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Air pollution v s s nair - nov 24

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    Air pollution   v s s nair - nov 24 Air pollution v s s nair - nov 24 Presentation Transcript

    • Air Pollution V. S. S. Nair Nov 24, 2010 Institution of Engineers
      • DRINK 2 liters of water
      • BREATHE 15,000 liters of air
      • More than 10 liters every minute!
      In one day, we…
    • We can …
      • Live without food for more than 10 days
      • Survive without water for 3 days
      • NOT MORE THAN 3 MINUTES WITHOUT AIR
      BUT…
    • AIR Supplies the Oxygen necessary for all functions of the body including brain
    • AIR reaches 100 sq. meters of surface area of the lungs
    • Exercise & Breathing
      • Exercise improves the body’s ability to deliver oxygen
      • It can increase the intake of air by as much as 10 times
      • When we exercise in polluted air, we increase our contact with pollutants; and increase our vulnerability to health damage
      • Air pollution is a key risk factor for a number of diseases and poor general health
    • Air Pollution Who is at risk?
      • Children
      • Elderly
      • Prior heart or lung disease patients
      • Diabetics
      • Persons who work/exercise outdoors
      • Otherwise healthy adults and children
    • Air Pollution Health Problems
      • Impaired fertility
      • Birth defects
      • Respiratory infections
      • Asthma
      • Emphysema
      • Lung Cancer
      • Heart attacks
      • Strokes
      • Premature death
    • Air Pollution Pyramid of effects Lung function changes, immune cell responses Heart rate or heart rate variability responses Asthma attacks, medication use, symptoms Doctor Visits Hospital Admissions Death
    • Air Pollution Main Pollutants
      • Ozone
      • Particulates, especially PM 2.5
      • Air-borne toxics
      • Mercury
    • Air Pollutants: Ground level Ozone
      • Ultra-violet light
      • Volatile Organics
      • Nitrogen oxides
    • Air Pollutants: Ground level Ozone
      • Nitrogen oxides
      50% From Traffic 50% From Power plants and Industry
    • Air Pollutants: Ground level Ozone
      • Seasonal variation
      • Daily variation
      • Outdoors
      • Does not penetrate buildings
    • Air Pollutants: Ground level Ozone
      • Caustic Gas – clear, colourless, odourless
      • Oxidises proteins, lipids in the mucosal fluid layer
      • Highly irritating to lung linings
      • Increases lung secretions, decreases oxygenation
      • Sets off airway bronchospasm
      • Recruits inflammatory cells
      • Increases responses to allergens
      • Damages infection fighting responses
      • Chronic lung damage/remodeling
    • Asthma Epidemic
      • 50% in Children
      • 100% in Adults
    • Ozone and Asthma attacks
      • Hundreds of published studies conducted
      • around the world all show the same results:
      • More Ozone Pollution exposure leads to more asthma attacks
      • Dose = Response relationship
    • Airway Obstruction
    • Ozone reduces Lung function FEV1, % CHANGE BASELINE 2HR 4HR -60 -40 -20 0
    • Ozone causes Asthma
      • Exercising children exposed to Ozone:
      • A cohort study
      • Time Outdoors = Asthma
      McConnell, et al. Lancet 2002: 359: 386-91
    • Ozone: Asthma effects
      • More people with Asthma
      • More asthma attacks
      • More asthma medicine usage
      • More doctor, Casualty and Urgent Care visits
      • More children and elderly in hospitals
      • More school absences
      • More lost work days
    • Ozone: other effects
      • Allergy symptoms
      • Respiratory infections
      • Ear infections
      • Emphysema attacks
      • Overall death rates
    • Air pollutants: Particulates
      • Sulfates
      • Nitrates
      • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)
      • Soot/ Carbon
      • Dust
    • Particulate Physiology
      • Penetrate deeply into lungs to alveoli
      • Irritate lung linings – more Asthma
      • Stimulate immune system inflammatory proteins
    • Air pollutants: Particulates
      • Year round exposures
      • Penetrate buildings
    • Particulates: Cardiac effects
      • Vascular inflammation
      • Blood clotting protein levels
      • Cardiac arrhythmias
      • Blood pressure
      • Heart rate variability
      Alters Cardiac conduction
    • Particulates: Cardiac effects
      • Vascular inflammation is more important than cholesterol in the development of cardio-vascular disease
    • Air Pollution and Next-day Heart attacks
      • Short-term exposure to particulates (PM 2.5) increases the incidence of heart attacks for one day following exposure
      • As air pollution goes up, the risk of heart attack goes up
      • Increased particulate air pollution and the triggering of Myocardial infarction
      • Peters et al.; Circulation, June 12, 2001, vol. 103
    • Air Pollution and Stroke deaths
      • Fine Particulate matter and gaseous pollutants are significant risk factors for acute stroke death
      • Women and the elderly are most susceptible to the effects of particulate air pollutants
      Effect of Air Pollutants on Acute Stroke Mortality. Hong et al. Feb.,2002; Environmental health perspectives, v. 110. no.2 More air pollution exposure More acute stroke deaths =
    • Effects on otherwise healthy people
      • Asthma rates in adults
      • Pneumonia & respiratory infections
      • Lung cancer rates similar to living with a smoker
      • Overall death rates
      Faster decline in lung function with age
    • Effects on children – A generation at risk
      • Multiple birth defects – heart, neural tube
      • Higher infant mortality
      • More asthma
      • Impaired lung development
      • Premature emphysema
      • Increased respiratory infections
      • Higher health care expenditures
    • Final thoughts
      • Health and economic issue
      • Prioritise air quality improvement in decision-making
      • Over half the problem is traffic
      • Massive hidden health costs in transportation and power pollution
      • Imposed risk on all population groups, especially our children and elderly