Biotech 2011-03-prokaryotic-genes

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  • Biotech 2011-03-prokaryotic-genes

    1. 1. 8 Microbial Genetics
    2. 2. <ul><li>Genetics: The study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Gene: A segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein. </li></ul>Terminology
    3. 3. <ul><li>Genome: All of the genetic material in a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Genomics: The molecular study of genomes </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype: The genes of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotype: Expression of the genes </li></ul>Terminology
    4. 4. E. coli Figure 8.1a
    5. 5. Chromosome Map Figure 8.1b
    6. 6. Flow of Genetic Information Figure 8.2
    7. 7. DNA <ul><li>Polymer of nucleotides: Adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine </li></ul><ul><li>Double helix associated with proteins </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Backbone&quot; is deoxyribose-phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between AT and CG. </li></ul><ul><li>Strands are antiparallel. </li></ul>Figure 8.3b
    8. 8. DNA Figure 8.3a
    9. 9. DNA Figure 8.4
    10. 10. DNA <ul><li>DNA is copied by DNA polymerase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the 5'  3' direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated by an RNA primer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading strand is synthesized continuously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Okazaki fragments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA primers are removed and Okazaki fragments joined by a DNA polymerase and DNA ligase </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Important Enzymes Table 8.1
    12. 12. DNA Replication Figure 8.5
    13. 13. DNA <ul><li>DNA replication is semiconservative. </li></ul>Figure 8.6
    14. 14. Transcription <ul><li>DNA is transcribed to make RNA (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA). </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription begins when RNA polymerase binds to the promotor sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription proceeds in the 5'  3' direction </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription stops when it reaches the terminator sequence </li></ul>PLAY Animation: DNA Replication
    15. 15. Transcription Figure 8.7 (1 of 2)
    16. 16. Transcription PLAY Animation:Transcription Figure 8.7 (2 of 2)
    17. 17. RNA processing in Eukaryotes Figure 8.11

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