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BioTech #5
 

BioTech #5

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Структура генов у эукариот, интроны и экзоны, процессинг и сплайсинг

Структура генов у эукариот, интроны и экзоны, процессинг и сплайсинг

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  • 1.        What is a primary transcript? 1.        What does splicing do? 2.        On what primary transcripts does splicing operate? 3.        How else is an mRNA modified? 4.        How else is a tRNA modified? 5.        What is a rRNA primary transcript called? 6.        How is it processed?
  • 1.        What is an intron? 1.        In what organisms are introns more abundant? 2.        In what organisms are introns larger? 1.        What characterizes intron-less genes in higher organisms? 2.        What is an example of an intron-less gene? What else is unique about histone gene transcripts?
  • 1.        What is a D-loop? 2.        What do D loops demonstrate?
  • 1.        How many classes of introns are there?
  • 1.        In what types of genes are group I introns found? 2.        What characterizes a self-splicing intron? 3.        What type of reaction is used by self-splicing introns? 4.        What characterizes transesterification reactions? 5.        Although freely reversible, why are introns not put back into primary transcripts by transesterification reactions? 6.        What cofactor is required by group I introns? 7.        How is the free intron modified following a group one splicing reaction? 8.        It the intron linear or circular after removal?
  • 1.        What attacks the intron exon boundary in a group II reaction? 2.        What is the structure of the excised intron? 1.        What is responsible for the processing of most mRNA?
  • 1.        What is contained by the snRNP? 2.        How do snRNA’s function?
  • 1.        What results from the splicing of nuclear mRNA? 2.        Does the splicing mechanism require ATP?
  • 1.        In what cell type are enzyme dependent splicing reactions carried out? 2.        How does a 2’ phosphate result on the 3’ hydroxyl of an exon boundary in yeast tRNA splicing? 3.        How is the phosphodiester linkage established between exons in the above mechanism?
  • 1.        Where does capping occur? 2.        What is capped? 3.        What is the final structure of the cap? 4.        When is the terminal G methylated?
  • 1.        Where is the AAUAAA sequence found? 2.        How is a poly A tail added on? 3.        How long are poly A tails?
  • 1.        What is meant by a functional domain of a protein? 2.        How can RNA processing affect the appearance of functional domains in a protein? 3.       
  • 1.        What is meant by cell type specific? 2. What advantage is there to alternatively splicing an mRNA?
  • 1.        What is meant by exon skipping?
  • 1.        What is the expected result of the use of a cryptic splice site?
  • How is IgM held on the surface of a cell? 4.        What causes release of IgM? 5.        Is this an example of alternative cleavage or alternative processing of IgM mRNA?
  • 1.        What is included on a preribosomal RNA? 1.        What is one justification for producing RNA by this mechanism?
  • 1.        What cleaves the 5’ end of tRNA during processing? The 3’end? 1.        What is the central difference between RNAse P and RNAse D? 2.        What is the significance of the CCA sequence on the 3’ end? 3.        How is the CCA added? 4.        How is the anticodon loop created? 5.        What other modifications are carried out on maturing tRNA?
  • 1.        Why aren’t most ribozymes true catalysts? 2.        What type of ribozyme can act as a true catalyst?
  • 1.        How does RNA degradation proceed? 2.        What structural elements can inhibit exonucleases?

