Web accessibility workshop 1


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Workshop on Web Accessibility on spring semester in Tallinn University

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  • Dyspraxia:Fine motor controlDifficulties with fine motor co-ordination lead to problems with handwriting,[2] which may be due to either ideational or ideo-motor difficulties.[16][20] Problems associated with this area may include:Learning basic movement patterns.[21]Developing a desired writing speed.[19]Establishing the correct pencil grip[19]The acquisition of graphemes – e.g. the letters of the Latin alphabet, as well as numbers.Developmental verbal dyspraxiaKey problems include:Difficulties controlling the speech organs.Difficulties making speech soundsDifficulty sequencing soundsWithin a wordForming words into sentencesDifficulty controlling breathing, suppressing salivation and phonation when talking or singing with lyrics.Slow language development
  • Sarah Horton , Whitney QuesenberyA Web for Everyone: Designing Accessible User Experiences
  • AAC - alternative and augmentative communication 
  • ASL - American Sign LanguageCART: Communication Access Realtime Translation
  • These upscale products immediately found an enthusiastic audience, even though their advantages over utensils with oversized handles sold through assistive technology suppliers were primarily aesthetic.
  • The same markup can have different visual presentations, based on styles that interpret the markup
  • Вставить слайд с примером из Википедии
  • Web accessibility workshop 1

    1. 1. Web Accessibility Workshop Session One Vladimir Tomberg, PhD Tallinn University Design for ALL 1
    2. 2. Using Mac Lab Login: kasutaja Password: apple 2 Web Accessibility Workshop
    3. 3. Introduction 3 Web Accessibility Workshop https://www.youtube.com
    4. 4. Course Evaluation Criteria • Work in class gives 20% of final grade; • There will be four different home works; • Fulfillment of each gives 20% of the final grade
    5. 5. Today Workshop 1. Target user groups – Who benefits from accessible Web design? 2. Empathy exercise: using Web with limited abilities 3. Framework for Accessible Web 4. WCAG 2.0 – preparing for testing
    6. 6. TARGET USER GROUPS Who benefits from accessible Web design? Design for ALL 6
    7. 7. What does Accessibility mean? The goal of Accessibility is that: • Users with disabilities have access to and use of information and data that is comparable to that of users without disabilities (Section 508) • Disabled users should be able to use a system  In the usual way like other users,  Without particular difficulties,  Without help of others
    8. 8. Who is concerned? (1/3) • People with a physical or cognitive disability, e.g.:  Blind or visually impaired  Deaf or hard of hearing  Mobility or dexterity impaired  Reduced cognitive abilities Most disabled people became disabled as adults, it can happen to all of us.
    9. 9. Who is concerned? (2/3) • Elderly people often develop disabilities, e.g.  Reduced vision, reduced hearing;  Reduced mobility or dexterity;  Reduced tactile and fine motor abilities;  Reduced short-term memory;  Dyspraxia (difficulties to plan a task);  Dyslexia;  Etc.
