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134. causes and effects of cancer

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  • 1. 1 Causes and effects of cancer Table of Content 1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 2 2 Causes cancer....................................................................................................................... 2 3 Global burden of cancer....................................................................................................... 4 4 Cancer prevention ................................................................................................................ 5 5 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 8 Reference.................................................................................................................................... 9
  • 2. 2 1 Introduction Lately, cancer is taken into consideration to be an outstanding public health issue in a lot of regions all over the world. This investigation shows the circumstances and influences of cancers with detailed data and also the summarization of the probable resolution used in preventing cancer with studied proofs. 2 Causes cancer As per Cancer Research UK, there happens to be around 200 various kinds of cancer. Several of the main reasons are as follows:  Cancer causing substances (carcinogens): The definition of a carcinogen stands for something which can lead to cancer. Tobacco smoke happens to be a strong cancer-causing agent. However not all people that smoke get lung cancer. Thus there also happens to be other kinds of causes.  Age: Nearly half (45%) of the diagnosis of cancers all over the world in 2008 happened in persons aging older than 65 years old (Thun et al., 2010). This is due to the fact that the variations which turn a cell to be cancer at the beginning time need such a period for their development. There should be an amount of variations to the genes inside a cell before it finally becomes a cancerous cell. Such variations can occur accidentally whilst there is the separation of the cell. Or else they can occur as there has been damage to the cell by cancer- causing factors and the injury is later delivered to upcoming cells whilst that cell separates.  Genetic makeup: There happens to be some genetic transformations inside a cell before it turns to become cancer cell. Usually from his birth a man is inherited one of such variations already. This doesn’t lead to the result that they will certainly become cancer. Yet with a variation from the beginning, it can probably turn out that cancer will be developed during that man’s whole life.  The immune system: Persons that got trouble with their immune schemes are more probably to receive several kinds of cancer.  Smoking, bodyweight, diet and physical activity: Taking into consideration the whole smoking-connected diseases, tobacco usage happens to be liable for over 400,000 deaths in
  • 3. 3 the US annually (Siegel et al., 2013). Huge population investigations have made the revelations of connections between definite dietary models and cancer hazard. Umar et al. (2012) makes the estimated indication that obesity happens to make up for nearly 20% of the whole cancer circumstances, and obesity has got the identification to be an origin of cancer in nearly 14% of cancer deaths in male and 20% in female.  Day to day environment: The whole obstacle of cancers owing to surrounding disclosures (pollution-causing factors, i.e. with the exclusion of personal manners for example cigarette smoking and infectious factors) is presently not known yet. Estimations change broadly, ranging from 3% to 19% (Vineis, 2013).  Viruses: Viruses happen to lead to several cancers. As per Moore and Chang (2010), several human viruses have been seen to result in 10-15% of human cancers all over the world.  Bacterial infection: In the previous time people have not seen bacterial infections as cancer causing factors. Yet researches have proved that persons having helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection of their stomach grow irritation of the stomach coating, which raises the hazard of stomach cancer (Shin et al., 2010). 3 Global burden of cancer The worldwide obstacle of cancer goes on increasingly broadly due to the aging and increase of the worldwide population along with a raising application of cancer-causing manners, especially smoking, in developing areas. Basing on Ferlay et al. (2010), nearly 12.7 million cancer circumstances and 7.6 million cancer deaths are guessed to have happened in 2008; of those, 56% of the circumstances and 64% of the deaths happened in the developing area. Breast cancer happens to be among the most regularly cancer identified and the main origin of cancer death in women, comprising 23% of the whole cancer circumstances and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer happens to be the main cancer position in men, accounting for 17% of the whole new cancer circumstances and 23% of the whole cancer deaths. Breast cancer is nowadays as well the main origin of cancer death in women in economically developing areas, a change from the past ten years during which the most popular origin of cancer death happened to be cervical cancer. Besides, the humanity obstacle for lung cancer in women in developing
  • 4. 4 areas happens to be as large as the obstacle for cervical cancer, each comprising 11% of the whole cancer deaths in women. By 2030, it is planned to be roughly 26 million of new cancer circumstances and 17 million cancer deaths annually (Thun et al., 2010). Besides, the worldwide allocation of cancer and kinds of cancer which prevail goes on changing, particularly in economically developing areas. Low-and middle-income territories comprised of nearly half (51%) of the whole cancer cases all over the world in 1975; this ratio rose to 55% in 2007 and is planned to become 61% by 2050. Lung, breast, colon/rectum and prostate cancer no more happens to be hugely limited to Western industrialized areas yet happen to be among the most popular cancer cases in the world. This worldwide rise in the cancer obstacle and its unequal influence on economically developing areas is receiving the pushing from demographic variations in the populations in danger as well as from temporal and geographic changes in the allocation of chief hazard causes. As per Jemal et al. (2001), cancer survival seems to become less in developing areas, most chiefly due to a mixture of an overdue phase of diagnosing and restricted entrance to punctual and good quality treating. A large ratio of the global obstacle of cancer could be avoided via the employment of current cancer management understanding and via the performing plans for tobacco management, vaccinating (for liver and cervical cancers), and soon detecting and treating, and also public health projects giving promotion to physical action and a better dietary ingestion. 4 Cancer prevention No less than one-third of the whole cancer circumstances are avoidable; therefore avoidance provides the most rate-effective long-term plan for the cancer management (Gatenby et al., 2010). There are prospective resolutions for cancer avoidance as below: Prevention of tobacco-related cancers An amount of interferences have shown proof to be efficient in the reduction of the need of tobacco goods and in the variation of social norms regarding smoking for example tax rules which increase the rate of tobacco goods; smoke-free regulations which enhance prohibition in public areas and public sense regarding the hazardous influences of tobacco to human health. Ultimately, no area can triumphantly defeat the origins of the global tobacco firms. Therefore, there has been the union of
