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  • http://www.bnd.com/2011/09/28/1879443/government-changes-course-on-swimming.html#disqus_thread is a good article showing IL has hundreds of pools with drain issues.
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  • quote 1 16 2011 chris
  • http://articles.boston.com/2011-07-22/news/29804096_1_water-clarity-workers-pool-manager-and-assistant http://blogs.plos.org/retort/2011/07/03/swimming-pool-safety-on-very-public-drownings/   drowned in a public swimming pool in Fall River, Mass., turned all the more macabre with the subsequent revelation that her body—spotted by chance this past Tuesday evening—had rested in the murk at the bottom of the pool for two days, unnoticed by dozens of swimmers or six lifeguards . The scandalous details of the case, from the unacceptable cloudiness of the water to reports that lifeguards ignored warnings from a 9-year-old boy that the woman was in trouble http://www.bostonherald.com/news/regional/view/2011_0703mom_lifeguards_ignored_sons_pleas_to_help_friend/srvc=home&position=0   Officials identified three state workers yesterday who were forced to resign after a woman drowned last month in a state-run pool in Fall River and her body went undetected in the water for more than 48 hours. The state Department of Conservation and Recreation identified the workers as Brian Shanahan, a full-time regional director for the department, and seasonal staff members Justin Medeiros and Kevin Tavares, the pool manager and assistant manager, respectively. Officials said on Wednesday that the workers were forced to resign following the death of Marie Joseph, 36, who drowned on June 26 at Vietnam Veterans Memorial Swimming Pool and was discovered in the water two days later. S.J. Port, a spokeswoman for DCR, said she did not have information last night on how long the men had worked for the department. Shanahan was paid an annual salary of $83,635.07, while Medeiros and Tavares were paid biweekly salaries of $1,363.98 and $1,131.20 respectively, according to DCR. Port said she could not say whether any of them had prior disciplinary issues during their employment, because that information would be part of their confidential personnel files. None of the men could be reached for comment last night. Also on Wednesday, Mayor William Flanagan of Fall River said a 10-year city inspector, Roger Casavant, had been fired after he inspected the pool hours before the discovery of Joseph’s body and issued a permit, despite noting in his report that the water was cloudy. Casavant could not be reached for comment last night. The family of a 9-year-old boy with Joseph when she went under the water has told reporters that he tried to alert lifeguards when she did not resurface, though a DCR investigator said Wednesday that the report has not been substantiated. Twelve minutes after Joseph disappeared under the water, workers closed the deep end of the pool, citing the water clarity, according to the initial results of a DCR investigation. The Bristol district attorney’s office is expected to complete its investigation of Joseph’s death next month.  
  • Causes of incidents: See Causes sheet. 42 falls: includes 8 falls from ladder, 4 falls from catwalk, 2 scaffolds, 2 aerial lifts 35 struck object: 14 saw blades, 13 falling objects (8 vehicle loads), 3 struck by flying object, 10 collapses: 5 aerial lifts, 2 forklifts, 2 ladders, 1 scaffold 7 burns: 4 pyrotechnics. 2 arc blasts, 1 gunpowder 6 caught in/between: 4 pyrotechnic explosions 16 other: 4 inhalation of CO, 3 hearing loss, 2 pedestrian struck by vehicle, 2 motor vehicle incidents, Activity: See Activity sheet
  • "We were attending a pool party, and Bryson was in the water with the other kids," said Moore, who has known Pope since he was a little boy. "All of a sudden, I saw Bryson going down in the water and I started screaming. Leonard was inside, and he came out of nowhere and dove into the water without any hesitation, cell phone in his pocket and all. He saved my son's life, and I am so thankful that he was there for me and my child." Pope was the only person at the party who knew how to swim so I don't want to think what would have happened if he weren't there. "My prayers were answered by God when Leonard jumped in and saved my son," said Moore. "The fact that he is normally at camp and could have been in Kansas City just proved to me that he was placed here to save my son from drowning, and I thank God that he was here. He truly lived up to his nickname "Champ" because he was truly a champion for me and my son this past weekend."  Bryson, 6, was attending a cousin’s birthday party when he went under in a pool around 7 p.m. Saturday at Troy Hill Apartments located on East Glessner Street. Bryson said he wondered if someone was going to save him. “When my head was going down into the water, and when my head was touching into the water, I got scared,” he said. “I felt (Pope) touching my waist, and then he picked me up, and I came up coughing. I didn’t feel so well.”
  • http://newsblog.projo.com/2011/07/lifeguard-rescues-boy-at-east.html  
  • http://www.greatfallstribune.com/article/20110726/NEWS01/107260301/Boy-alert-after-nearly-drowning-Great-Falls-pool A 12-year-old boy remained hospitalized Monday in Great Falls after surviving a near-drowning at Mitchell Pool on Saturday night. The boy was continuing to receive treatment at Benefis Health System, according to a city of Great Falls news release Monday afternoon. Great Falls police late Sunday had reported the boy was "alert" but still in intensive care at the hospital's east campus. Jennifer Reichelt, the deputy city manager, said the city wishes the boy, who has not been publicly identified, a speedy recovery. Reichelt said she had no additional medical information on the boy's condition. Reichelt said in an interview that the city's lifeguards, many of them older teenagers, are highly trained and acted appropriately under trying circumstances. The incident took place on a busy, sunny day at the Electric City Water Park, as temperatures rose into the low 80s. But the number of swimmers was reduced by early evening as a private party rented the facility, with city lifeguards still on duty. A mixture of adults and kids were using the pool at 7:45 p.m. when someone called out about an object under water, Reichelt said. Five lifeguards were on duty at Mitchell Pool along with a head lifeguard, not counting lifeguards in other parts of the water park, she said. "They jumped into action immediately," Reichelt said, explaining lifeguards are trained in what to do during an emergency. "They whistled three times. They jumped to the bottom of the pool." One called 9-1-1. While many of the lifeguards are younger than 20 years old, they must be certified and demonstrate physical ability in tests, Reichelt said. Officials said lifeguards are required to be able to swim 500 yards without stopping, be able to dive down 12 feet to retrieve a 10-pound brick and then carry it to the end of the pool and learn multiple rescue techniques. They also must meet swimming requirements each week and practice responses to emergency situations. Reichelt said there was some confusion among members of the public over the weekend over who performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, on the boy. "Our lifeguards did start CPR," she said. Reichelt said some adults on the scene also had CPR training and jumped in to assist. Great Falls Police and paramedics also were on the scene to help tend to the boy. She added the city's lifeguards all are well trained in CPR and must know it to be hired. Reichelt said the city's employees acted appropriately, then she added, "it's been a traumatic experience for all of them." Reichelt reassured the public that it is safe to swim in city pools. She said a look at city records showed no drowning or near-drowning incidents in city pools in recent years. "It's always been safe," Reichelt said. A city news release cited the city's "exemplary safety record" at its pools, and said its lifeguards acted immediately and were cool and calm under pressure. The news release referred to an "unfortunate water incident" at Mitchell Pool, the city's largest. Reichelt suggested that in light of Saturday's scare, city lifeguards will be even more vigilant. "They're going to be like hawks out there," the deputy city manager said.  