BioTech #5 BioTech #5 Presentation Transcript

  • RNA processing
    • Splicing and the mechanism of splicing of mRNA
    • Capping and polyadenylation
    • Alternative processing
    • Processing of tRNA and rRNA
    • Ribozymes
    • RNA degradation
  • The primary transcript
    • This is an exact complementary copy of the template strand
      • mRNA modifications create an open reading frame and permit it to be translated
        • Splicing removes non-functional regions of the primary transcript yielding mature message
        • Capping and polyadenylation characterize mRNA processing
      • tRNA modifications include splicing, cleavage of sequences at the 5’ and 3’ end, and base modification
      • Mature rRNAs are cut out of a preribosomal primary transcript that includes one copy each of 18, 5.8 and 28S rRNA
  • Introns
    • RNA sequence not present in a mature RNA that is flanked by sequence that is present in the mature RNA
    • Present in higher organisms more often than lower
      • Very few introns known in bacteria
      • The higher the organism,
        • the more likely introns are present
        • the more frequently they occur in a single gene
        • the larger they are
          • Represent the majority of sequence in most human genes
    • A few genes are intron-less
      • They are regulated to yield very strong expression to specific signals
        • Histone genes
          • No CAP or tail
  • Initial description of introns
    • Initially described in Adenovirus and later in the ovalbumin gene of the chicken
      • The isolated ovalbumin gene was denatured and rehybridized with mRNA from a chicken egg
      • The hybrids were examined using electron microscopy
      • D loops formed, representing single stranded regions of genomic DNA not present in the mature message
  • Introns
    • Four classes differ in their distribution and reaction mechanisms
      • Group I – nuclear and non-nuclear rRNA, tRNA and mRNA genes
      • Group II non-nuclear, non-animal mRNA genes
      • Nuclear mRNA transcripts
      • ATP, endonuclease dependent tRNA splicing mechanism
  • Group I mechanism
    • Catalyzed by RNA of the primary transcript alone
      • Self splicing intron
    • Transesterification reaction requires no energy input
      • Is spontaneous
      • The reaction is freely reversible
        • except that the intron, following removal, is degraded
    • Requires a guanosine cofactor
      • The guanosine breaks the upstream exon-intron boundary by linking to the 5’ intronic nucleotide
      • The free upstream 3’ exonic hydroxyl then attacks and displaces the downstream intron-exon boundary, displacing the 3’ intronic hydroxyl
      • The intron removed is the linear intronic transcript with an extra G attached to the 5’ end
  • Group II mechanism
    • Like Group I, except rather than a free guanosine using its 3’ hydroxyl, the attacking hydroxyl is the 2’ hydroxyl of an adenine nucleotide within the intron
      • The 2’ hydroxyl displaces the 3’ hydroxyl of the upstream nucleoside at the exon-intron boundary
      • This free 3’ hydroxyl then attacks the downstream intron-exon boundary, displacing the 3’ hydroxyl of the intronic nucleotide
      • The final product is an unusual lariat structure, where the adenine of the intronic sequence is bonded normally AND through its 2’ hydroxyl to the end of the excised intron
    • Also self splicing
  • Splicing nuclear mRNA I
    • Splicing requires small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes (snRNP’s)
      • Contain snRNA’s
      • Necessary for formation of a spliceosome
  • Splicing nuclear mRNA II
    • Exon-intron boundaries recognized by snRNA’s
      • Consensus sequences within the introns hybridize the snRNA’s
        • Proteins and other snRNA’s assemble the spliceosome on the transcript
        • An unpaired A in the 3’ side of the intron attacks the 5’ exon-intron boundary with a 2’ hydroxyl
          • This forms a lariat structure
        • The free 3’ hydroxyl of the upstream exon then displaces the downstream junctional nucleotide
      • Formation of spliceosome requires ATP but not the splicing reactions themselves
  • Enzyme dependent splicing
    • Some yeast tRNA’s
    • Splicing requires enzymatic recognition and cleavage of both exon-intron junctions
      • This leaves a cyclic phosphate on the upstream exon
    • Following cleavage,
      • The 5’ end is activated by a kinase
        • A kinase transfers phosphate from a nucleotide triphosphate onto a substrate
      • The cyclic phosphate is cleaved to a 2’ phosphate and then removed
      • an RNA-RNA ligase reseals the cut ends
        • The ligation reaction creates a high energy adenine diphosphate bond at the 5’ hydroxyl
    • The products are the maturing tRNA and a linear intronic RNA
  • Capping
    • 7-methyl G is added to the 5’ end of mRNA in eukaryotes enzymatically during maturation of message in nucleus
      • The triphosphate on the 5’ end of an mRNA is dephosphorylated to yield a diphosphate
      • A GTP is hydrolyzed yielding GMP + pyrophosphate as the GMP is added onto the diphosphate
      • The final triphosphate contains two phosphates from the mRNA and one from the incoming GTP
    • The G is then methylated at the seven position
      • The initial two bases of the mRNA may also be methylated
  • Poly A addition
    • Transcription proceeds beyond the poly A addition sequence (AAUAAA)