  • 5. 5 countries under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the initial health treaty dealt as per the sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO). Lifestyle modifications  For communication: There is the emphasis of the vitality of public, private, and society associations to work mutually at national, state, and local degrees for the implementation of rule and surrounding variations which: 1. Raise entrance to reasonably priced, health foodstuffs in societies, workplaces, and schools, and reduce entrance to and marketing of foodstuffs and drinks which are little value of nutrition, especially to young people. 2. Offer secured, pleasant and obtainable surroundings for physical action in colleges and workplaces, and for delivery and rebirth in societies.  For individual: There is the emphasis of the vitality of the achievement or maintenance of a strong body weight; employing a physically proactive daily life; assuming a strong ingestion which stresses plan foodstuffs, especially inside the circumstance of weight control; and restricting usage of alcoholic drinks. 1. Achievement and maintenance of a strong weight the whole life 2. The adoption of a life standard being active physically 3. The consumption of a balanced intake, with a stress on plan foodstuffs 4. In case intake of alcohol drinks, try to restrict drinking Chemoprevention using pharmaceutical agents One of the critical characteristic of chemopreventive instruments is that they deliberate cancer- avoiding influences on high-hazard tissue, making block or reversion of the cancer growth in ordinary or pre-malignant tissue. Different epidemiological researches, with the inclusion of meta-assessments, associate some cancers for example the exhibition of opposite relations with metformin usage: pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), colorectal cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer. Even though there happens to be prospective results from clinical tests of chemopreventive means, prospective means yet confront obstacles with regard to be brought to widespread clinical usage. Immunotherapy for cancer prevention
  • 6. 6 The usage of vaccines is famous in all the methods which target at harnessing a person’s immune scheme against cancer, representing larger triumph in preventing cancer than treating. The favoured triumph of preventive vaccination is commonly derivable to a least or absent tumour obstacle. Additionally, applicants for preventive vaccination yet have completely capable immune schemes which are able to develop fast anti-tumour reactions, resulting in the elimination of irregular cells and/or the avoidance of disease start and return. Cancer immunoprevention As a consequence of lately developments in our comprehension of molecular carcinogenesis, some molecular biomarkers have been progressed for predictive usage, and also for hazard stratification and determination-making as to whether to make incorporation of chemotheraphy into the healing routine. Upcoming cancer avoidance tests will employ several shifts of such multi-genre selections to support in determining whether particular interferences should be employed basing on hazard stratification and diminishing the whole toxicity in high-hazard persons. 5 Conclusion Basing on the fundamental origins and the international obstacle of cancer, this article shows the identification of some preventing instruments which provide the most practicable method for the mitigation of the predictable worldwide rise in cancer. Flourishing practice of such preventing tactics will request national leading as well as global association to conquer the economic and political hindrances which usually hinder public health and also activity-directed translational investigation. This document is provided by: VU Thuy Dung (Ms.) Manager Center for Online Writing Resources Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/vu.thuydung.5076 Email : assignmentsource@gmail.com Blogger : http://assignmentsource.blogspot.com/ Website : http://assignmentsource.com/
  • 7. 7 Reference Ferlay, J., Shin, H. R., Bray, F., Forman, D., Mathers, C., & Parkin, D. M. (2010). Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. International journal of cancer, 127(12), 2893-2917. Gatenby, R. A., Gillies, R. J., & Brown, J. S. (2010). The evolutionary dynamics of cancer prevention. Nature Revi Jemal, A., Bray, F., Center, M. M., Ferlay, J., Ward, E., & Forman, D. (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 61(2), 69-90. Kushi, L. H., Doyle, C., McCullough, M., Rock, C. L., Demark‐Wahnefried, W., Bandera, E. V., ... & Gansler, T. (2012). American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 62(1), 30-67. Moore, P. S., & Chang, Y. (2010). Why do viruses cause cancer? Highlights of the first century of human tumour virology. Nature Reviews Cancer, 10(12), 878-889. Shin, C. M., Kim, N., Yang, H. J., Cho, S. I., Lee, H. S., Kim, J. S., ... & Song, I. S. (2010). Stomach cancer risk in gastric cancer relatives: interaction between Helicobacter pylori infection and family history of gastric cancer for the risk of stomach cancer. Journal of clinical gastroenterology, 44(2), e34-e39. Siegel, R., Naishadham, D., & Jemal, A. (2013). Cancer statistics, 2013. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 63(1), 11-30. Thun, M. J., DeLancey, J. O., Center, M. M., Jemal, A., & Ward, E. M. (2010). The global burden of cancer: priorities for prevention. Carcinogenesis, 31(1), 100-110. Umar, A., Dunn, B. K., & Greenwald, P. (2012). Future directions in cancer prevention. Nature Reviews Cancer. Vineis, P. (2013). Controlling Environmental Causes of Cancer. In Epidemiologic Studies in Cancer Prevention and Screening (pp. 181-188). Springer New York.

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