What are some things every indian should know about Indian history
What are some things every Indianshould know about Indian history? Balaji Viswanathan Quora.com/Balaji-Viswanathan-2 Text content in: https://www.quora.com/India/What-are- some-things-every-Indian-should-know-about- Indian-history
We weren’t always poor – For most ofrecorded history India led the world in GDP
“India, that is Bharat, shall be a unionof states…” – starts Indian constitution• Official name in Indian languages is Bharat – after the mythological emperor of Bharatha• Vedas use the term Bharatavarsa & Aryavrata• Japanese called us Tenjiku, Chinese called us Tianzhu: both meaning heaven• The name Indu was created by Greeks who associated us with the river Sindu• Persians & Arabs called us – Hindustan – from the root Indu
3000 BC – Start of Indus Valley Civilization: World’s most planned cities and sanitation systems
2500 BC – Massive cities & invention of toilets & bathrooms
1500 BCE – Start of Vedic Age – world’s oldest surviving literature 1. Rig Veda 2. Sama Veda 3. Yajur Veda 4. Atharvana Veda
800 BC-800 AD: Magadha kingdoms – Birth of Indian religions – Buddhism & Jainism
500 BC: Takshashila (Taxila) University – Cambridge of IndiaThe world’s one of the first universities housed 100s of great scholars, including themaster of strategy: Chanakya, Charaka – the master of Ayurvedic medicine and Panini -master of grammar. All of their works are still used in India. It is near the modern city ofIslamabad, Pakistan.
500-300 BC: Nanda Empire –Consolidation of India begins
328 BC: Theunstoppable Alexanderis finally stopped inBattle of Hydaspes by alocal Indian ruler - KingPurushothama (Porus)who ruled Purushapura(Peshawar). Althoughhe was defeated in theclosely fought war,Alexander consideredhim an equal.
320 BC: Shamed by the lack of support for Porus from other Indian kings, Kautliya leaves his professor job atTaxila to become a king maker. His book Arthasastra is a landmark work in business & military strategy
320 BC: Chandragupta Maurya: The first Indian emperor & a disciple of Kautilya
269 BC: Rise of Emperor Ashoka – the greatest of Indian kings Fights a nasty war with Kalinga. The colossal destruction moves him & becomes a pacifist. He spread Buddhism throughout Asia (including China and Sri Lanka). Gave India its current emblem & the wheel in the flag.
Ashoka’s Rule: Period of bliss and a full unification of India
70 BC: Jews fleeing persecution were welcomed. India was the only major regionwhere Jews faced no anti-semitism. 52 AD: Early Christians were provided asylum.Later Zorastrians fled Persia in 10th century AD. In modern days, Dalai Lama & TibetanBuddhists escaped China in 1959. First civilization to accept in all cases.
320-550 AD: Gupta Age: Golden Age of India India produced some of the greatest thinkers in this period: 1. Aryabhata (left) – Used decimal system, approximated pi, built trignometry 2. Kalidasa – master of drama & theater 3. Vatsayana – wrote Kamasutra 4. Varamihira – a great astronomer who built important works in trignometry
6th-13th Century AD: Nalanda University (modern Bihar) A great center of learning for the ancients that attracted students from Greece, Persia and China.
3rd century BC – 13th century AD: Chola dynasty of South. Builtstunning temples. Most temples survive intact for1000+ years
Rajendra Chola (1014 AD): Ruled South east Asia fromSouth India. Trade & art flourished. Indian culture spread.
12th-15th Century AD:Sultanates: Dark ages in Indian history. Nation begins its long decline
1336-1646 AD: Vijayanagara Empire. Rebuilt South India after foreign invasions that destroyed most native temples South languages – especially Telugu and Kannada flourished during their period and Hinduism had its renaissance. They are famous for the ruins in Hampi.
Mughal empire: 1526-1757 AD. Period of great Islamic architecture
Extent of Mughal Empire. By 1707,most of India came under their rule.
1616 AD: East India Company is allowed to operate in India. Began as traders. First megacorporation of the world.
1680 AD: Death of the last great Indian king – Shivaji. India was ripe to be conquered now.
1757: Turning point in battle of Plassey due to betrayal by local general. East India company now rules India
1857: Indians start fighting back. Triggered by a suspicious coating of gun cartridges. First war of Independence
Between 1850-1900: 24 major famines attack India. Massive neglect kill millions. Indians get dirt poor and hungry.
1885: Indian national congress formed. Firstlittle step towards peaceful freedom struggle.
1919: Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Turning point in Indian freedom struggle.
1930: Gandhi begins the landmark Dandi March and used simple salt to shake British Empire. India now sees hope. People come in droves.
1947: India gets its freedom. The nation is brokeninto India (1947), Pakistan (1947), and Bangladesh (1971)