  • http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/local_news/article/Cable-repairman-saves-boy-from-drowning-1606814.php A cable repair technician working at a North Side apartment complex became a hero Tuesday evening when he revived a 7-year-old boy who nearly drowned.
  • Cramer did not know him or his family. Cramer noticed a couple of people by the deep end of the pool and went to see if he could help. He saw a man pulling a boy out of the water. “ I helped him with that,” Cramer said. “He asked if anyone knew CPR and I didn’t’ say anything, I just started looking for a pulse.” Cramer also works as a reserve deputy for the Cleveland County Sheriff’s Office. These highly trained volunteers are CLEET certified and give of their time to serve others. It’s not surprising then, to learn Cramer helped save the life of an unknown child while in Florida. NORMAN — By day, Victor Cramer works for the Oklahoma Department of Central Services. In fact, that’s why he was in Daytona, Fla. last week. “ I buy the vehicles for the state,” Cramer said. “I was at an auction.” “ I was sitting on a lounge chair (poolside),” Cramer said. “I had just gotten there Monday and was taking in the scenery.” His opportunity to kick back and relax only lasted about five minutes. “ A lady ran by and said ‘he drowned.’ That’s all she said.” There was “bloody foam coming out of his mouth and blood out of his eyes, nose and ears,” he said. “ We did about 20 cycles of CPR before we got a pulse,” Cramer said. Once they got a pulse, they rolled the boy to his side in a recovery position. “ He was still unconscious but he spit out a little bit of water.” A few minutes later, emergency medical responders showed up and took over, transporting the boy to the hospital. “ Afterwards, they said he was healthy. I checked on him every day when I was down there,” Cramer said. “I did not talk to him. I was getting updates on his status from the hotel management.” He was told the boy was taken off the respirator and had been writing sentences. Cramer said CPR is an important tool for saving lives and minimizing damage. “ When you’re doing CPR, and you’re doing chest compression, that pumps the heart and provides oxygen to the brain and organs,” Cramer said. “I still don’t know what that kid’s name is.” All Cramer knows is that the victim is a 15-year-old black male from Georgia. He never met the boy’s family. Cramer heard the boy had been swimming with his aunt and a cousin who got out to go to the hot tub located near the deep end of the pool. “ He was going to swim over there to met them, and he never made it,” Cramer said. Cleveland County Sheriff Joe Lester said he is not surprised. “ I think Victor (Cramer) exemplifies all of our reserve deputies and what they do, not only through this county and this state, but now other states,” said Lester. “The training that they have received in life saving was put to good use on this recent trip to Florida.”
  • Pediatrician Dr. Zach Reda, who testified in the case, says the club was unlicensed, and the lifeguards were untrained in child C.P.R. Those are important cautions for parents as summer approaches.  Noel's law firm Cappello & Noel brought suit against the athletic club on behalf of Yoni's parents. Yoni's father Oded  was understandably devastated when he viewed the security camera video http://www.thedailysound.com/043009PunitiveDamages www.yonigottesman.com/.../articles/KTLA_ Drowning _Danger.pdf
  • • Hair entrapment — hair knotted or snagged in an outlet cover. • Limb entrapment — a limb inserted or sucked into an outlet opening with a broken or missing cover, resulting in a mechanical bind or swelling. • Body suction entrapment — suction applied to a large portion of the body, resulting in entrapment. • Evisceration/disembowelment —suction applied directly to intestines through an unprotected sump or suction outlet with a missing or broken cover. • Mechanical entrapment —jewelry, swimsuit, hair decorations, finger or toe, etc. caught in the opening of an outlet or cover.   Suction drains at the bottom of pools pose a particular risk. 7-year-old Virginia Graeme Baker, the granddaughter of former Secretary of State James Baker, III, drowned in 2007 when her body was held underwater by one. In 2009, a law in her name mandated specialized drain covers and a second anti-entrapment system in public pools and spas. The law didn't apply to private pools.