    10. 10. I Wonder what it's Like to be Dyslexic • This book aims to provide the reader with design led experience of what it feels like to struggle with reading Design for ALL 10Source: https://www.kickstarter.com
    11. 11. Who is concerned? (3/3) • It is individually very different,  which types of disability a person develops,  when it starts, and  how severe the disability becomes • In most cases it is a combination of several disabilities; • The probability that a person becomes disabled raises with age
    12. 12. Example: UK Disability Statistics • Almost 1 in 5 people in the UK have a disability; • There are 5.1 million males with disabilities; • There are 5.8 million females with disabilities; • Only 17% of disabled people were born with impairments. The majority of disabled people acquire their impairments during their working lives 12 Web Accessibility Workshop Source: http://www.mph-uk.com
    13. 13. The impact of age How many people have less than “Full ability”? Source: 1996/97 Disability follow-up survey
    14. 14. Who is concerned? Most of us will be concerned at some point in our lives
    15. 15. Who else would benefit? • People with temporary disabilities (e.g., after an accident or stroke) • Users in a context causing a temporary reduction of abilities (handicapping situation), such as  Noisy environment (similar to reduced hearing)  Hands engaged in other tasks (similar to reduced mobility)  Eyes engaged in other task (similar to reduced vision)  Attention on more important task (reduced cognitive capacity)  Limited hardware features of mobile devices, etc. (similar to various physical handicaps)
    16. 16. Who else would benefit? Accessible Web design => Design for All
    17. 17. Is Web accessibility relevant for disabled? (1) • Internet usage of disabled is higher than average! ”The Web is not a barrier to people with disabilities, it is the solution“ (WebAIM); • Overall, 60% of EU citizens frequently use the Internet; this means that more than 60% of disabled people (>30 Mln) actually use the Internet
    18. 18. • People who already use the Internet will continue to use it when becoming older, as long as it is accessible for them. • eAccessibility is important for a large, increasing number of people! Is Web accessibility relevant for disabled? (2) Frequent Internet usage 2008 Overall Female Age 16-24 Age 25-54 Age 55-74 EU 27 60% 53% 83% 63% 29%
    19. 19. eInclusion Policy and Legislation Worldwide These are examples; similar regulations exist in most countries. Legislation usually is based on the WCAG by W3C-WAI.
    20. 20. eInclusion in Europe • Initiative eEurope (2000); • Ministerial Declaration “ICT for an Inclusive Society”, Riga, 2005; • i2010-Strategy – A European information society for growth and employment (2008); • eAccessibility is a legal obligation in all European countries; • All regulations refer to “Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)” by W3C-WAI consortium.
    21. 21. European Parliament urges stronger public website access law • This week (26-02-2014) European Parliament backed a move by 593 votes to 40, with 13 abstentions, to require EU member states to ensure all public websites are fully accessible, not just those in 12 categories proposed by the European Commission such as social security benefits and enrolment in higher education
    22. 22. Banks, Energy Providers and Public Bodies Should be Subject to Web Accessibility Rules, Vote MEPs • Just a third of the 761,000 public sector websites in the EU currently conform to "international web-accessibility standards“; • Organisations whose websites would be subject to the new rules would have one year from the introduction of the new laws to ensure that new content added to their sites complies with the new rules. They would have three years within which to adapt existing content and five years if that content is "live audio“ 28 Feb 2014 Source: http://www.out-law.com
    23. 23. EMPATHY EXERCISE Using Web with Limited Abilities Design for ALL 23
    24. 24. The First Task (5-10 min) • Write a list containing several typical Web sites you attend on every day base; • Describe couple of usual tasks that you implement on each of these Web sites (looking for weather, news, buying a bus ticket, etc.) Design for ALL 24
    25. 25. The Second Task (15-20 minutes) • Now I want you to throw away your mouse; • Then browse the Web doing what you usually do, and see how you get on with booking your concert (or whatever do you do) • Make short notes on your experience and be ready to share it with audience Design for ALL 25
    26. 26. Some Useful Shortcuts For Safari and Other Browsers http://www.shortcutworld.com/en/mac/Safari_5.html 26 Web Accessibility Workshop
    27. 27. FRAMEWORK FOR ACCESSIBLE WEB Principles for Accessible UX Design for ALL 27
    28. 28. Principles for Accessible UX as a Framework for Web Accessibility 1. People first 2. Clear purpose 3. Solid structure 4. Easy interaction 5. Helpful wayfinding 6. Clean presentation 7. Plain language 8. Accessible media 9. Universal usability Design for ALL 28http://goo.gl/Zl9bL3
    29. 29. 1. PEOPLE FIRST Designing for Differences 29 Web Accessibility Workshop
    30. 30. People First When designing for differences, people are the first consideration, and sites are designed with the needs of everyone in the audience in mind Design for ALL 30
    31. 31. Additional Data for Persona • Ability: Information about their ability (physical, cognitive, language) and any assistive technology (AT) they use • Aptitude: Their current knowledge and ability to make inferences • Attitude: Their motivation, emotion, risk tolerance, and persistence • Assistive Technology: Any technology if used or required Design for ALL 31
