Design for all. Lecture 4

1,330 views
1,135 views

Published on

Slides for HCI curriculum course Design for All, Lecture 4

Published in: Design, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,330
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
630
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The adjustability features on cars (adjustable seat, steering wheel, floorpedals, and mirrors) allow a variety of users to customize the driver’s seatand control access to their individual needs.
  • OXO International, Ltd., and its product line clearly demonstrate that products designed using universal design principles can be not only functional, but also aesthetically pleasing and competitively priced.
  • Expensive and relatively cheap Optical Image Stabilization
  • If the consuming public perceives the entity as being for the disabled community, the entity will not find widespread acceptance
  • Gemba Kaizen is a Japanese concept of continuous improvement designed for enhancing processes and reducing waste.
  •  The interface and user experience of self-checkout systems are really confusing. This is so much information, using different typography, signs everywhere, and many different places to insert and receive money.
  • Flexibility also derives from adjustability — for example, being able to adjust cell phone or car radio volume, or the television’s color contrast.Automobiles provide adjustable steering wheels, seats, mirrors, dashboard light levels, and floor pedal placements (brakes and accelerator) and therebymake their products accessible to a much wider spectrum of people.
  • There is a growing demand for hands-free mobile phone operation, especially in the car. The United Kingdom has legislation requiring hands-free mobile phone operations for drivers. A number of companies are selling Bluetooth voice recognition kits for hands-free use
  • Home automation allows for the customization of the living environment, the distribution of light, music, temperature control, the schedulingof clothes and dishwashing cycles, lawn watering, and home security features
  • Example – color coding in Wal-Mart
  • Gibson story about monkey and hammer
  • Space Shuttledashboard versus Model T Ford from 1923
  • Emergency warning systems are prime examples of systems that must be perceptible by as many people as possible
  • Emergency warning systems are prime examples of systems that must be perceptible by as many people as possible
  • Emergency warning systems are prime examples of systems that must be perceptible by as many people as possible
  • Illuminated crosswalk in Brussels
  • Emergency warning systems are prime examples of systems that must be perceptible by as many people as possible
  • For the person who raises himself from the wc seat to a standing position by pushing on the horizontal side rail, the closer the rail is to the wc the more convenient it is (7.18). A 300 mm dimension from the centre line of the wc to the side wall (7.18c) is more convenient than 400 mm (7.18b), and 400 mm is better than the unsatisfactory 500 mm Part M arrangement
  • Design for all. Lecture 4