  • One young man is dead and another is clinging to life after a breath-holding exercise went terribly awry in Staten Island yesterday . Bodhan Vitenko and Jonathan Proce, both 21, were pulled, seemingly lifeless, from the bottom of the Lyons pool yesterday morning at around 8:25 a.m. and immediately went into cardiac arrest. For the past month they had been practicing at the 3 1/2 foot deep pool with two friends in the hopes of one day joining elite military groups. Vitenko, a John Jay College student with Navy aspirations, died about 9:45 a.m. while Proce is still listed in critical condition . It is unclear how long the pair were underwater for—surveillance video is still being analyzed by the authorities—but a source tells us that the pair had ankle weights as part of their exercise and could have been down as long as 20 minutes. The pair were both reportedly interested in joining the Air Force's pararescue unit. About 20 other people were swimming in the pool at the time of the accident and the pool was staffed with lifeguards. In fact Proce works as a lifeguard at another borough pool, according to reports . "We're very surprised about what happened because Jonathan is a very accomplished swimmer," his uncle told reporters. http://gothamist.com/2011/07/14/breath-holding_exercise_in_shallow.php
  • Hypothermia symptoms usually begin slowly. As you develop hypothermia, your ability to think and move often become clouded. In fact, you may even be unaware that you need help. As your thought process is impaired, you fail to realize that you are becoming colder. Once you get cold, it can be very difficult to get warm again. Someone with hypothermia is likely to have frostbite as well. The key hypothermia symptom is an internal body temperature below 95º F (normal is 98.6º F). Usually, everyone thinks about hypothermia occurring in extremely cold temperatures, but that doesn’t have to be the case. It can happen anytime that you are exposed to cool, damp conditions. Older people are more susceptible to hypothermia. Two things to remember about hypothermia is that… You don’t need to be experiencing sub-zero temperatures to encounter hypothermia and … Your judgment will be impaired making you much more likely to experience an accident. If you, or someone in your group, becomes hypothermic, take immediate action before it becomes a severe emergency! Hypothermia symptoms include: Uncontrollable shivering (although, at extremely low body temperatures, shivering may stop) Weakness and loss of coordination Confusion Pale and cold skin Drowsiness – especially in more severe stages Slowed breathing or heart rate If not treated promptly, lethargy, cardiac arrest, shock, and coma can set in. Hypothermia can even be fatal. Hypothermia signs that can be observed by others: Slowing of pace, drowsiness, fatigue Stumbling Thickness of Speech Amnesia Irrationality, poor judgment Hallucinations Loss of perceptual contact with environment Blueness of skin Dilation of pupils Decreased heart and respiration Stupor Death Victims need IMMEDIATE help if the following symptoms are present: If you observe ANY of these hypothermia sympthoms or signs in yourself or anyone in your party, seek immediate help: Poor articulation of words Disorientation Decrease in shivering followed by rigidity of muscles Cyanosis (Blueness of Skin) Slowness of pulse, irregular or weak pulse
  • http://deadspin.com/5823556/north-carolina-woman-left-paralyzed-after-bachelorette+party-accident--will-get-married-today
  • http://www2.tbo.com/news/breaking-news/2011/sep/15/osha-investigating-adventure-island-lifeguards-dea-ar-257702/
  • http://www2.tbo.com/news/breaking-news/2011/sep/15/osha-investigating-adventure-island-lifeguards-dea-ar-257702/ TAMPA -- During peak hours, large crowds at theme parks increase the probability of accidents, injuries and in some cases, deaths, industry experts said. Throw in unpredictable Florida weather, especially here in lightning-prone Tampa, and anything can happen. Those are the factors to consider in the case of Justin Savers Inversso, an Adventure Island lifeguard who died last week when he was struck by lighting, according to William Avery, a consultant on theme park safety. "You can do everything by the book, you can have the best plan in the world and still get caught," said Avery, whose firm is based in Maitland. "You can bank on lightning being predictably unpredictable." Inversso was evacuating patrons from the 700-foot tall Key West Rapids ride about 11:50 a.m. on Saturday as a storm was about to sweep through the area, according to relatives. When lightning struck the tower, Inversso was standing in about two or three feet of water, probably at a curve in the water slide where tube riders sometimes get stuck, relatives said. The Pasco County High School graduate was taken to University Community Hospital where he died. He just turned 21 the day before. His funeral was held Wednesday in his hometown of Dade City. Inversso's death is being investigated by the Tampa office of the Occupational Health & Safety Administration. Les Grove, the agency's area director, declined to comment because of the ongoing investigation. Jim Dean, the president of Busch Gardens and Adventure Island, said in a statement that the fatal lightning strike was the first incident of its kind since the water park opened in 1980. The park has systems, including weather radar, that monitors the approach of severe weather, said Jill Revelle, Busch Gardens spokeswoman. A park manager is responsible for checking on weather conditions, she said. All of the park's rides are closed and cleared of patrons if lightning is detected in the area, Dean said. He, Revelle and other park officials declined to comment on Inversso's death and the investigation. Avery, the safety consultant, said from what he's read in news reports, it appears that Inversso and park officials were following procedure. But there could have been other factors in play that OSHA investigators could focus on. "Did he move quickly enough? Was it a particularly busy day?" Avery said. "Did he do what needed to be done to evacuate?" When he was the safety manager at Polk County's now defunct Boardwalk and Baseball theme park in the 1990s, Avery said the time needed to evacuate patrons depended on how fast a storm was moving. The industry doesn't have a set time frame for that and it is up to the discretion of park officials, he said. "But you can't wait until a storm is five miles out," Avery said. "Seconds can be your enemy. In Florida, storms can happen in a short period of time." Aleatha Ezra, spokeswoman for the World Waterpark Association, said most parks across the nation have a weather monitoring system, but there are no regulations that require them to have one. There are more than 1,000 water parks across North America, according to the association, which had 79 million visitors last year. Adventure Island had 626,000 in 2010, which placed it eighth on a list of 20 parks with the highest attendance, an industry report said. Typhoon Lagoon at Walt Disney World tops the list with 2 million visitors last year. Even with those attendance numbers, reports of lightning striking visitors or park workers is rare, Ezra said. Avery agrees. "Statistically, it's rare, but it's always a possibility," he said. Park operators try to establish solid safety plans, but in Florida, "your park would be shut down half the day if you worried too much," Avery said. Patrons have a responsibility for their safety too, he said. "If you see dark clouds, it's a clue. If you see lightning, get out of the water," Avery said. "You shouldn't wait for the park to tell you that."
  • • Hair entrapment — hair knotted or snagged in an outlet cover. • Limb entrapment — a limb inserted or sucked into an outlet opening with a broken or missing cover, resulting in a mechanical bind or swelling. • Body suction entrapment — suction applied to a large portion of the body, resulting in entrapment. • Evisceration/disembowelment —suction applied directly to intestines through an unprotected sump or suction outlet with a missing or broken cover. • Mechanical entrapment —jewelry, swimsuit, hair decorations, finger or toe, etc. caught in the opening of an outlet or cover.   Suction drains at the bottom of pools pose a particular risk. 7-year-old Virginia Graeme Baker, the granddaughter of former Secretary of State James Baker, III, drowned in 2007 when her body was held underwater by one. In 2009, a law in her name mandated specialized drain covers and a second anti-entrapment system in public pools and spas. The law didn't apply to private pools.
