Searle ’s construction of social reality “ Some rules regulate antecedently existing forms of behaviour. For example, the rules of polite table behaviour regulate eating, but eating exists independently of these rules. Some rules, on the other hand, do not merely regulate an antecedently existing activity called playing chess; they, as it were, create the possibility of or define that activity. The activity of playing chess is constituted by action in accordance with these rules. Chess has no existence apart from these rules. The institutions of marriage, money, and promising are like the institutions of baseball and chess in that they are systems of such constitutive rules or conventions.
Dennet : attitudes like belief and desire are folk psychology concepts that can be fruitfully used in explanations of rational human behavior. For an explanation of behavior it does not matter whether one actually possesses these mental attitudes : we describe the behavior of an affectionate cat or an unwilling screw in terms of mental attitudes. Dennet calls treating a person o r artifact as a rational agent the ‘intentional stance’.
“ The possibility of ascribing goals, beliefs, and actions to collectives relies on the idea that collectives can be taken to resemble persons . […] both factual and normative beliefs can be ascribed (somewhat metaphorically) to groups, both formal and informal , structured and unstructured. ” Tuomela, 1995
Note that this article has normative element. Whether the Bill of Lading is evidence does not depend so much on whether a person is psychologically convinced by it, but the law simply stipulates that the buyer should consider this document as sufficient evidence.
a. When they take a decision, they consider also the goals of the group and they try to maximize their fulfillment. Hence, they are committed to the joint activity.
b. When they take a decision, they include in their decision actions which contribute to the efforts of the partners. Hence, they are committed to mutual support.
c. When they take a decision, they recursively model the decisions of their partners and their effects under the assumption that the partners are cooperative, too. Hence, they are mutually responsive to each other.
2. Roles depend on relationships The “context” of a role is always a social entity like a normative system, an organization or a functional area. This entity is seen as an agent able to attribute mental states to other agents. Thus to create roles.
6. The sequence in which roles may be acquired and relinquished can be subject to restrictions
The role playing relation, as an institutional fact, is changed by a power of an agent. Which are the possible powers is established by the normative system: thus they can be restricted by constitutive rules