    1. 1. Design for All Lecture Four Vladimir Tomberg, PhD Design for ALL 1
    2. 2. Lesson Agenda • Basic Principles • Presenting results of the homework: – Finding the good HCI examples – Opportunities and Threats workshop (if ready) • Filling in a closing survey • Finishing Design workshop based of the first assignment
    3. 3. The Overview UNIVERSAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES
    4. 4. Source Book • Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press. Design for ALL 4
    5. 5. Higher level places design constraints on the lower level The hierarchical structure of the universal design principles Transcending principles • Equitable Use More general More encompassing Process related principles • Flexibility • Error-management • Efficiency • Stability/predictability Human factors principles More detailed More narrowly defined More specific • Ergonomic • Perception • Cognition Design for ALL 5
    6. 6. Transcending principle • Equitable Use Principle Design for ALL 6
    7. 7. Equitable Use Principle • Universally designed entities should be equitable; • That is, the entities should provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible and equivalent when not possible; • The products and processes should avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users, making the design appealing to all users Design for ALL 7
    8. 8. Equitable Use Source: livewellcollaborative.org Design for ALL 8
    9. 9. Equitable Use Strategies • Design entities that are age and context appropriate; • Design entities that are aesthetically pleasing; • Design entities that are competitively priced; • Market the entity for as broad a demographic and socioeconomic base as reasonable and possible; Design for ALL 9
    10. 10. Equitable Use Strategies Source: kohhranthianghlim.org Source: americanallergysupply.com Design entities that are age and context appropriate Design for ALL 10
    11. 11. Equitable Use Strategies Source: fastcodesign.com Source: designapplause.com Design entities that are aesthetically pleasing (Examples from OXO design) Design for ALL 11
    12. 12. Equitable Use Strategies Source: amazon.com Source: nextpowerup.com Design entities that are competitively priced (Examples: Expensive and relatively cheap Optical Image Stabilization) Design for ALL 12
    13. 13. Equitable Use Strategies The products and processes should avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users, making the design appealing to all users Source: designboom.com Design for ALL 13
    14. 14. Process Related Principles • • • • Stable and Predictable Principle Efficiency (Muda Elimination) Principle Error-Managed (Proofed) Principle Flexibility Principle Design for ALL 14
    15. 15. Stable and Predictable Principle • Design entities to reduce common cause variation. That is, design entities to be stable and predictable so that users can expect performance that supports the desired activity. Design for ALL 15
    16. 16. Stable and Predictable Principle Design for ALL 16
    17. 17. Stable and Predictable Design Strategies • Work to establish national and international standards for products, processes, and services so as to reduce their common cause variability • Reduce the common cause variability associated with the person’s interaction with the product or process • Reduce common cause variability using quality control and reliability engineering techniques to ensure proper functioning of the product Design for ALL 17
    18. 18. Stable and Predictable Principle This scheme has the highest common cause variability Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press. Design for ALL 18
    19. 19. Stable and Predictable Principle This scheme has less common cause variability than Level 1, but still leaves room for potential errors due to judgments about pointer position Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press. Design for ALL 19
    20. 20. Stable and Predictable Principle The vertical orientation of the correct readings increase reliability and reduces common cause variability if speed is important (e.g., dashboard dials in a racing car). Erlandson, R. F. (2010). Universal and accessible design for products, services, and processes. CRC Press. Design for ALL 20
    21. 21. Efficiency (Muda Elimination) Principle • Muda (無駄) is a Japanese word meaning: futility; uselessness; idleness; superfluity; waste; wastage; wastefulness Source: Gemba Kaizen Design for ALL 21
    22. 22. Efficiency (muda elimination) • Designed entities need to be efficient in that they have reduced as much of the non-valueadded activities as possible and/or is reasonable • Non-value-added activity (NVAA) is any activity that does not directly add to the successful and timely completion of the task or activity Design for ALL 22
    23. 23. Efficiency (muda elimination) • Muda elimination would include providing doors, walkways, elevators, and escalators so as to allow an efficient flow of people for normal operations. Design for ALL 23
    24. 24. Efficiency Design Strategies • Reduce or eliminate non-value-added activity (NVAA); • Make the designed entity as simple and easy to use as possible; • Avoid complexity in that it leads to NVAA; • Use task analysis techniques to identify tasks or activities that can be eliminated or redesigned so as to reduce or eliminate NVAA Design for ALL 24
    25. 25. Efficiency Design Strategies Reduce or eliminate non-value-added activity (NVAA) Design for ALL 25
    26. 26. Efficiency Design Strategies Make the designed entity as simple and easy to use as possible Image: crave.cnet.co.uk Design for ALL 26
    27. 27. Efficiency Design Strategies Avoid complexity in that it leads to NVAA Image: 2.bp.blogspot.com Design for ALL 27
    28. 28. Efficiency Design Strategies Use task analysis techniques to identify tasks or activities that can be eliminated or redesigned so as to reduce or eliminate NVAA Image: infoq.com Design for ALL 28
    29. 29. Error-Managed (Proofed) Principle • Entities must be designed so that they support doing the right thing. It is important to create a design wherein errors can be managed Design for ALL 29
    30. 30. Error-Managed (Proofed) Principle My favorite example Design for ALL 30
    31. 31. Error-Managed Design Strategies • Use a three-staged approach to errorproofing: 1. Prevent errors at the source; 2. Provide a warning that an error has or is about to occur; 3. Provide quick and easy recovery if an error has occurred Design for ALL 31
    32. 32. Error-Managed Design Strategies Prevent errors at the source Image source: blog.crazyegg.com Design for ALL 32
    33. 33. Error-Managed Design Strategies Provide a warning that an error has or is about to occur Image source: designmodo.com Design for ALL 33
    34. 34. Error-Managed Design Strategies Provide quick and easy recovery if an error has occurred Image source: teamwindows8.com Design for ALL 34
    35. 35. Error-Managed Design Strategies Provide quick and easy recovery if an error has occurred Image source: teamwindows8.com Design for ALL 35