  • http://gcaptain.com/drowning/?10981 There is very little splashing, no waving, and no yelling or calls for help of any kind.  To get an idea of just how quiet and undramatic from the surface drowning can be, consider this:  It is the number two cause of accidental death in children, age 15 and under (just behind vehicle accidents) – of the approximately 750 children who will drown next year, about 375 of them will do so within 25 yards of a parent or other adult.  In ten percent of those drownings, the adult will actually watch them do it, having no idea it is happening (source: CDC). Instinctive drowning response http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instinctive_drowning_response
  • Read more:  http://www.bnd.com/2011/07/24/1796827/six-shocked-in-granite-city-pool.html#ixzz1T3c6U56J
  • ANSI 7.2.3 There shall be a completely unobstructed distance of 14 feet above the tip of the diving board.  (two exceptions)    
  •   July 25, 2011 KENNER, La. – A nine-year-old boy has died after drowning in a Kenner country club pool Monday afternoon. Tuesday morning, the Jefferson Parish Coroner's Office identified the boy as Zaven Sears and confirmed that the cause of death was asphyxiation by drowning following an autopsy. Sears had apparently scaled a gate with a friend to swim in the pool that was closed because of the rain. http://www.wwltv.com/home/9-year-old-in-hospital-after-possible-drowning-126138408.html    
  • Call U.S.A. Diving's main office in Indianapolis: (317) 237-5252 to get the 2nd edition. On page 54, you will find a good description and discussion of the regulations. On page 55, is the pool diagram and dimensions in meters   http://www.duraflexinternational.com/faqindex.php?faq_id=2
  • http://www.startribune.com/local/minneapolis/126097783.html     http://toronto.ctv.ca/servlet/an/local/CTVNews/20110727/13-year-old-boy-drowns-niagara-falls-110727/20110727/?hub=TorontoNewHome   July 23, 2011 NIAGARA FALLS, Ont — A 13-year-old boy has drowned in a motel pool in Niagara Falls, Ont. Emergency personnel rushed to the A-1 Motel on Lundy's Lane Tuesday night after the teen was found in the outdoor pool. He was pronounced dead at the Niagara hospital. Police are investigating, but say the incident does not appear to be suspicious.    
  • ELYSBURG, Pa. - A 6-year-old boy who jumped into a swimming pool at an amusement park in eastern Pennsylvania did not resurface and later died. George S. Roberts III, of Wilkes-Barre, was found under water on Wednesday afternoon at Knoebels (pronounced kuh-NO'-bulz) Amusement Resort in Elysburg, police said. Lifeguards tried to resuscitate him but Roberts later died at a nearby hospital, Locust Township Police Chief Allen L. Breach said. An autopsy is planned on Friday. There were conflicting reports about whether the boy hit his head. Park co-owner Buddy Knoebel, who was not on site when the accident occurred, told the Press Enterprise of Bloomsburg that Roberts was diving into a 4- to 5-foot-deep water that is posted with "No Diving" signs. A statement on the park's website said: "Initial reports indicated that he had hit his head. We later learned that no head injury was involved." "Please join the Knoebel families in placing the child's family and friends in your prayers," the statement said. Knoebel said the child's death was the first fatality from an accident at the 85-year-old park, which is about 95 miles northwest of Philadelphia. ,,,
  • http://www.desmoinesregister.com/article/20110726/NEWS/107260332/-1/digdev_wrapper_nav/?odyssey=nav%7Chead A Fort Dodge toddler drowned in an Osage pool during a family reunion Sunday despite the presence of two lifeguards on duty and two others nearby. The boy's mother was on the pool deck at the time. As of Monday afternoon, authorities hadn't determined how Ryan Detmering of Fort Dodge got into the Lazy River feature at the Cedar River Complex pool. He was found about 2:40 p.m., facedown in 3½ feet of water. The small, river-like attraction is off to one side of the main pool. A current moves swimmers in a circle. The main pool has a beach-style entrance that is about 18 inches at its deepest point. Three lap-swimming lanes are in 3½ to 12 feet of water. This was the first drowning at the pool, which had not had a serious accident of any kind since opening last year, said Osage Mayor Steve Cooper, who also is chairman of the board that runs the complex. Regulations call for one lifeguard for the 35 swimmers on hand, but the pool had two on duty when the boy was discovered by a 14-year-old lifeguard trainee. Lifeguards tried to resuscitate the boy, who was declared dead at a local hospital an hour later. Authorities didn't release the names of his parents. Ryan's uncle, Curtis Detmering of Fort Dodge, said the family would not have any comment on the tragedy. Funeral arrangements are pending and expected to be completed sometime today, Detmering said. The pool staff and officials struggled to cope, too. "We're feeling grief," Cooper said. "This was an accident. We're very, very confident that everything in place was adequate." Cooper said the pool is just a year old and meets all standards for lighting, supervision and safety equipment. The staff will review procedures, Cooper said, but is not expected to find anything was amiss. The pool will remain closed until an investigation is complete.

Transcript

  • 1. You Don't Pay Lifeguards to Babysit... You Pay Them to Save Lives. Swimming Pool Safety Draft 9 15 2011 Newquist
  • 2. Lifeguards
    • Lifeguards have a tremendous responsibility.
    • They save lives similar to fire fighters, and emergency medical professionals.
    • They try to prevent accidental drowning.
    • This PowerPoint starts with one public death and then many local saves this year.
    • This PowerPoint collects some of the recent DeKalb lifeguard saves that are often never recognized by the public.
    • Several of the drowning accidents used here are to prevent future occurrences.
    • Most photos are depictions of similar issues.