    32. 32. Emily: I want to do everything for myself Ability: Cerebral palsy. Difficult to use hands and has some difficulty speaking clearly; uses a motorized wheel chair Aptitude: Uses the computer well, with the right input device; good at finding efficient search terms Attitude: Wants to do everything for herself; can be impatient Assistive Technology: • Communicator (AAC) with speech generator, • iPad, • power wheelchair • 24 years old • Graduated from high school and working on a college degree • Lives in a small independent living facility • Works part-time at a local community center
    33. 33. Jacob: The right technology lets me do anything • Ability: Blind since birth with some light perception • Aptitude: Skilled technology user • Attitude: Digital native, early adopter, persists until he gets it • Assistive Technology: Screen reader, audio note-taker, Braille display • 32 years old • College graduate, legal training courses • Shares an apartment with a friend • Paralegal, reviews cases and writes case summaries • Laptop, braille display, iPhone
    34. 34. My only disability is that everyone doesn't sign • Ability: Native language is ASL; can speak and read lips; uses SMS/IM, Skype, and video chat • Aptitude: Good with graphic tools, and prefers visuals to text; poor spelling makes searching more difficult • Attitude: Can be annoyed about accessibility, like lack of captions • Assistive Technology: Sign language, CART, captions, video chat • 38 years old • Art school • Graphic artist in a small ad agency • iPad, iPhone, MacBook Pro; good computer at work
    35. 35. 2. CLEAR PURPOSE Well-Defined Goals 36 Web Accessibility Workshop
    36. 36. Clear purpose • Well-defined goals; • People enjoy products that are designed for the audience and guided by a defined purpose and goals • These products are recognizable by their straightforward effectiveness, dedication to users’ goals, a direct path to the task at hand, and freedom from confusing clutter or extraneous elements
    37. 37. 38 • The clarity of the design of the OXO products hides the attention to detail that makes them work so well Example: Oxo Good Grips Image courtesy of www.phaidon.com
    38. 38. Clear Purpose Thinking about accessibility from the beginning — “Accessibility First” — is similar to the approach of thinking “Mobile First” to ensure that the design works as well in a screen reader as it does on a small screen 39 Web Accessibility Workshop
    39. 39. Three Accessibility Strategies 1. Universal (or inclusive) design—one site; 2. Equivalent use—includes alternatives; 3. Accommodation—a separate “accessible” version 40 Web Accessibility Workshop
    40. 40. 3. SOLID STRUCTURE Built to Standards 41 Web Accessibility Workshop
    41. 41. Solid Structure • A solid structure depends on good coding practice. A site coded to standards, with all information written to be machine-readable, supports use of the site by different browsers or devices, including assistive technology. 42 Web Accessibility Workshop
    42. 42. 43 • Stylesheets separate content from presentation, using code to communicate semantic meaning, such as content structure, emphasis, or function, as well as visual style; CSS Web Accessibility Workshop
    43. 43. Built to Standards • Web accessibility relies on the software’s ability to read and understand the content and instructions contained in web pages; • The more “meta” information you can provide, the better the user experience will be Design for ALL 44
    44. 44. Organize Code for Clarity and Flow • The order of the source code makes a difference to:  Web browsers generally  Screen readers  Search engines • Content that appears “above the fold” in code will be what gets read first by the software Design for ALL 45
    45. 45. Organizing Code • Pages are organized so that when code is read in the order it appears in the file, it not only makes sense, but it puts the most important information first 46 Web Accessibility Workshop
    46. 46. Unfriendly Structure Example 47 Web Accessibility Workshop
    47. 47. Standards for the Web • HTML - (Hypertext Markup Language), a language for describing the structure of a page, including semantic information, for including interactive links and forms, and for embedding media elements such as images and video • CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) – a language for describing the presentation aspects of a page, including color, type, and layout • JavaScript - scripting language for providing interaction and dynamic content • WCAG 2.0 - (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) - guidelines and techniques for making websites and web applications accessible to people with disabilities. • WAI-ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications Suite) – a framework for adding attributes to web documents in order to make actionable elements accessible to people using assistive technology Design for ALL 48
    48. 48. Standards for the Web (2) • User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) for web browsers and media players; • Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) for software that creates websites • A new WAI project, IndieUI (Independent User Interface), is working to create a device- independent way to communicate user actions, such as scrolling, to a web application Design for ALL 49
    49. 49. People feel confident using the design because it is stable, robust, and secure Supporting Standards in Templates A big hat tip to @AccessibleJoe and all the folks working on making WordPress more accessible, and to Sylvia Eggers, author of the accessible child theme shown here.