    36. 36. Flexibility Principle • Design products, systems, and environments with enough flexibility so that they can be used and experienced by people of all abilities, to the greatest extent possible, without adaptations Design for ALL 36
    37. 37. Flexibility Principle Image: ergonomicsolutionsaustralia.com.au Image: indiandrives.com Design for ALL 37
    38. 38. Flexibility Design Strategies • Provide the user with choices; • Provide adjustability and mobility • Build flexibility into service delivery systems and work processes Design for ALL 38
    39. 39. Flexibility Design Strategies Provide the user with a choice of language (English, French, etc.) Source: europa.eu Design for ALL 39
    40. 40. Flexibility Design Strategies Provide the user with a choice of mode for communication Source: redorbit.com Design for ALL 40
    41. 41. Flexibility Design Strategies Provide adjustability and mobility Source: toyota.com.au Design for ALL 41
    42. 42. Flexibility Design Strategies Mobility example: Wheelchair Accessible Bathroom Source: beyondthescreendoor.com Design for ALL 42
    43. 43. Flexibility Design Strategies Provide adjustable response times Design for ALL 43
    44. 44. Flexibility Design Strategies Time Times for starting and finishing a service Content B. Collis and J. Moonen, Flexible Learning in a Digital World. London, U.K.: Kogan, 2001. Flexibility dimensions Times for submitting transactions and interacting with the service provider Tempo/pace of conducting transactions Content, type, and quality of service provided Sequence of transactions and services provided Orientation of the service (sales, information) Requirements Instructional material, users manuals, guidelines, and procedures Conditions for participation Delivery and logistics Time and place where contact with service provider occurs Methods and technology for obtaining support and making contact Types of help, communication available, and technology required Location and technology for participating in various aspects of service delivery Delivery channels for information, content, and communication Build flexibility into service delivery systems and work processes Design for ALL 44
    45. 45. Human Factors Principles • Cognition Principle • Perception Principle • Ergonomic Principle Design for ALL 45
    46. 46. Cognition Principle • The cognitive demands of designed entities must be within acceptable limits for a wide range of users Design for ALL 46
    47. 47. Cognition Principle Image: zocalopublicsquare.org Source: google.com Example: Color coding in Wal-Mart Design for ALL 47
    48. 48. Cognitively Sound Design Strategies • Build knowledge into the designed entity or environment; • Use universally or globally understood icons, symbols, or pictures for communications; • Reduce the operational complexity of the entity Design for ALL 48
    49. 49. Cognitively Sound Design Strategies • Build knowledge into the designed entity or environment strategy: • Four design elements are generally associated with good cognitive design: Affordance Mapping Constraints Feedback • Each of these design elements can support human capabilities and hence support universal and accessible design strategies. Design for ALL 49
    50. 50. Affordance Source: raftfurniture.co.uk Source: blackrocktools.com Affordance refers to the actual and perceived attributes of a product or process that suggest its uses Design for ALL 50
    51. 51. Mapping Source: usabilitypost.com Use mappings to help users form clear conceptual models of the entity’s operations and simplify operations Design for ALL 51
    52. 52. Constraints Source: globalsources.com Source: eco-drive.co.uk Use constraints so as to control the course of actions and prevent or reduce the possibility of the users doing the wrong thing Design for ALL 52
    53. 53. Feedback Use feedback to keep the user informed as to the status of the entity’s operations and the entity’s response to user inputs Design for ALL 53
    54. 54. Cognitively Sound Design Strategies Source: tema.ru/travel Source: coachhiremanchester.com Use universally or globally understood icons, symbols, or pictures for communications Design for ALL 54
    55. 55. Cognitively Sound Design Strategies Source: darkroastedblend.com Reduce the operational complexity of the entity Design for ALL 55
    56. 56. Perception Principle • Designed entities must effectively communicate necessary information to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities Design for ALL 56
    57. 57. Perceptible Design Strategies Example: Emergency warning systems are prime examples of systems that must be perceptible by as many people as possible Source: fox6now.com Design for ALL 57
    58. 58. Perceptible Design Strategies • Provide multisensory options for communications between a person and the process or product; • Design signals so as to maximize the signal-tonoise ratio; • Provide the ability for a person to increase or decrease the signal strength so as to increase the signal-to-noise ratio Design for ALL 58
    59. 59. Perceptible Design Strategies Source: gaates.org Source: slashgear.com Provide multisensory options for communications between a person and the process or product Design for ALL 59
    60. 60. Perceptible Design Strategies Design signals so as to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio Source: zyalt.livejournal.com Design for ALL 60
    61. 61. Perceptible Design Strategies Source: www4.gira.com Source: cdrinfo.com Provide the ability for a person to increase or decrease the signal strength so as to increase the signal-to-noise ratio Design for ALL 61
    62. 62. Ergonomic Principle • The physical demands associated with the use of an entity must be within acceptable limits for a wide range of users. Design for ALL 62
    63. 63. Question: Whom this ramp is for? The source is unknown Design for ALL 63
    64. 64. I guess this is the only one possible answer Design for ALL 64
    65. 65. Ergonomic Design Strategies • Design to avoid ergonomic risk factors; • Design for a wide range of body sizes and shapes; Design for ALL 65
    66. 66. Ergonomic Design Strategies Design to avoid ergonomic risk factors Image: Goldsmith , C., UNIVERSAL DESIGN Design for ALL 66
    67. 67. Ergonomic Design Strategies Design for a wide range of body sizes and shapes Image source: openplay.co.uk Design for ALL 67
    68. 68. Ergonomic Design Strategies Example: Boing 747 economy class interior mockup. Circa 1965 Image source: reddit.com Design for ALL 68
    69. 69. Ergonomic Design Strategies Example: Economy class today Image source: dialaflight.com Design for ALL 69
    70. 70. 1. 2. Finding the good HCI examples Opportunities and Threats workshop PRESENTING RESULTS OF HOMEWORK Design for ALL 70
    71. 71. Please complete a survey! (15 minutes) HTTP://GOO.GL/FULNT9 Design for ALL 71
    72. 72. Continuation of Workshop on TLU Building Accessibility Report HTTP://GOO.GL/4MD8FQ (OR FIND IT IN YOUR GOOGLE DRIVE) Design for ALL 72
    73. 73. End of the Course Design for ALL 73

    ×