    • Cleavage of the primary transcript occurs downstream of the AAUAAA
      • The 3’ hydroxyl is a substrate for the enzyme polyadenylate polymerase
      • This adds a series of A’s onto the 3’ hydroxyl averaging about 200 bases long
  • The functional domains of a protein
    • The function of a protein may be divided into domains
      • Simple examples are the 5’-3’ exonuclease, 3’-5’ exonuclease and polymerase domains of DNA polymerase I
    • Some eukaryotic genes may have evolved by switching functional domains into other genes
      • Evolving domains is easier than evolving a complete protein
      • Domains are sometimes reflected in exons
        • For example, the immunoglobulin domain that embeds IgM into the plasma membrane is coded for by a specific exon at the end of the gene
        • This results in a protein domain at the end of IgM that attaches it to the membrane
        • The cell can produce an IgM that is free in the serum by not including that exon in the mature message
  • Alternative splicing
    • This is a method for producing alternative messages from one gene
      • A primary transcript is made
      • Different splice products are made that are cell type specific
        • Cell type specific means that one cell, such as an epithelial cell, will make a different form than another cell, even though the gene making the primary transcript is the same
        • This happens because the snRNP’s or components of the spliceosomes are different in the two cells
  • Altenative splicing: Exon skipping
    • Splice site choices can exclude an entire exon internal to the message
    • Myosin heavy chain gene expression skips exons during fly development
      • Exclusion of a splice junction causes exon skipping
      • One cell recognizes the downstream (3’) splice junction of the next exon in line
        • So the 5’ donor site is added to the 3’ acceptor site
      • In another cell, the first downstream site is not recognized and the next 3’ acceptor site is recognized
        • This skips both the 3’ acceptor site and the 5’ donor site of the skipped exon
  • Alternative splicing: cryptic splice sites
    • Alternative splicing can also add exons
      • The alternative exon is within a gene but not normally recognized
        • Normal mechanisms can be at work to add the exon in a cell type specific manner
        • Mutations can also destroy splice junction sequences
          • Without a normal splice site, the cell may choose a sequence that is similar within an intron or exon that is not normally used
            • This is a cryptic splice site
          • A cryptic splice site can result in a less than functional protein
            • But sometimes having a damaged protein is better than having no protein at all
  • Alternative cleavage
    • This is at work with IgM expression
      • At one stage of the immune response, IgM makes a membrane bound form of an IgM antibody
      • Upon receiving a signal, the cell converts to making the exact same protein, but lacking the carboxyterminal peptide holding it to the membrane
      • The conversion occurs because cleavage and polyadenylation exclude the last exon of the primary transcript
  • Post transcriptional processing of tRNA and rRNA
    • Prokaryotes
      • Shown above
    • Eukaryotes
    • 18S, 5.8S and 28 S rRNA is made as one long transcript by RNA polymerase I from a gene
      • There are multiple copies of these genes and transcription is almost continuously occurring
    • Processing is enzymatic, cleaving a final product from the large precursor
  • tRNA processing
    • This requires enzymatic cleavage of sequences on the ends of the primary transcript
      • RNAse P (a ribozyme) cleaves the 5’ end, and RNAse D the 3’ end
      • Following RNAse D cleavage, a CCA sequence is enzymatically polymerized onto the 3’ end of the tRNA
      • This sequence is necessary for the tRNA to accept and bond to its specific amino acid
    • This is followed by splicing a specific segment out of the tRNA to produce a mature anticodon loop
    • Base modification occurs during this process
  • Ribozymes
    • These are catalytic RNAs that mainly participate in the cleavage of RNA
      • All self-splicing mechanisms are examples of ribozymes
      • They are not true catalysts because they alter their own structure as a result of catalysis
        • However some group I introns that are excised can continue to catalyze simple transesterification reactions
    • The may act as free catalytic agents, however, able to cleave RNA in a sequence specific manner
      • The hammerhead ribozyme can, in theory, be designed and synthesized in a gene machine to degrade any specific RNA sequence
      • Ribozymes are, though, unstable and subject to degradation by RNAse in vivo
  • RNA degradation
    • The amount of any substance present depends on its rate of synthesis and degradation
    • RNA (and protein) levels are controlled at the level of degradation as well as synthesis
      • Less RNA means less resulting protein from translation
    • Degradation in eukaryotes proceeds by
      • Endonucleolytic attack on the poly A tail
      • Decapping
      • Exonucleolytic from the 5’ end
    • The rate of degradation is determined by the sequence and structure of the RNA
      • Exonucleases attack RNA
      • Exonuclease attack can be inhibited by
        • Hairpin loops
        • Poly A tails