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Power Transmission
Fall Issues
Draft 5 13 2014
Old Days
• Linemen climbed
towers using step
bolts.
Climber Training
• Usually a week
long
• Work up to 30-40
feet.
• Fail might mean
termination.
4/10/2012
• A power line worker was on a new utility pole
connecting conductors.
• He was about 9 meters above the ground....
Harness and Snap Hooks
• People started using
large snaphooks.
ANSI Z359.1
• “American National Standard
Safety Requirements for
Personal Fall Arrest Systems,
Subsystems and Components”...
2007
• Five (5) Standards were approved and effective November 24,
2007:
• ANSI Z359.0 – 2007 Definitions and Nomenclature...
Key Changes in Z359.1
• Section 3.2.1.4
• Gate face strength
requirements have
changed from 220
lbs. (1kN) (old
Standard) ...
Key Changes
• Side of gate
strength
requirements have
changed from 350
lbs. (1.55kN) (old
Standard) to 3,600
lbs. (16kN) (...
Key Changes
• Minor axis
strength of non-
captive eye snap
hooks or
carabiners must
be 3,600 lbs.
(16kN).
Key Changes
• Section 3.2.2.5a
• Allows the front D-ring
to be used in a fall
arrest system that:
• (a) Limits the
maximum...
Key Changes
• Addition of double-legged
lanyards to the Standard.
• They are defined as lanyards
with two (2) integrally
c...
Y Lanyard Warning
• Connect only the center
snap hook to the fall
arrest attachment element
• Do not modify the
lanyard to...
Y-Lanyards
• Do not attach the leg of
the lanyard which is not in
use to the harness, except
to attachment points
specific...
Key Changes
• Snap hooks and connectors marked
• Year of manufacture
• Manufacturer’s identification
• Part number
• Load ...
Anchorages
• Noncertified
• A fall arrest anchorage that a
competent person can judge to
be capable of supporting the
pred...
Anchorage Static Load
Requirements
• Noncertified
• Fall Arrest Systems
5,000 lbs. (22.2 kN)
• Work Positioning
Systems 3,...
Retractable Lifelines
• ANSI Z359.14-2012
• Two classifications for self-
retracting devices according to
dynamic performa...
Retractables
• Class B for maximum arrest
distances of 54 inches
(1,372mm).
• For Class B devices, the
average arrest forc...
Retractables
• For the first time,
manufacturers are required
to perform special testing
to evaluate the
performance of se...
Retractables
• ANSI Z359.14 (2012) Self-
retracting lanyards with leading
edge capability (SRL-LEs).
• The test edge mater...
Retractables
• ANSI Z359.14
• Inspection of these
are required by
manufacturer every
1-5 years
depending on use.
Work Positioning
• Positioning device system means a
body belt or body harness system
rigged to allow an employee to be
su...
Descent Control
• Capacity of 310 lbs.
• Single-use devices must
have a minimum descent
energy rating of 30,000
ft./lb.
• ...
Deceleration Distance
• The ANSI Z359.13-2009
standard has developed
new design criteria for the
performance and testing
m...
April 2014
• Cell Tower worker
slipped on plate.
• Successful rescue.
Rescue Training
• Practice as team
• Medical
considerations
• Practice for the
worst case
Types of Aerial Lifts
A92.5 Self
Propelled
Extensible
Boom
A92.6 Self
Propelled
Scissor
type
A92.2 Vehicle Mounted
Training
• National Training guidelines
• International Powered Access
Federation (IPAF)
www.ipaf.org
• "Spot the Mistake"...
Inspections
• Inspect before use using
manufacturer’s guidelines
• Check all working components
and safety device.
• Addre...
Fall Protection Best Practice
• Once a person is
fallen/bounced out of the
lift, it becomes a fall arrest
event. Body harn...
A92.2 Vehicle Mounted
• These lifts should have
outriggers deployed as
required by the
manufacturer.
A92.2 Vehicle Mounted
• Working near an
overhead electrical feed
is dangerous without
training and proper
equipment.
• A f...
A92.2 Vehicle Mounted
• The area is not roped off to
prevent someone from
getting stuck by falling
branches.
