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Melt Barcelona Variazioni Vuorikari Final

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This presents the European Schoolnet's content enrichment, both by experts and end-users (folksonomic approach).

This presents the European Schoolnet's content enrichment, both by experts and end-users (folksonomic approach).

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  • 1. Collaborative Content Annotation in http://lre.eun.org Multilingual Europe Riina Vuorikari, Frans Van Assche European Schoolnet 1st VARIAZIONI Workshop Barcelona Nov 29 2007
  • 2. Collaborative Content Annotation in http://lre.eun.org Multilingual Europe * motivation and context * federated architecture * co-existence of LOM and unstructured metadata * envisaged enrichment services
  • 3. Collaborative Content Annotation in http://lre.eun.org Multilingual Europe * what does multi-linguality mean for tags and how do users deal with it?
  • 4. Motivation of this work http://lre.eun.org European education, especially that of K-12 education, is inherently multi-lingual and multi-cultural.
  • 5. http://lre.eun.org
  • 6. http://lre.eun.org European Schoolnet Established a network among European Educational Authorities in 1996 Currently 27 members from more than EU
  • 7. ...times are changing http://lre.eun.org
  • 8. Proliferation of web-based services for sharing digital items http://lre.eun.org
  • 9. Proliferation of web-based services for sharing digital items http://lre.eun.org
  • 10. New challenges for repositories  European teachers have access to multiple repositories of digital learning resources by http://lre.eun.org – Educational Authorities, – publishers, – other teachers,.  Users become more demanding and expect services that are seen elsewhere (rss, personalised feed-selections, bookmarks, community rankings ..)
  • 11. http://lre.eun.org
  • 12. Since 1999 EUN's goal: http://lre.eun.org to facilitate the access to multi-lingual learning resources repositories
  • 13. EUN + Federation of LORs http://lre.eun.org = Learning Resources Exchange (LRE)
  • 14. Semantic interoperability for K-12  Long process in semantic interoperability since 1999 http://lre.eun.org – First DC based Application Profile in 2001
  • 15. Semantic interoperability for K-12  LOM based Application Profile v 3.0 http://insight.eun.org/intern/shared/data/insight/lre/AppProfilev3p0.pdf http://lre.eun.org
  • 16. Semantic interoperability for K-12  Multi-lingual thesaurus in more than 15 languages http://lre.eun.org
  • 17. http://lre.eun.org
  • 18. Challenge for users  End-users (e.g. teachers) have difficulties to discover and find resources from educational repositories http://lre.eun.org – Metadata does not always match search terms  Locating content across linguistic and national borders within Europe has proven hard – Despite the use of a multilingual Thesaurus and controlled vocabularies
  • 19. New Mission Critical Metadata Egology for http://lre.eun.org Learning Technologies => co-existence of structured and unstructured metadata => by expert indexers and end-users
  • 20. http://lre.eun.org LRE Architecture
  • 21. http://lre.eun.org Architecture
  • 22. Enrichment: by experts By expert indexers: http://lre.eun.org Original Metadata Edited by expert Merged indexer Metadata Samgi generated Metadata instance “toolbox will be extended with tools for the development of taxonomies, and with tools for automatic translation and vocabulary management, as well as for collecting attention metadata to track what users actually do with the MELT infrastructure”
  • 23. Multi-lingual enrichment http://lre.eun.org
  • 24. Collaborative content enrichment in multilingual Europe  Addition to the traditional LOM http://lre.eun.org  By users interacting with the portal, resources and other users  Four main tools: – social bookmarking and tags in multiple languages – rating of usefulness – pedagogical annotations (used in learning events) – levels of user engagement when interacting with the system (what is viewed, how many times,..)
  • 25. http://lre.eun.org
  • 26. Social bookmarking  To store, organise, share and search bookmarks of web pages. Keep found things http://lre.eun.org found!  Bookmarks are usually public and shared  Users organise bookmarks with informal tags (instead of the traditional folders)  Find like-minded users with similar interest.
  • 27. What is a tag?  Metadata externally applied to an item http://lre.eun.org  Can be used for sorting or managing  A hook for aggregating  Provides identifier and/or description  Personal marker by Thomas Vander Wal
