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History 33 Final-Assignment 9 Part 1

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  • 1. History 33 Assignment 9 – Part 1 By: Victor Valenzuela MEXICANOS : A History of Mexicans in the United States
  • 2. Chapter 1 Spaniards and Native Americans, Prehistory-1521
  • 3. The Spaniards
    • The Spanish were the result of a multiplicity of cultures— As most Europeans were.
    • Christopher Columbus exploited the peoples and the resources he encountered.
  • 4. Aztecs
    • Aztecs believed, Aztlán, to be the site of their homeland.
    • Aztec people were valiant warriors and master builders.
    • Tenochtitlán, was the capitol of the Aztec Empire, and was said to have had a population of 400,000 people by 1519
  • 5. The Conquest of Mexico
    • The conqueror of the Aztec’s was Hernán Cortez (1485-1547)
    • The germs and disease’s that the Spanish brought with them made a undeniable impact which favored the Spanish.
    • In 1520 the smallpox epidemic destroyed close to 90 percent of the Aztec population, and in turn ensuring the victory for the Spanish Conquistadors .
  • 6. Chapter 2 The Spanish Frontier, 1521-1821
  • 7. Spanish Exploration
    • Soon after the Spaniards conquered the Aztecs they turned their attention to exploring the north.
    • The arrival of Cabeza de Vaca in 1528, was purely out of luck. A tropical storm brushed them to the coast of what is now Texas.
  • 8. Major Trends
    • The frontier life was difficult, and this is shown by the number of fatalities.
    • Mothers often died while giving birth, although the men died at the hands of Indians.
    • Being a widow was not uncommon, in Abiquiu 1845, 91 out of 338 households were headed by widowed females.
  • 9. Major Trends
    • The settlements of Baja, California brought a halt to the northern expansion of the Spanish.
    • A number of Jewish settlers actually had a significant presence in the new frontier.
    • Since the conversion of Jewish belief to Catholicism, many Jews went to the “New World,” to gain some sort of religious freedom.
  • 10. Chapter 3 The Mexican Far North, 1821-1848
  • 11. Mexican Independence
    • Mexico gained their independence in 1821, from the Spanish rule.
    • The reasons being was that the Spanish were dealing with the invasion of France, during the Napoleonic wars.
    • In 1808 when Napoleon invaded Spain, he named his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as the successor of King Ferdinand VII
  • 12. California
    • California residents were not able to bask in the new found freedom Mexico had won.
    • Californians fought with themselves over the political rights and authorities.
    • The women in California were treated poorly and were considered second class citizens
  • 13. Clash of Cultures
    • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo brought an official end to the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) was signed on February 2, 1848
    • The United States paid Mexico $15,000,000 in consideration of the extension acquired by the boundaries of the United States
  • 14. Chapter 4 The American Southwest, 1848-1900
  • 15. Gringos and Greasers
    • The stereotyping of cultures and races overtook the mind of the masses
            • Irish and Mexicans were looked at as lazy and irresponsible
            • Seen as incapable to assimilate
  • 16. California
    • The discovery of gold at Coloma, California caused much competition on the mining sites.
    • On January 24, 1848 (roughly a week before Mexicans signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,) gold was found.
  • 17. New Mexico
    • The conservation of the Mexican Culture was done so best by the New Mexico citizens.
    • Hispanos remained the dominant (through numbers,) until close to the time of World War II
    • When the United States gained New Mexico, they also about forty thousand Native Americans.
  • 18. Chapter 5 The Great Migration, 1900-1930
  • 19. Motives For Mexican Immigration
    • After the first World War a number of laws were passed in which resulted in the culmination of the Reed-Johnson Immigration Act of 1924
    • The immigrating Mexicans were motivated by certain luxuries they would not be able to have in Mexico, but specifically the southwest region attracted them the most
  • 20. The Mexican Revolution
    • Mexicans faced a great deal of racial prejudice and discrimination in coming into the United States
    • The Mexican revolution was not just a political uprising, it was a “True” revolution which means it impacted every aspect of life including- politics- economics- culture- and society itself
  • 21. Economic Development of the Southwest
    • Many of the people who came to the United States would come from the same villages as others, and would come as a group, this would result into settling down as a group.