• Using a cha...
Issues
• Is there a rescue
plan if the lift is
stuck up in the air?
Electrical
• 20 feet safe distance from
electrical in crane standard
1926.1400. (under 50,000 volts)
• Aerial Lifts is 10 ...
April 2014
• Two died
• Utility workers
were 150 feet up
working on lines
when the boom
collapsed.
The New Standard
• The long-overdue final rule updating a 40-year-old
standard will save nearly 20 lives and prevent 118
s...
11/20/2011
• Two power line workers were troubleshooting a
blown fuse on a utility pole.
• They determined that the repair...
Rescue Training
• (b)(ii) Each employee shall also
be trained in and familiar with
any other safety practices,
including a...
First Aid
(b) First-aid training. In addition to
the requirements of §1926.50,
when employees are performing
work on, or a...
1926.952 Job briefing
(a) Before each job. (1)
Information provided by the
employer. In assigning an
employee or a group o...
Fall Protection
• 954 (b) Fall protection. (1)
Personal fall arrest systems. (i)
Personal fall arrest systems
shall meet t...
Arc Rated
• A dielectric test;
• A current leakage test;
• Tension tests
• A buckle-tear
• A flammability test in
accordan...
Positioning Belts
• (viii) The cushion part of the body
belt shall contain no exposed rivets on
the inside and shall be at...
Snap Hooks
• (xi) Snaphooks shall be of the locking type meeting the following
requirements:
• (A) The locking mechanism s...
Belts and Positioning tests
• (A) The test mass shall be
rigidly constructed of steel or
equivalent material with a mass
o...
Fall Protection
• (3) Care and use of personal
fall protection equipment. (i)
Work-positioning equipment
shall be inspecte...
Fall Protection
• (iii) The employer shall ensure
that employees use fall
protection systems as follows:
• (A) Each employ...
Climbing School
• On and after April 1, 2015, each
qualified employee climbing or
changing location on poles,
towers, or s...
Work Positioning
• (iv) On and after April 1, 2015,
work-positioning systems shall
be rigged so that an employee
can free ...
Snap Hooks
• (vi) Unless the snaphook is a locking type and designed specifically for
the following connections, snaphooks...
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Transcript of "1926 power transmission fall issues 2014"

  1. 1. Power Transmission Fall Issues Draft 5 13 2014
  2. 2. Old Days • Linemen climbed towers using step bolts.
  3. 3. Climber Training • Usually a week long • Work up to 30-40 feet. • Fail might mean termination.
  4. 4. 4/10/2012 • A power line worker was on a new utility pole connecting conductors. • He was about 9 meters above the ground. • After completing the connections, he started to descend the pole. • The gaff on his pole climber cut out of the pole. • With his body belt around the pole, he fell onto a horizontal down-guy metal support pole for the utility pole. • He had surgery and was hospitalized for 14 days with fractured ribs, a fractured pelvis, fractured legs, and internal injuries. • The injured employee had been working for his employer for 2 years, performing duties of an electrical distribution mechanic trainee, including climbing utility poles.
  5. 5. Harness and Snap Hooks • People started using large snaphooks.
  6. 6. ANSI Z359.1 • “American National Standard Safety Requirements for Personal Fall Arrest Systems, Subsystems and Components” was originally published in 1992 and later revised in 1999 • The purpose of this Standard was to address the variety of equipment being developed in the rapidly growing field of Fall Protection. • Used as a basis of Subpart M in OSHA
  7. 7. 2007 • Five (5) Standards were approved and effective November 24, 2007: • ANSI Z359.0 – 2007 Definitions and Nomenclature Used for Fall Protection and Fall Arrest • ANSI Z359.1 – 2007 Safety Requirements for Personal Fall Arrest Systems, Subsystems and Components • ANSI Z359.2 – 2007 Minimum Requirements for a Comprehensive Managed Fall Protection Program • ANSI Z359.3 – 2007 Safety Requirements for Positioning and Travel Restraint Systems • ANSI Z359.4 – 2007 Safety Requirements for Assisted Rescue and Self-Rescue Systems, Subsystems and Components
  8. 8. Key Changes in Z359.1 • Section 3.2.1.4 • Gate face strength requirements have changed from 220 lbs. (1kN) (old Standard) to 3,600 lbs. (16kN) (new Standard). Gates strength makes with capacity.