  • 28. http://lre.eun.org
  • 29. Bookmark is a triple (user, resource, {tags}) http://lre.eun.org
  • 30. A great navigational aid to discover resources! http://lre.eun.org
  • 31. http://lre.eun.org Follow those digital traces!
  • 32. More ways for social navigation http://lre.eun.org Discover resources through tags in multiple languages
  • 33. “Social” makes http://lre.eun.org trails visible.. by Stiphy
  • 34. http://lre.eun.org and shows where to flock
  • 35. http://lre.eun.org Can tags and bookmarks be used to connect users cross national and language borders?
  • 36. Social bookmarking in multi-lingual environment http://lre.eun.org
  • 37. .. allows new ways to discover both resources and people! http://lre.eun.org
  • 38. How do users bookmark?  January 1 to October 31 2007 http://lre.eun.org A post : a triple of (user, item, {tag})  1022 posts to favourites  142 users  682 different learning resources (items)  1029 multilingual tags recorded to the system,  some of which were reused by users
  • 39. How do users bookmark? Distribution of posts and inverse Power Law http://lre.eun.org 130 120 110 100 Number of Bookmarks 90 80 Column J 70 Column K 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150
  • 40. How do users tag?  Most posts consisted Percent of tags/posting of only one tag Onetag 79% 2 tags 15% http://lre.eun.org 3 tags 4% 4 tags 1% 5 tags 0.39%  More than half of 6 tags 0.23% tags were used just 7 tags 0.08% once (54%)  Only about 10% of tags were reused more than twise  No guided tagging in this pilot! This may change.
  • 41. Are tags found useful? LO Type Lang Keyword % of votes http://lre.eun.org 1 Tag En healthy meal 100% 1 Thesaurus En health education 77% 2 Tag En EU 77% 2 Tag Pl E uropa 62% 3 Thesaurus En physics 85 % 3 Thesaurus En mathematics 92 % 4 Thesaurus En mathematics 92 % 4 Tag En G eoG ebra-program 62% 5 Thesaurus En G eography 92 % 5 Thesaurus En Island 6 9% Vuorikari, R., Ochoa, X., Duval, E. Analysis of User Behavior on MultilingualTagging of Learning Resources. In Workshop proceedings of the EC-TEL conference: SIRTEL07 (EC-TEL ’07) (Crete, Greece, September 17-20, 2007)
  • 42. Are tags found useful? LO Type Lang Keyword % of votes http://lre.eun.org 1 Tag En healthy meal 100% 1 Thesaurus En health education 77% Tags, producedE Uwith no outlay, 2 Tag En 77% 2 Tag Pl E uropa show an E n physics encouraging and 62% 3 Thesaurus 85 % potentialn gain in overall92 % 3 Thesaurus E mathematics 4 Thesaurus En mathematics usefulness! 92 % 4 Tag En G eoG ebra-program 62% 5 Thesaurus En G eography 92 % 5 Thesaurus En Island 6 9% Vuorikari, R., Ochoa, X., Duval, E. Analysis of User Behavior on MultilingualTagging of Learning Resources. In Workshop proceedings of the EC-TEL conference: SIRTEL07 (EC-TEL ’07) (Crete, Greece, September 17-20, 2007)
  • 43. Does the language matter? http://lre.eun.org  Need for better ways to identify the language – Give rules (if the user first preferred languages is.., then..) – Automate the recognition of languages – Out-source it to users
  • 44. “Travel well” tags  About 15% of tags contain a general term, a http://lre.eun.org name, place, etc. that is easily understood without translation  e.g. AIDS, software, EU, Euroopa, Europa, europe, Evropa, geograafia, Pythagoras, etc.
  • 45. What's the point of travel well tags?  If those tags need no translation or language http://lre.eun.org filtering to be understood, and  ..if they can be identified:  We can be sure to show at least some tags to users – whose language preferences we don't know, and – in whose language there are no tags or keywords available.
  • 46. User engaging with resources Steps taken: - views page http://lre.eun.org - views metadata - bookmarks and tags - rates - what about the actual use?
  • 47. Semantic analysis of tags  Factual tags 63% (Golder: item topics, kinds of item, category refinements) http://lre.eun.org  Subjective tags 29% ( Golder: item qualities)  Personal tags 3% (Golder: item ownership, self-reference, tasks organisation)  5% other  Sen et al. (2006).
  • 48. Why tag categories?  In Sen et al. (2006) it was found that tags of different categories can be useful for http://lre.eun.org different tasks  In our case it is too early to say anything, but ...we'll have an eye on it!
  • 49. Metadata LOM tags social bookmarks folksonomy social tagging multi-linguality social classification http://lre.eun.org thanks! for your attention learning resources user communities discover resources and items questions? teachers social navigation social traces paths, trails http://www.cs.kuleuven.ac.be/~hmdb/infovis/calibrate/calibrate.html flock