    50. 50. 4. EASY INTERACTION Everything Works 51 Web Accessibility Workshop
    51. 51. Easy Interaction (1) Making the interaction easy for people with disabilities is an extension of making interaction easy for everyone. Interactive elements are identified clearly and are designed to be easy to use 52 Web Accessibility Workshop
    52. 52. Easy Interaction (2) • The site supports interaction with a keyboard, allowing assistive technology to emulate the keyboard; • This also requires that the keyboard tab order make sense, matching the visual presentation 53 Web Accessibility Workshop
    53. 53. Don’t Require Point-and-Click Interaction • Hover: Some devices do not support hover, such as touchscreens— hover all you want over a touchscreen, and nothing is going to happen; • Select: Using “select” to trigger actions is problematic for keyboard users; • Drag and drop: This style of interaction makes direct manipulation of objects easy, but typically requires a pointing device and dexterity 54 Web Accessibility Workshop This feature, collecting bookmarks for related items, requires a mouse to drag and drop items into the list. A simple Add button would make this more accessible
    54. 54. User Control • A site with easy interaction enables users to control the interface, with large enough controls. It avoids taking unexpected actions for users that they can do on their own; • Easy interaction also includes both preventing and handling errors in an accessible way 55 Web Accessibility Workshop
    55. 55. Images: Braille, foot pedal, magnifier, Talking Dial, Voiceover, joystick, audio, high contrast keyboard, Glenda Watson Hyatt and her iPad Everything Works People can use the product across all modes of interaction and operating with a broad range of devices.
    56. 56. 5. HELPFUL WAYFINDING Guides Users 57 Web Accessibility Workshop
    57. 57. 58 • In the physical world, we rely on maps, street signs, and how spaces are designed to help us get around; • With helpful wayfinding, people can navigate a site, feature, or page following self-explanatory signposts Helpful Wayfinding Web Accessibility Workshop
    58. 58. Create Consistent Cues for Orientation and Navigation (1) • Identify the site. (name of the site and the organization); • Title the page. ( Title appears in the title bar of the browser, in a bookmarks list, in search results, and it is the first thing announced by screen reader software); • Provide good headings. (describe the main topic of the page, as well as sections of content. The correct markup (<h1–h6>) makes it easier for people who use assistive technology to find them); 59 Web Accessibility Workshop
    59. 59. Create Consistent Cues for Orientation and Navigation (1) • Start with an overview. (It’s common for users to leave sites if they don’t see what they are looking for quickly); • Highlight the current location. (In the page title, by highlighting the menu item for the section, by breadcrumb navigation. • Use multiple cues (E.g., using an icon with color-coding and a strong text label) 60 Web Accessibility Workshop
    60. 60. Use WAI ARIA for Navigation Roles HTML5 elements and ARIA roles are complementary. Including both of them in your site provides a solid code structure and good navigation around the page 61 Web Accessibility Workshop
    61. 61. To be Continued on the Next Lesson Web Accessibility Workshop 62
    62. 62. WCAG 2.0 Preparing for Testing 63 Web Accessibility Workshop
    63. 63. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 • WCAG 2.0 defines how to make Web content more accessible to people with disabilities; • Several layers of guidance are provided including overall principles, general guidelines, testable success criteria and a rich collection of sufficient techniques, advisory techniques, and documented common failures with examples, resource links and code 64 Web Accessibility Workshop
    64. 64. Integrated Accessibility Guidelines • WCAG is part of an integrated suite of accessibility guidelines and specifications from the W3C WAI:  Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) for web content  Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) for authoring tools, HTML editors, content management systems (CMS), blogs, wikis, etc.  User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) for Web browsers, media players, and other "user agents"  Accessible Rich Internet Applications Suite (WAI-ARIA) for accessible rich Internet applications developed with Ajax and such 65 Web Accessibility Workshop
