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Replicates itself before the cell divides, ensuring genetic continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Provides instructions for protein synthesis </li></ul>
  44. 44. Structure of DNA Figure 2.22a
  45. 45. Structure of DNA Figure 2.22b
  46. 46. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) <ul><li>Single-stranded molecule found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the nitrogenous base uracil instead of thymine </li></ul><ul><li>Three varieties of RNA: messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA </li></ul>
  47. 47. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) <ul><li>Source of immediately usable energy for the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine-containing RNA nucleotide with three phosphate groups </li></ul>
  48. 48. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Figure 2.23
  49. 49. Figure 2.24 Solute Solute transported Contracted smooth muscle cell Product made Relaxed smooth muscle cell Reactants Membrane protein P P i ATP P X X Y Y + (a) Transport work (b) Mechanical work (c) Chemical work P i P i + ADP
  50. 50. Figure 2.24 Solute Membrane protein P ATP (a) Transport work
  51. 51. Figure 2.24 Solute Solute transported Membrane protein P P i ATP (a) Transport work P i + ADP
  52. 52. Figure 2.24 Relaxed smooth muscle cell ATP (b) Mechanical work
  53. 53. Figure 2.24 Contracted smooth muscle cell Relaxed smooth muscle cell ATP (b) Mechanical work P i + ADP
  54. 54. Figure 2.24 Reactants ATP P X Y + (c) Chemical work
  55. 55. Figure 2.24 Product made Reactants ATP P X X Y Y + (c) Chemical work P i P i + ADP
  56. 56. Figure 2.24 Solute Solute transported Contracted smooth muscle cell Product made Relaxed smooth muscle cell Reactants Membrane protein P P i ATP P X X Y Y + (a) Transport work (b) Mechanical work (c) Chemical work P i P i + ADP
  57. 57. <ul><li>МЕТАБОЛИЗМ </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Catabolism provides the building blocks and energy for anabolism. </li></ul>Figure 5.1
  59. 59. <ul><li>A metabolic pathway is a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic pathways are determined by enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are encoded by genes. </li></ul>PLAY Animation: Metabolic Pathways (Overview)
  60. 60. Oxidation-Reduction <ul><li>Oxidation is the removal of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction is the gain of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Redox reaction is an oxidation reaction paired with a reduction reaction. </li></ul>Figure 5.9
  61. 61. Oxidation-Reduction <ul><li>In biological systems, the electrons are often associated with hydrogen atoms. Biological oxidations are often dehydrogenations. </li></ul>Figure 5.10
  62. 62. The Generation of ATP <ul><li>ATP is generated by the phosphorylation of ADP. </li></ul>
  63. 63. The Generation of ATP <ul><li>Substrate-level phosphorylation is the transfer of a high-energy PO 4 – to ADP. </li></ul>
  64. 64. The Generation of ATP <ul><li>Energy released from the transfer of electrons (oxidation) of one compound to another (reduction) is used to generate ATP by chemiosmosis. </li></ul>
  65. 65. The Generation of ATP <ul><li>Light causes chlorophyll to give up electrons. Energy released from the transfer of electrons (oxidation) of chlorophyll through a system of carrier molecules is used to generate ATP. </li></ul>

×