  • 22. Chapter 6 The Depression, 1930-1940
  • 23. The Depression
    • The 1930’s was a decade of great hardship, Economically, for the United States
    • The most vulnerable countries were the ones that were the heavily industrialized—United States, and Germany
  • 24. Urbanization
    • The farm work, and the railroad work was seasonal which lead to urbanization
    • Mexicanidad—Mexican Nationalism— was something which was very much embraced, especially because the Mexicans in the Midwestern parts were so far from the native Mexicans and their families (if any were left behind.)
  • 25. The “Mexican Problem”
    • The collapse of the economy did create tension and problems, especially towards races.
    • Many people wanted to keep the United states pure, such as the Ku Klux Klan, and took measures to do so.
  • 26. Chapter 7 The Second World War and its Aftermath, 1940-1965
  • 27. Mexicans in the Military
    • What initially brought the United States into World War II was the attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor, on December 7,1941.
    • This was an opportunity for Mexicans to try and become mainstream in America.
    • Approximately 250,000 to 500,000 Mexican (immigrants and native born,) actively enrolled into the military services.
  • 28. The Bracero Program
    • The Bracero program was a program which came as a consequence from World War II.
    • The program recruited Mexican nationals to work in the Western United States on a temporary basis, as a government funded program during and after the war.
  • 29. Operation Wetback
    • By the 1960’s the farmers were able to contract undocumented workers, because of the influx of the undocumented immigrants crossing over to the united states
    • Mexicans rushed towards the opportunities of jobs in the U.S.
    • It was cheaper for farmers to hire undocumented work, as opposed to the Bracero, because they could give them less money, rights, ect.
  • 30. Chapter 8 The Chicano Movement, 1965-1975
  • 31. The Mexican Community in the Mid-Sixties
    • The Mexican population in the 1960’s(according to Grebler,) was 3,842,000
    • And 87 percent of the population was said to reside in the southwest regions, the additional 13 percent was said to have lived in other areas of the country.
    • The schooling was averaged 3-4 years less than their Anglo counterparts.
  • 32. Chavez, Huerta, and the United Farmworkers
    • The National Federation of Labor Unions was founded to improve the working conditions, wages, and overall lives of the farm workers.
    • Cesar Chavez is one of the most notable voices for the farm workers
  • 33. Other Early Chicano Leaders
    • The Chicano/a community has had many influential and notable civil rights leaders Reies Lopez Tijerina, being one, lead a new cause to regain lost Hispano lands through New Mexico
  • 34. Chapter 9 Goodbye to Aztlán, 1975-1994
  • 35. Demographics
    • The high levels of “Hispanics” living in the United States was backed by the numbers collected by the Census Bureau.
    • Increase of 61 percent from 1970-1980
    • And 53 percent from 1980-1990
    • Mexicans kept a high level of public interest well after the 70’s
            • Emerging trend of bilingualism
            • Affirmative action.
  • 36. Immigration
    • High birth rates was one of the main reason why Mexicans stayed in the medias light, but also was die to the high levels of immigration from Mexico to the United States, this was simply un avoidable to notice.
  • 37. Feministas: The Second Genertaion
    • By the Early nineties more Latina women were going to college and graduating, than the Latino men.
    • This trend followed through, as in the mid nineties indicates that there were more Latina women in professions than there were Latino Men
  • 38. Chapter 10 The Hispanic Challenge, 1994-Present
  • 39. Stemming the Tide
    • Congress, in 1990, increased the penalty for violation of immigration policies, and also increased the funding given to the boarder patrol.
  • 40. Awakening the Giant: Grassroots Mobilization
    • The threats to the civil liberties of the Mexican Americans started this political mobilization through the country, which was first seen in California.
    • The grassroots movement also demanded more rights for the undocumented workers, which was directly correlated with the influx of military presence at the boarder.
  • 41. The Awakening Giant: Electoral politics
    • In the early twenty-first century the mobilization for rights was just not taken by the streets, it was thought to be the ample time to create the impact through the electoral political aspect.
    • This awakened the mindset of future political hopefuls, because they saw that the Latino/a vote was a very important one.

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