  • 3. 36-year-old mother of five - July 2011
    • Fall River, MA
    • Her body rested in the murk at the bottom of the public pool for two days.
    • Unacceptable cloudiness of the water.
    • Diver at the bottom after the accident the next day was not visible at the bottom.
  • 4. Water Clarity    
    • Tests for chlorine are not to determine clarity and visibility.
    • Need test to ensure bottom can be seen.
    •  
    • ANSI Appendix H "The deepest part of the pool shall be visible and sharply defined”.
    •  
    ANSI/NSPI -1 Standard for Public Swimming Pools. 2003
  • 5. These Deaths Were Preventable
      • These were not isolated cases.
      • According to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, drowning is the sixth leading cause of death when it comes to unintentional injuries.   
      • Workers have a right to a safe workplace.
      • In the swimming pool sector these are the largest risks among many:
        • Drowning
        • Hurt while diving
        • Slips and Falls
        • Heat and Sun
        • Chemicals
      • All of these are preventable
  • 6. Injury Prevention Basics
      • Management Leadership
      • Employee Participation
      • Hazard Prevention and Control
      • Education and Training
      • Program Evaluation and Improvement
      • Communication and coordination on multi-employer sites
      • These principles are adopted and recognized by…
        • 2100 VPP Companies
        • 1600 SHARPs
        • 1926.20, 1926.21
        • 1910.119
        • ANSI Z9.10
        • OHSAS 18001
        • States AR, CA, LA, HI, MN, MT NV, NH, NY, OR, WA
  • 7. Saves = Near Miss
    • In many companies, they track near misses to prevent future serious accidents and deaths.
    • These near misses are free lessons to change the outcome of the next event.
  • 8. Swim Lesson Save - DeKalb 2010
    • Pool was overloaded with kids learning how to swim going back and forth using bubble floats.
    • At the five foot area of the pool, the six year old girl was bobbing up and down and swallowing water.
    • Off duty Lifeguard saved the girl when he noticed the signs of drowning.
    • Bubble floats are not life vests!
    • How many swimmers can one swim instructor handle?
  • 9. Water Aerobics Rescue - DeKalb July 13, 2011
    • Water aerobic class was getting ready to start.
    • Open swim participants were getting out.
    • 93 year old women lost footing in swallow end and went under.
    • Lifeguard slid in feet first and pulled her up.
    • She got her footing back with the lifeguard’s help and was taken out. 
    •  
  • 10. DeKalb Double Save July 20, 2011    
    • 7 year old who could not swim grabbed her older sister 11 years old who could swim and took both down. 
    • Lifeguard saw this and rescued both.
    • Parent had left to use the bathroom for a minute. 
  • 11. DeKalb Save July 29, 2011
    • Mom, grandma, and kids ages 2, 3, & 6.
    • The six year old took off life vest to get ready to leave. 
    • He then got excited and jumped into the pool.
    • He went right under. 
    • Lifeguard at deep end did not see him in go into water that was over 6 inches his head.
    • His mom yelled and lifeguard saw him
    • and went in. 
    • The kid was coughing when rescued,
    • but did not require CPR.
    • Mom had a toddler in hand and
    • grandma could not swim.
  • 12. DeKalb Slide Save July 21, 2011
    • Parent takes flotation device off 2 year year old.
    • The two year goes on the slide in deep end.
    • The parent catches the kid, but goes under trying to keep her daughter up.
    • Off duty lifeguard dives in and grabs the kid. The mother is then able to come up.
    •  
    • Slide is in deep end. WHY?
    Slide in Shallow end
  • 13. DeKalb Slide Save January 2011    
    • 20 year old babysitter took 8 year old girl to slide.
    • The babysitter thought she could could catch and hold girl.
    • 8 year old could not swim.
    • The babysitter went under after catching girl. 
    •  
    • Lifeguard went in and took 8 year old to side of the pool.
    •  
    • The babysitter was able to come up then.
  • 14. DeKalb Activity Center Save 2011  
    • Father w/ 4 kids - 10, 8, 2, 1
    • Father leaves activity center w just 2 year old.
    • Activity center has toys w/ choking hazards.
    • One year old puts toys in his mouth.
    • Supervisor sees this and gets the toy out. She picks up small toys.
    • Supervisor sits with baby until dad gets back.
    • The activity camera does not cover area.
    • Toys must be age appropriate for kids.
    • Post age restriction.
    • Activity Center part of the pool complex.
  • 15. Leonard Pope Saves 6 y.o. Child June 12, 2011
    • “ I saw Bryson going down in the water and I started screaming. Leonard was inside, and he came out of nowhere and dove into the water without any hesitation, cell phone in his pocket and all.”
    • “ When my head was going down into the water, and when my head was touching into the water, I got scared,” 6 year old Bryson said. “I felt Pope touching my waist, and then he picked me up, and I came up coughing. I didn’t feel so well.”
    • “ Pope was the only person at the party who knew how to swim so I don't want to think what would have happened if he weren't there.”
    “ He saved my son's life, and I am so thankful that he was there for me and my child.”
  • 16. RI Rescue July 12, 2011
    • East Providence Boys & Girls Club, RI
    • Joshua Adweysi, 11, of East Providence, had jumped into the pool with the other children and swum into the deep end.
    • Lifeguard Regan Jeffrey, 20, said the boy was swimming along the bottom when he seemed to panic and struggle. "The kids started freaking out."
    • Jeffrey said he dove in and pulled Joshua out of the water. Rogers said the lifeguard performed CPR on the boy, who was taken to Hasbro Children's Hospital.
    • The children were involved in a summer program run by the city's recreation department. Rogers said there were 61 children at the pool that day, supervised by five staff and two lifeguards.
  • 17. 12 y.o. Boy 'alert' after nearly drowning in Great Falls pool July 23, 2011
    • A mixture of adults and kids were using the pool at 7:45 p.m. when someone called out about an object under water.
    • "They jumped into action immediately," Reichelt said, explaining lifeguards are trained in what to do during an emergency. "They whistled three times. They jumped to the bottom of the pool. One called 9-1-1.”
