Kristina Smolijaninovaite

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Outstanding Universal Value: Criteria for the Inscription of Cultural Properties on the UNESCO World Heritage Sites and the Concept of Authenticity

International NGOs forum
«Protection of World Heritage Properties»
June 22-24, 2012
St.Petersburg, Russia

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Kristina Smolijaninovaite

  1. 1. OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE: CRITERIA FOR THE INSCRIPTION OF CULTURALPROPERTIES ON THE UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITES AND THE CONCEPT OF AUTHENTICITY Kristina Smolijaninovaite International Forum “NGOs in Support of the World Heritage Properties” June 22-24, 2012, St. Petersburg, Russia
  2. 2. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION TO THE 1972 UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION DEFINITION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE THE CONCEPT OF OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE (OUV) WORLD HERITAGE LIST: SELECTION CRITERIA EXAMPLES THE CONCEPT OF AUTHENTICITY UNIVERSAL VERSUS LOCAL VALUE CONCLUSIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY KRISTINA SMOLIJANINOVAITE
  3. 3. 3INTRO CULTURAL OUV CRITERIA EXAMPLES AUTHENTICITY UNIVERSAL VS. LOCAL CONCLUSIONS / HERITAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention – a global framework to protectionthe heritage of all mankind:- For this purpose the preamble demands “a convention establishing an effective system of collective protection of the cultural and natural heritage of outstanding universal value” KRISTINA SMOLIJANINOVAITE
  4. 4. 4INTRO CULTURAL OUV CRITERIA EXAMPLES AUTHENTICITY UNIVERSAL VS. LOCAL CONCLUSIONS / HERITAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY DEFINITION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE MONUMENTS (e.g. Taj Mahal) GROUPS OF BUILDINGS (e.g. architectural works, works of Lviv – the Ensemble of the monumental sculpture and Historic Centre) painting, elements or structures groups of separate or of an archaeological connected buildings nature, inscriptions, cave Photo source: lviv.travel dwellings Photo source: weltwunder-online.de SITES (e.g. Garden Kingdom of Dessau- Wörlitz) works of man or the combined works of nature and of man, and areas including archaeological sites Photo source: ixwin.de KRISTINA SMOLIJANINOVAITE
  5. 5. 5INTRO CULTURAL OUV CRITERIA EXAMPLES AUTHENTICITY UNIVERSAL VS. LOCAL CONCLUSIONS / HERITAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUE The Operational Guidelines (2005): “OUV means cultural and/or natural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and to be of common importance for present and future generations of all humanity.” KRISTINA SMOLIJANINOVAITE
  6. 6. 6 INTRO CULTURAL OUV CRITERIA EXAMPLES AUTHENTICITY UNIVERSAL VS. LOCAL CONCLUSIONS / HERITAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY INSCRIPTION CRITERIAi) a masterpieceii) important interchange of values/interestsiii) exceptional testimony to a civilisationiv) a type of construction or site/typologyv) interaction human/environment OUVvi) association with traditions or beliefsvii) natural beauty/aestheticsviii) geologyix) biological/ecological processesx) biodiversity KRISTINA SMOLIJANINOVAITE
  7. 7. 7INTRO CULTURAL OUV CRITERIA EXAMPLES AUTHENTICITY UNIVERSAL VS. LOCAL CONCLUSIONS / HERITAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY EXAMPLES Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Robben island (South Africa) Dessau (Germany) Date of inscription: 1999 Date of inscription: 1996 Criteria: (iii)(vi) Criteria: (ii)(iv)(vi) Photo source: whc.unesco.org Photo source: mindpicnic.de Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (Philippines) Date of inscription: 1995 Criteria: (iii)(iv)(v) Photo source: whs.unesco.org KRISTINA SMOLIJANINOVAITE
  8. 8. 8INTRO CULTURAL OUV CRITERIA EXAMPLES AUTHENTICITY UNIVERSAL VS. LOCAL CONCLUSIONS / HERITAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY THE CONCEPT OF AUTHENTICITY OG (before 2005 revisions) - the „test of authenticity‟ was referred to four parameters: design, material, NARA (1994): Emphasis on workmanship and setting. workmanship rather than material - It was seen basically in reference to the tangible material of the heritage. OG (revised) -have given a new definition for the „conditions of authenticity‟ -additionally includes: traditions, techniques, language and other forms of intangible heritage, as well as spirit and feeling or other issues, showing a much broader recognition of the different aspects of culture and heritage. KRISTINA SMOLIJANINOVAITE
  9. 9. 9INTRO CULTURAL OUV CRITERIA EXAMPLES AUTHENTICITY UNIVERSAL VS. LOCAL CONCLUSIONS / HERITAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY UNIVERSAL VERSUS LOCAL VALUE Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin Collegiate Church, Castle and Old Town of Criteria: (i), (ii), (iv) Quedlinburg Criteria: (iv) - universal value: beauty of the site and - universal values: reflecting medieval history its significance in relation to ideas of of Europe enlightenment during the time of - Local significance: like to interpret it from Frederich the Great and Voltaire. todays perspective of advancement of - Local significance: stress more in terms women? of the might of the empire? KRISTINA SMOLIJANINOVAITE
  10. 10. 10 INTRO CULTURAL OUV CRITERIA EXAMPLES AUTHENTICITY UNIVERSAL VS. LOCAL CONCLUSIONS / HERITAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY CONCLUSIONS The 1972 World Heritage Convention is an effort to protect „heritage of all mankind‟, based on the concept of „outstanding universal value‟. The Convention involves an important qualifying condition of authenticity under the OG. It is not only to mitigate the effects of industrialisation and destruction through war but to set global standards in heritage protection. Challenges: concept of authenticity and misrepresentation of world heritage sites along the lines of national importance. The concept of World Heritage is a dynamic (e.g. the category of cultural landscape in 1992 and the Nara Document on Authenticity in 1994) KRISTINA SMOLIJANINOVAITE
  11. 11. 11INTRO CULTURAL OUV CRITERIA EXAMPLES AUTHENTICITY UNIVERSAL VS. LOCAL CONCLUSIONS / HERITAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.international.icomos.org/publications/pdf http://whc.unesco.org/archive/opguide11-en.pdf http://whc.unesco.org/archive/nara94.htm http://rum1.aarch.dk/uploads/media/J._Jokilehto_2006.pdf KRISTINA SMOLIJANINOVAITE

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