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What if annotations were reusable: a preliminary discussion

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Paper presented in ICWL09 …

Paper presented in ICWL09

Manouselis, N., & Vuorikari, R. (2009). What if annotations were reusable: a preliminary discussion. In M. Spaniol et al. (Ed.), Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 5686, pp. 255–264). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.


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  • 1. What if annotations were reusable: a preliminary discussion - ICWL 2009 - Nikos Manouselis, Greek Research & Technology Network Riina Vuorikari, European Schoolnet
  • 2. Outline • Problem statement • A possible solution: a conceptual model and pilot • Further discussion points
  • 3. Problem scenario 1 The same learning resource, that’s metadata has been federated, is tagged on different portals: LeMill, LRE, and Koolielu
  • 4. Problem scenario 2
  • 5. Problem scenario 2 The same movie is found and rated in three different application contexts: a movie recommender system, an e- commerce site, and an educational portal
  • 6. Problem description • Implicit and explicit feedback is hard to acquire (e.g. LRE) – Ratio: search-bookmark 5.5:1 – Ration: play-bookmark 3.2:1 – Ratio: play-rate 2.7:1 • This feedback is needed to better guide users (e.g. recommendations, social navigation) • Social information can make users more efficient! (Vuorikari and Koper, 2009)
  • 7. An idea! A structured way to represent different types of user feedback from different contexts could prove of particular value.
  • 8. Hypothetical questions? • Can we represent and store user feedback in a structured, interoperable and reusable format? • Is it safe to assume that the user feedback can be used in another application domain, e.g. a new recommender system in a different application context?
  • 9. Capturing user feedback To be reusable, the user feedback should • be in a structured and interoperable format • reflect the annotation scheme (e.g. tag, rating, multi-rating) • incorporate some information about the context in which it has been collected
  • 10. model
  • 11. Capturing user feedback Different frameworks exist: • Contextualized Attention Metadata Framework • Attention Profiling Markup Language (APML) • User Labor Markup Language (ULML) • Microformat, e.g. Google support Vuorikari, R. & Berendt, B. (2009). Study on contexts in tracking usage and attention metadata in multilingual technology enhanced learning.
  • 12. Capturing user feedback (e.g.CAM)
  • 13. Capturing user feedback (example of microformats)
  • 14. Pilot in Organic.Edunet • A registry of annotation schemes for learning resources • To store annotation schemes, ratings and tags from different environments on learning resources • To be used to create better services for users (e.g. recommendation, social navigation)
  • 15. Pilot in Organic.Edunet
  • 16. Conceptual work in Aspect • IMS LODE Information for Learning Object Exchange (ILOX) – different facets: • for LOM, • for folksonomies, • annotations • ratings • ...
  • 17. Lots of issues... • How to identify the same item in many different contexts (no persistent IDs)? • Is it necessary to encode the information about the user who annotated? – Tags are interesting BECAUSE of (user,item,tag) triple • Do users really find an annotation from another context useful? • ...
  • 18. thanks! for your attention comments? questions? http://aspect-project.org/ http://lreforschools.eun.org www.organic-edunet.eu