    • The boy was continuing to receive treatment at Benefis Health System, according to a city of Great Falls news release Monday afternoon.
    • Great Falls police late Sunday had reported the boy was "alert" but still in intensive care at the hospital's east campus.
    • "Our lifeguards did start CPR," she said.
  • 18. TX Apartment Pool Save July 25, 2011
    • Witnesses at the Winding Creek Apartment Homes saw the 7 y.o boy facedown in the pool and thought he was playing.
    • Arreguin, 30, a cable repair tech, said he was about to check on his next job when he heard screams.
    • The foster parent trained in CPR jumped over a gate into the pool area and saw that the boy was out of the water but wasn't breathing.
    • "His face was all blue. It was pretty bad," Arreguin said. "All I could picture was my own son — he's 6 and almost the same size — and that this was the worst thing that could happen.“
    • After he performed CPR for what "felt like forever," Arreguin said the boy started breathing again.
  • 19. OK Reserve Deputy Helps Save Teen’s Life 
    • “ There was no pulse. We started CPR. He was doing the chest compressions, and I was doing the mouth-to-mouth, the breathing portion,” Cramer said.
    • The young man was just an average 15-year-old boy.
    • “ He was not breathing.”
    • “ There was bloody foam
    • coming out of his mouth and
    • blood out of his eyes, nose
    • and ears,” he said.
    • “ We did about 20 cycles of
    • CPR before we got a pulse,”
    • Cramer said.
    • Once they got a pulse, they
    • rolled the boy to his side in a
    • recovery position.
  • 20. Hazards to Public
    • The following slides are hazards to the public.
  • 21. Camp Accident 2005
    • Four-year old Yoni Gottesman was a happy, athletic kid from Santa Barbara. In 2005, Yoni went to swim camp at the Cathedral Oaks Athletic Club in Goleta. He never came home.
    • "He's taken out into the middle of the pool, he's dunked 12 times, very aggressively, as you can see on the video, and then the camp counselor essentially swims away from him," Santa Barbara attorney Leila Noel tells KTLA News.
    • Family is awarded $2.3 million
    • in punitive damages.
    • Total damages in boy's
    • drowning top $16 million.
    • The club was unlicensed.
    • The lifeguards were not
    • trained in child C.P.R.
    http://www.yonigottesman.co m/yonis_death_page2.htm Click on: Security Video
  • 22. Running
    • Slips on same surface can result in loss of life or large $ claims.
    • Incident where grandfather chasing grandkid slipped and died.
    • One ASSE 2010 presentation said 20% of $250,000+ worker compensations claims were slips on same surface.
  • 23. Suction Entrapment
    • Dangerous Game played by kids is "touch the drain".
    • Use stickers instead.
    • Coins often near drains.
    • No coins in pool.
    •  
    • ANSI 11.1 The suction outlets shall provide protection from body and hair entrapment. (Clothing, jewelry, etc.)
  • 24. No Diving Shallow End
    • Numerous paralyzations
    • Chipped teeth
    • Concussions
    •  
    • ANSI 18.3.9 - Pools of depths of 5 feet or less shall display the No Diving symbol every 25 feet on the deck.
    • 24.1 No Diving for shallow water signs shall be provided and posted.
  • 25. Baby Pools
    • Attentiveness of Parent?
    • It is tough to gauge whether they are paying attention.
    See ANSI standard for other requirements
  • 26. Breath Holding Deaths July 2011
    • Bodhan Vitenko and Jonathan Proce, both 21, were pulled, seemingly lifeless, from the bottom of the Lyons pool yesterday morning at around 8:25 a.m. and immediately went into cardiac arrest.
    • Need someone watching at all time. Especially with two.
    •  
    • Need quick release mechanism.
    • Use shallow end.
  • 27. Hypothermia    
    • You don’t need to be experiencing sub-zero temperatures to encounter hypothermia and …
    • Your judgment will be impaired making you much more likely to experience an accident.
    • Hypothermia symptoms include:
    • Uncontrollable shivering
    • Weakness and loss of coordination
    • Confusion
    • Pale and cold skin
    • Drowsiness – especially in more severe stages
    • Slowed breathing or heart rate
    • If not treated promptly cardiac arrest, shock, and coma can develop.
  • 28. Deep End Ability
    • Can the child swim?
    • Some cities use a Deep End Patch.
    • Qualifiers must be able to swim a set distance.
    • The patch is pinned/sewn onto the swimming pool uniform.
    •  
  • 29. Horseplay
    • Last June, middle-school teacher Rachelle Friedman was preparing to get married. But then, a friend pushed her into a pool. Playfully. With no malice, Friedman says. She hit the bottom awkwardly, though, and the end result was that she was a quadriplegic.
    No pushing people in the pool No throwing in the pool No dunking No chicken fight No alcohol
  • 30. Hazard to Guards
    • The following slides are hazards to guards.
  • 31. Lightning
    • Inversso was evacuating patrons from the 700-foot tall Key West Rapids ride about 11:50 a.m. on Saturday as a storm was about to sweep through the area, according to relatives.
    • When lightning struck the tower, Inversso was standing in about two or three feet of water, probably at a curve in the water slide where tube riders sometimes get stuck, relatives said.
    Use the weather reports to track lightning and severe weather. Establish rules that give plenty of time to evacuate the pool and provide shelter.
  • 32. Suction Entrapment
    • Must have policy when staff near drain.
    •  
    • Equipment must always be guarded or locked out. No exceptions.
    • Lockout. De-energize.
    • OSHA rule is 1910.147.
  • 33. Heat and Sun   
    • Heat exhaustion possible at indoor pools.
    • Cool room is needed.
    •  
    • Use sunscreen to avoid skin cancer.
    •   
    • Need to be hydrated with fluids.
    • Electrolyte replacement is necessary.
