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Late Middle Age Growth of Royal Power
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Late Middle Age Growth of Royal Power

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An overview of the growth of royal power in Britain and France during the Late Middle Ages, as well as information about Spain and Russia

An overview of the growth of royal power in Britain and France during the Late Middle Ages, as well as information about Spain and Russia

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  • this is high middle ages the late middle ages didn't start until around 1300 A.D.
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  • 1. Britain, France, Spain and Russia
  • 2.
    • Norman Conquest (1066 A.D.)
      • 1066 A.D.- Anglo-Saxon king Edward dies – brother in law Harold chosen to rule
      • Duke William of Normandy challenged throne – supported by Pope
      • Battle of Hastings – William vs. Harold – William won and became king as William the Conqueror (King William I)
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • William the Conqueror (William I) (r. 1066-1087 A.D.)
      • Feudal lord with vassals – vassals had to pledge first loyalty to him – granted fiefs but kept most land for himself
      • Compiled the Domesday Book, a census of the land, for tax collection
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • King Henry II (r. 1154-1189 A.D.)
      • Created a royal exchequer to collect taxes
      • Sent out traveling justices to enforce laws – called Common law because it was the same for all people
      • Early jury system- men sworn to tell the truth determined what cases should be brought to trial
  • 7.
    • King John (r. 1199-1216 A.D.)
      • Clashes with church - interdict of England by Pope Innocent III– England a fief to Rome
      • Magna Carter (Great Charter) – 1215 A.D. – confirmed feudal rights – gave nobles rights (later given to common people) and established monarchs must obey the law
      • Formation of Parliament – began as a council for advice – soon became a two house Model Parliament of nobles and middle class
  • 8.  
  • 9.
    • The Capetians
      • Hugh Capet- elected to rule in 987 A.D.
      • Hugh and successors strengthened royal power and added to their lands
      • Effective bureaucracy of tax collectors and officials who imposed royal law – keeping order gave Capetians the support of the middle class
  • 10.
    • Philip Augustus (Philip II) (r. 1179-1223 A.D.)
      • Used paid officials in government jobs rather than nobles to ensure loyalty
      • Created new cities by charter
      • Organized standing army
      • Began a national tax
      • Gained former English territory such as Normandy and land in southern France
  • 11.
    • Louis IX (r. 1226-1270 A.D.)
      • Used officials who checked on local administrators
      • Outlawed private wars - ended serfdom in his lands
      • France became a centralized monarchy
  • 12.
    • Philip IV (r. 1285-1314)
      • Taxed French clergy and angered the Pope
      • When Pope died, a Frenchman became Pope and was moved to Avignon so rulers could control religion
      • Set up the Estates-General in 1302 A.D.
        • Representative body
        • Contained members of the clergy, nobles, and townspeople
        • Sometimes the King would consult
  • 13.
    • 100 Years War (1337-1453 A.D.)
      • Wars between France and England
      • English rulers wanted to keep old French lands - French kings wanted French lands
      • Both sides took advantage of the use of the crossbow – England had the longbow – France also began to use the cannon
  • 14.  
  • 15.
      • Joan of Arc, age 17 in the year 1429 A.D., said God gave her the duty to save France
        • Led the army against the English
        • Brought about several French victories
        • Taken captive by English and burned at the stake as a witch
      • English defeated by the French
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • Reconquista
      • Christian kingdoms North wanted Muslims out to “reconquer” the land – largely successful
    • Isabella and Ferdinand
      • Completed the reconquista in 1492 A.D.
      • Wanted religious and political unity
      • No religious toleration of Muslims or Jews
      • Inquisition to try heresy
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.
    • Princes of Moscow in power after Mongols
    • Ivan the Great (r.1462-1505 A.D.)
      • Absolute rule – adopted Byzantine customs – took on the name czar (tsar), Russian for Caesar
      • Limited boyars, or nobles, power
    • Ivan the Terrible (r. 1547-1584 A.D.)
      • Introduced serfdom – granted land to nobles for military/other service
      • Oprichniki- “terror” agents who imposed laws