  9. 9. Key Changes • Side of gate strength requirements have changed from 350 lbs. (1.55kN) (old Standard) to 3,600 lbs. (16kN) (new Standard).
  10. 10. Key Changes • Minor axis strength of non- captive eye snap hooks or carabiners must be 3,600 lbs. (16kN).
  11. 11. Key Changes • Section 3.2.2.5a • Allows the front D-ring to be used in a fall arrest system that: • (a) Limits the maximum free fall distance to two (2) ft. (0.6m) • (b) Limits the maximum arrest force to 900 lbs. (4.0kN).
  12. 12. Key Changes • Addition of double-legged lanyards to the Standard. • They are defined as lanyards with two (2) integrally connected legs and • Shall have a minimum of 5,000 lbs. (22.2kN) breaking strength when statically tested in accordance with 4.3.4.1.3.
  13. 13. Y Lanyard Warning • Connect only the center snap hook to the fall arrest attachment element • Do not modify the lanyard to create more than a 6 ft. (1.8m) free fall • Do not allow the legs of the lanyard to pass under arms, between legs or around the neck Never choker a lanyard back unto itself.
  14. 14. Y-Lanyards • Do not attach the leg of the lanyard which is not in use to the harness, except to attachment points specifically designated by the manufacturer for this purpose
  15. 15. Key Changes • Snap hooks and connectors marked • Year of manufacture • Manufacturer’s identification • Part number • Load rating for the major axis of the connector stamped or otherwise permanently marked on the device • Load rating for gate stamped or otherwise permanently marked on the gate mechanism • Markings for connectors shall be sufficient to provide traceability • For connectors that are non- integral, include the Standard number “Z359.1 (07)” ANSI
  16. 16. Anchorages • Noncertified • A fall arrest anchorage that a competent person can judge to be capable of supporting the predetermined anchorage forces • Certified • Qualified person certifies the anchorage to be capable of supporting the potential fall forces that could be encountered during the fall
  17. 17. Anchorage Static Load Requirements • Noncertified • Fall Arrest Systems 5,000 lbs. (22.2 kN) • Work Positioning Systems 3,000 lbs. (13.3 kN) • Restraint & Travel Systems 1,000 lbs. (4.5 kN) • Rescue Systems 3,000 lbs. (13.3 kN) • Certified • 2 X maximum arresting force • 2 X foreseeable force • 2 X foreseeable force • 5 X applied load
  18. 18. Retractable Lifelines • ANSI Z359.14-2012 • Two classifications for self- retracting devices according to dynamic performance: • Class A for maximum arrest distances of 24 inches (610mm) and • Class A devices will arrest a fall in less than two feet, which is important when fall clearance is limited. For Class A devices, the average arrest force must not exceed 1,350 pounds (6kN) or a maximum peak force of 1,800 pounds (8kN).
  19. 19. Retractables • Class B for maximum arrest distances of 54 inches (1,372mm). • For Class B devices, the average arrest force must not exceed 900 pounds (4kN) or a maximum peak of 1,800 pounds (8kN). Average arrest forces are calculated by averaging every data point over 500 pounds (2.22kN) during the arrest period of the self-retracting device on the force/time graph.
  20. 20. Retractables • For the first time, manufacturers are required to perform special testing to evaluate the performance of self- retracting devices with leading edge capability • Look for SRL-LE Additional marking requirements for self-retracting lanyards with leading edge capability are also specified and include: minimum installation setback distance and clearance required when falling over the edge.
  21. 21. Retractables • ANSI Z359.14 (2012) Self- retracting lanyards with leading edge capability (SRL-LEs). • The test edge material is very sharp metal with an edge radius of .005 inches (.13mm) or less. • An energy absorber is required and must not be separable from the SRD device or lifeline. • Testing is expanded to include “offset” testing that tests sliding of the lifeline along the edge. • Dynamic Strength Testing requires repeating the perpendicular and off-set tests with a 282 lb. weight • Markings on the device and use instructions have been expanded to provide advice to equipment users about leading edge work.