  • 34. Signs of Drowning
    • Look for signs of drowning when swimmers are in the water:
      • Head low in the water, mouth at water level
      • Head tilted back with mouth open
      • Eyes glassy and empty, unable to focus
      • Eyes closed
      • Hair over forehead or eyes
      • Not using legs – Vertical
      • Hyperventilating or gasping
      • Trying to swim in a particular direction but not making headway
      • Trying to roll over on the back
  • 35. Conflict Resolution
    • DeKalb – 1/16/11
    • The pool had Open Swim vs. lap lanes
    • Customer did not know the rules of staying with young kids.
    • Parent brought kids and wanted to leave.
    • The kids couldn’t swim.
    • The parent argued with life guard about the rule in threatening manner.
    • “ You are here to serve me!"
    Lap laners have become territorial in using “their” lane.
  • 36. Distractions
    • Don't disturb the lifeguard.
    • Guards cannot watch swimmers and answer questions.
    • There needs to be a protocol for relieving guards.
    • Guards going off duty must hands off responsibilities.
    • There must be a set of eyes on swimmers at all times.
    • Guards need to see ladder while climbing down lest they slip.
  • 37. Electrical     
    • GFCI outlets
    • No extension cords
    • Periodic tests
    • Lockout
    • 7/24/11
    • Six people suffered electrical shocks Friday night in a private swimming pool in Granite City according to police.
    • A maintenance man was working near the pool about 8:30 p.m. in the 4700 block of Danielle Court.
  • 38. Shift length?
    • Some guards are working 10-12 hour days.
    • How much is too much?
  • 39. Chemical    
    • PPE hazard analysis is required 1910.132.
    • Train workers 1910.1200(h).
    • No bleach and acids. Separated in storage also.
    • Teenagers supervising teens using chemicals?
    • Must get pool stains out so what is safe to use? 
    Note: Cloth respirator is not acceptable for chemicals.
  • 40. Sunglasses        
    • Glare affects ability to see pool bottom.
    • No napping behind shades.
    •  
    • Eyes need a rest from watching. Eye fatique. 
    •  
    Polarized lenses allow more visibility.
  • 41. Industry Standards
      • ANSI/NSPI -1 Standard for Public Swimming Pools. 2003
      • www.nspi.org
  • 42. Ratio of guards to swimmers
    • What is the maximum capacity?
    •  
    • Consider Age mix vs. length of shift.
    •  
    • Are their more strong swimmers or weak swimmers?
    •  
    •  
    • Follow 10/20 rule.  lifeguard who spots someone in trouble needs to respond in 10 second and reach the person in 20 seconds
  • 43. Maximum User Load for the Pool
    • See ANSI std.
    •  
    • User load is 8 to 15 sq. ft. per user in shallow depending on deck area.
    •  
    • Deep end is 10-20 sq. ft. per user depending on deck area.
  • 44. Diving Boards
    • One on the board at a time.
    •  
    • Kids get dared to jump off the board though they may not be able to swim.
    •  
    • Panic drags rescuer, friend, or lifeguard down.
    •  
    • ANSI 6.6 The Manufacturer shall specify the water envelope for its product. (includes depth needed) 
    • ANSI 7.2.5.2 The label indicating the diving envelope shall by permanently affixed to the diving equipment.  The maximum weight of the diving board user shall also be labeled.
    • ANSI 7.2.5.6 Guardrails on boards 1 meter and higher.  
    •  
  • 45. Circulation System
    • 8.1.1 Must turnover the entire pool water supply to 1.5 x average depth to a maximum of six hours.
    •  
    • 5 feet deep on average x 1.5 = 7.5 hours. But max is 6 hours so this is used.
    •   
    • 8.4.1 Flow measuring device is required
    •  
    • 15.4.1.1 Public access to to pool temperature controls is not allowed. 
    • 18.5.3 Pump Shutoff  Switch sign is required to be posted.
    •  
  • 46. Lighting    
    • 13.2 Sufficent illuminations shall be provided to all portions of the pool.
    •  
    • 13.2.1 Overhead lighting 3 ft-candles
    • 13.2.2 Underwaterwater 5.4 watts/sqft of pool area
    • 13.3 No underwater if 15 foot candles over head lighting provided.
  • 47. Pool Depth Marking and Separation
    • 18.2.1 Where pools exceed 6 feet, 4 inches, a wide contrasting color band extending down from the waterline tile, down across the wall, across the floor, and up the opposing wall to the waterline shall be located at the 5 foot water depth point.
    •  
    • A rope and float line shall be located 1-2 feet on the shallow side of that band.
    •  
    • 18.3.1 Depth of water in feet shall be plainly marked on the vertical pool wall at or above the water line
    • 18.3.3  Depth of water in feet shall be plainly marked at the maximum and minimum water depths and at all points of slope change.
  • 48. Rescue Equipment
    • ANSI 18.5.1 Lifesaving equipment equipment shall be on hand and conspicious. Includes:
    •  
    • 18.5.1
    • Body hook that is 12 feet or longer
    •  
    • 18.5.1.2
    • 1/4 inch diameter throwing rope with 15 inch ring buoy or equivalent. Rope length shall be 1.5x than the max width of the pool 
    •  
    • 18.5.1.3
    • First Aid kit meeting OSHA requirements.  
  • 49. Glass and Food
    • 21.1.1 Food and beverages must be in unbreakable containers.
    •  
    • 21.1.2 Trash containers shall be provided.
    •  
    •  
  • 50. Other     
    • See your state pool regulations.
    •  
    • 22.2 Lifeguards shall be equipped w a rescue tube and attired so that they are readily identifiable as members of the lifeguarding staff.
    • 22.2.6 An emergency action plan is required.
  • 51. Chemical Operation
    • ANSI specify limits on chemicals in pool
    •  
    • Free Chlorine maximum is 10 ppm. Minimum is 1.0 ppm. Ideal is 2.0-4.0 ppm.
    •  
    • See ANSI for other chemicals, alkanlinity, total dissolved solids, calcium hardness, algae, and bacteria.  
    •  
    • Ph is maximum is 7.8. Minimum is 7.2. Ideal is 7.4-7.6.
    •  
    • Water Temperature is maximum is 104F. Minimum is not specified. Ideal is 78F-82F.