    65. 65. Principles • At the top are four principles (POUR) that provide the foundation for Web accessibility:  Perceivable,  Operable,  Understandable,  Robust 66 Web Accessibility Workshop
    66. 66. Guidelines • Guidelines are under the principles; • The 12 guidelines provide the basic goals that authors should work toward in order to make content more accessible to users with different disabilities 67 Web Accessibility Workshop
    67. 67. Web Accessibility Workshop 68Image: http://www.projectrics.org
    68. 68. Success Criteria • For each guideline, testable success criteria are provided to allow WCAG 2.0 to be used; • In order to meet the needs of different groups and different situations, three levels of conformance are defined: • A (lowest), • AA, and • AAA (highest). 69 Web Accessibility Workshop
    69. 69. Success Criteria 70 Web Accessibility Workshop Image: http://www.michaelgaigg.com
    70. 70. Sufficient and Advisory Techniques • For each of the guidelines and success criteria in the WCAG 2.0 document itself, the working group has also documented a wide variety of techniques; • The techniques are informative and fall into two categories:  Sufficient for meeting the success criteria;  Advisory for meeting the success criteria 71 Web Accessibility Workshop
    71. 71. WCAG 2.0 Guidelines http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/#guidelines 72 Web Accessibility Workshop
    72. 72. Two WCAG versions • WCAG 1.0 (1999) • WCAG 2.0 (2008) • WCAG 2.0 builds on WCAG 1.0 and incorporates what we've learned to make WCAG more useful and more effective; • Most websites that meet ("conform to") WCAG 1.0 should not require significant changes in order to meet WCAG 2.0 73 Web Accessibility Workshop
    73. 73. How WCAG 2.0 Differs from WCAG 1.0 • The guidelines are organized around four basic principles (POUR), which together constitute the basic philosophy of the guideline; • The guidelines themselves are under the principles; • Finally, each guideline includes a series of success criteria which, like the WCAG 1.0 checkpoints, define rules for the accessibility of Web content; • Unlike WCAG 1.0, criteria are testable. The success criteria are assigned conformance levels (A, AA, AAA), in a similar way as WCAG 1.0 checkpoints 74 Web Accessibility Workshop
    74. 74. TESTING SITES ON WCAG 2.0 CRITERIA 75 Web Accessibility Workshop
    75. 75. Website Accessibility Conformance Evaluation Methodology (WCAG-EM) 1.0 76 Web Accessibility Workshop Adapted from http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG-EM/
    76. 76. Example: Generated Site Map 77 Web Accessibility Workshop
    77. 77. Evaluation Tools • While Web accessibility evaluation tools can significantly reduce the time and effort to evaluate Web sites, no tool can automatically determine the accessibility of Web sites; • W3C does not endorse specific vendor products; • Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools: Overview 78 Web Accessibility Workshop
    78. 78. Comparison Of The Tools 79 Web Accessibility Workshop Source: http://usabilitygeek.com
    79. 79. Homework Assignment 1 A. Choose a Web site for testing. It could be a government Web site, as well as public sector Web site (bank, public transportation company, etc.) B. Implement steps from Conformance Evaluation Methodology WCAG-EM, like define the scope of the Web site, identify common Web pages of the Web site, select a representative sample, audit the selected sample; C. Select one or two tools link one, link two, and make testing of Selected Sample; D. Analyze and report results in your blog 80 Web Accessibility Workshop
    80. 80. References • A training course “Introduction to eAccessibility” by Fraunhofer FIT http://www.dfaei.org (developed in a framework of DFA@eInclusion project); • Sarah Horton , Whitney Quesenbery. A Web for Everyone: Designing Accessible User Experiences, Rosenfeld Media; 1st edition (January 16, 2014) Design for ALL 81