  22. 22. Retractables • ANSI Z359.14 • Inspection of these are required by manufacturer every 1-5 years depending on use.
  23. 23. Work Positioning • Positioning device system means a body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated vertical surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning. • Work Positioning free fall cannot exceed 24 inches • Max fall arrest force is 900 lbs. • Lanyards and harnesses used. Avoid belts. • Equipment must have minimum breaking strength of 5,000 lbs.
  24. 24. Descent Control • Capacity of 310 lbs. • Single-use devices must have a minimum descent energy rating of 30,000 ft./lb. • Multiple-use devices must have a minimum descent energy rating of 300,000 ft./lb. • Descent speeds meet ANSI.
  25. 25. Deceleration Distance • The ANSI Z359.13-2009 standard has developed new design criteria for the performance and testing methods of EA lanyards. • Specifically, the new ANSI energy absorbers will increase the user’s deceleration distance from 42 inches (3.5 ft) to 48 inches (4.0 ft), which will increase your overall potential fall distance.
  26. 26. April 2014 • Cell Tower worker slipped on plate. • Successful rescue.
  27. 27. Rescue Training • Practice as team • Medical considerations • Practice for the worst case
  28. 28. Types of Aerial Lifts A92.5 Self Propelled Extensible Boom A92.6 Self Propelled Scissor type A92.2 Vehicle Mounted
  29. 29. Training • National Training guidelines • International Powered Access Federation (IPAF) www.ipaf.org • "Spot the Mistake" video • Successful trainees are awarded the PAL Card (Powered Access Licence) as proof of training
  30. 30. Inspections • Inspect before use using manufacturer’s guidelines • Check all working components and safety device. • Address all leakage of fluids. • Search for defective hydraulic/pneumatic cables. • Look for electrical tape as quickfix that is not acceptable. • Is the lift level? • Where are the holes or other drop offs for the lift?
  31. 31. Fall Protection Best Practice • Once a person is fallen/bounced out of the lift, it becomes a fall arrest event. Body harness and energy absorbing lanyard must have been used. • In A92.2 and A92.5 lifts, the user should keep the lanyard short as possible. The ideal anchorage at your feet so any fall forces are minimized.
  32. 32. A92.2 Vehicle Mounted • These lifts should have outriggers deployed as required by the manufacturer.
  33. 33. A92.2 Vehicle Mounted • Working near an overhead electrical feed is dangerous without training and proper equipment. • A fiberglass bucket does not mean you are protected. • Extensive electrical training is need for the worker.
  34. 34. A92.2 Vehicle Mounted • The area is not roped off to prevent someone from getting stuck by falling branches. • Using a chainsaw requires a written personal protective equipment analysis. • The lift should have proper traffic devices to prevent getting hit by a motorist.
  35. 35. Issues • Is there a rescue plan if the lift is stuck up in the air?
  36. 36. Electrical • 20 feet safe distance from electrical in crane standard 1926.1400. (under 50,000 volts) • Aerial Lifts is 10 feet (under 50,000 volts) • If you must use the lift closer, this must be preplanned and elements of the crane standard must be addressed in the planning.
  37. 37. April 2014 • Two died • Utility workers were 150 feet up working on lines when the boom collapsed.
  38. 38. The New Standard • The long-overdue final rule updating a 40-year-old standard will save nearly 20 lives and prevent 118 serious injuries annually. • Electric utilities, electrical contractors, and labor organizations have long championed these much needed measures to better protect the men and women who work on or near electrical power lines. • — Dr. David Michaels Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health
  39. 39. 11/20/2011 • Two power line workers were troubleshooting a blown fuse on a utility pole. • They determined that the repair would take less than 15 minutes. • For this period, company policy did not require the use of work-zone signs. • The employees activated caution strobes on both of their trucks and completed the necessary repairs. • As one of the workers was moving the boom on his aerial lift away from the pole, a tractor-trailer struck it. • He was ejected and killed.