  • 52. Slides
    • Consider putting slides in the shallow end like Hopkins Park (DeKalb) and Sycamore IL Pools. Must meet Consumer Product Safety Commission requirements of 16 CFR 1207. 
    •  
    • (e) Lubrication. Swimming pool slides shall either be equipped with a method of lubrication (for example, water) or have a similar coefficient of friction so that the slider has a smooth, continuous slide.
    • (f)(5) Slide geometry. Swimming pool slide runways shall have a smooth transition section and have geometry such that the path of the center of gravity of the slider is not more than ±10° from the horizontal at the center of gravity's exit off the slide and such that the slider's angle of attack shall be at least +15° when the slider's feet leave the slide.
  • 53. One Meter Diving Board
    • The best place to look for these regulations is in U.S.A. Diving Safety Training Manual.  Manufacturer's recomendations can be used, but if shorter depth is specified, then analysis of risk is necessary. Most of the dimensions are measured from a reference point, called the "plummet" which is the center front end of the diving board, in the position where it will be installed.
    •  
    • For a 1M installation of a 16' diving board, the water depth at plummet must be at least 11.2 feet deep. The water depth 16.4 feet ahead of the plummet must be at least 10.8 feet deep.
  • 54. Training
    • Need to have inservices and training simulations on a frequent basis.
    • A life guard test every six months administered by another guard is not adequate.
    •  
    • ANSI 22.2.2 Lifeguards must be lifeguard and CPR certified.
    •  
    •  
    • 22.1 Certified pool operator is required.
    •  
    • 22.2.1 a CPR certified person shall be on the premise.
    • Lifeguards must have training of worst case scenario
    • - running
    • - suction
    • - dunking
    • lack of water clarity
  • 55. Further
      • This was prepared as a collaborative effort to be used as a preliminary aid for anyone in the Pool Safety field by Chris Newquist.
      • These are just some the issues. A comprehensive job hazard analysis should be conducted for any pool where someone can get hurt.
      • This is not an official OSHA publication. Those will be on the OSHA.gov website.
      • Email [email_address] if you see errors.
      • I want to thank John Newquist (johnanewquist@gmail.com), Alex Newquist, Nancy Mugavero, Lisa Sciolaro, Pamela Huck, and Janet S. for all their assistance in answering questions and providing insight to the many hazards in this sector.
  • 56. RipCurrents
    • + Don't fight the current
    • + Swim out of the current, then to shore
    • + If you can't escape, float or tread water
    • + If you need help, call or wave for assistance
    • Consider posting at your workplace, and educate children in your arm's reach. It is in English and Spanish. Every year we have drownings on Lake Michigan due to rip currents.
    • Many bodies of water produce rip currents. You cant see them, but with the proper technique you can swim out of them.
    • KNOW IT. SHARE IT.
    • www.ripcurrents.noaa.gov
    • www.usla.org
  • 57. Other Deaths
    • Hundreds drown in public pools.
    • Rivers and Lake kill hundreds more.
    • Lake Michigan has 60+ drowning deaths in 2011.
  • 58. July 18, 2011
    • Authorities say a 24-year-old man drowned in the city swimming pool in the eastern South Dakota community of Clark.
    • Clark County Sheriff Rob McGraw says 24-year-old Jose Barajas jumped into the pool on Monday night and didn’t resurface.
    • Lifeguards brought him out and attempted to resuscitate him, but he was pronounced dead at the scene.
  • 59. Hotel Pools
    • July 4, 2011 Daytona Beach Shores police Sgt. Mike Fowler described as a "sad story on a Fourth of July," occurred at 12:15 p.m. at the Oceanside Inn pool at 1909 South Atlantic Ave.
    • The boy was with several family members at the pool. A video surveillance recording reviewed by investigators showed there were numerous people in the pool but that the 2 year old child went unnoticed underwater for nine minutes, Fowler said.
  • 60. June 24, 2011
    • Friday started as a day of fun for six year old Keegan Adkins.
    • “ I was there at the country club pool, turned around, got another seat and he was gone. It happened in a matter of seconds," Keegan's mother said. 
    • Keegan was pulled from the bottom of the pool, was given CPR and was rushed to Kosair Children's Hospital, but died on Saturday.
    • "You've got to pick out that one person in the crowd that's having trouble, and sometimes, that's very difficult," Barnett, the safety director for the pool service which provides 240 lifeguards for 42 pool in the area said.
    • Woodhaven Country Club had trained lifeguards on duty in the 75 foot pool at the time of the incident, but the country club's management didn’t say how many lifeguards were working that Friday afternoon. 
    • Barnett says parents and others should also remain attentive. “The concerns of pool safety is everybody's responsibility, not just the lifeguards, it's everybody. When you come through that door, everybody should have a hand in this,“
    • http://www.whas11.com/news/local/Investigation-continues-after-6-year-old-boy-drowns-in-country-club-pool-124618604.html
  • 61. July 25, 2011
    • A 6-year-old boy who jumped into a swimming pool at an amusement park in eastern Pennsylvania did not resurface and later died.
    • George S. Roberts III, of Wilkes-Barre, was found under water on Wednesday afternoon at Knoebels (pronounced kuh-NO'-bulz) Amusement Resort in Elysburg, police said.
    • Lifeguards tried to resuscitate him but Roberts later died at a nearby hospital
  • 62. Tot drowns in Osage pool July 24, 2011
    • As of Monday afternoon, authorities hadn't determined how Ryan Detmering of Fort Dodge got into the Lazy River feature at the Cedar River Complex pool. He was found about 2:40 p.m., facedown in 3½ feet of water.
    • Regulations call for one lifeguard for the 35 swimmers on hand, but the pool had two on duty when the boy was discovered by a 14-year-old lifeguard trainee.
    • Lifeguards tried to resuscitate the boy, who was declared dead at a local hospital an hour later.
  • 63. Kentucky River July 6, 2011
    • –  Three men  from the same family died after they were swept away by the rain-swollen current during a Fourth of July outing on the Middle Fork