  40. 40. Rescue Training • (b)(ii) Each employee shall also be trained in and familiar with any other safety practices, including applicable emergency procedures (such as pole-top and manhole rescue), that are not specifically addressed by this subpart but that are related to his or her work and are necessary for his or her safety.
  41. 41. First Aid (b) First-aid training. In addition to the requirements of §1926.50, when employees are performing work on, or associated with, exposed lines or equipment energized at 50 volts or more, persons with first-aid training shall be available as follows: (1) Field work. For field work involving two or more employees at a work location, at least two trained persons shall be available NFPA 70E has also required CPR and AED for electricians
  42. 42. 1926.952 Job briefing (a) Before each job. (1) Information provided by the employer. In assigning an employee or a group of employees to perform a job, the employer shall provide the employee in charge of the job with all available information that relates to the determination of existing characteristics and conditions required by §1926.950(d).
  43. 43. Fall Protection • 954 (b) Fall protection. (1) Personal fall arrest systems. (i) Personal fall arrest systems shall meet the requirements of Subpart M of this part.
  44. 44. Arc Rated • A dielectric test; • A current leakage test; • Tension tests • A buckle-tear • A flammability test in accordance with Table V-1.
  45. 45. Positioning Belts • (viii) The cushion part of the body belt shall contain no exposed rivets on the inside and shall be at least 76 millimeters (3 inches) in width. • (x) Copper, steel, or equivalent liners shall be used around the bars of D rings to prevent wear between these members and the leather or fabric enclosing them.
  46. 46. Snap Hooks • (xi) Snaphooks shall be of the locking type meeting the following requirements: • (A) The locking mechanism shall first be released, or a destructive force shall be placed on the keeper, before the keeper will open. • (B) A force in the range of 6.7 N (1.5 lbf) to 17.8 N (4 lbf) shall be required to release the locking mechanism. • (C) With the locking mechanism released and with a force applied on the keeper against the face of the nose, the keeper may not begin to open with a force of 11.2 N (2.5 lbf) or less and shall begin to open with a maximum force of 17.8 N (4 lbf).
  47. 47. Belts and Positioning tests • (A) The test mass shall be rigidly constructed of steel or equivalent material with a mass of 100 kg (220.5 lbm). For work-positioning equipment used by employees weighing more than 140 kg (310 lbm) fully equipped, the test mass shall be increased proportionately (that is, the test mass must equal the mass of the equipped worker divided by 1.4).
  48. 48. Fall Protection • (3) Care and use of personal fall protection equipment. (i) Work-positioning equipment shall be inspected before use each day to determine that the equipment is in safe working condition. • Work-positioning equipment that is not in safe working condition may not be used.
  49. 49. Fall Protection • (iii) The employer shall ensure that employees use fall protection systems as follows: • (A) Each employee working from an aerial lift shall use a fall restraint system or a personal fall arrest system. Paragraph (b)(2)(v) of §1926.453 does not apply.
  50. 50. Climbing School • On and after April 1, 2015, each qualified employee climbing or changing location on poles, towers, or similar structures must use fall protection equipment unless the employer can demonstrate that climbing or changing location with fall protection is infeasible or creates a greater hazard than climbing or changing location without it.
  51. 51. Work Positioning • (iv) On and after April 1, 2015, work-positioning systems shall be rigged so that an employee can free fall no more than 0.6 meters (2 feet). • (v) Anchorages for work- positioning equipment shall be capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load of an employee’s fall, or 13.3 kilonewtons (3,000 pounds- force), whichever is greater.
  52. 52. Snap Hooks • (vi) Unless the snaphook is a locking type and designed specifically for the following connections, snaphooks on work-positioning equipment may not be engaged: • (A) Directly to webbing, rope, or wire rope; • (B) To each other; • (C) To a D ring to which another snaphook or other connector is attached; • (D) To a horizontal lifeline; or • (E) To any object that is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snaphook such that accidental disengagement could occur should the connected object sufficiently depress the snaphook keeper to allow release of the object.
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