• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education
 

Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education

on

  • 4,003 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,003
Views on SlideShare
2,778
Embed Views
1,225

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
39
Comments
0

12 Embeds 1,225

http://edu4adults.blogspot.gr 1178
http://edu4adults.blogspot.com 31
http://edu4adults.blogspot.nl 3
http://edu4adults.blogspot.de 3
http://edu4adults.blogspot.ru 2
http://www.edu4adults.blogspot.gr 2
http://edu4adults.blogspot.sg 1
http://edu4adults.blogspot.no 1
http://edu4adults.blogspot.co.uk 1
http://www.edu4adults.blogspot.nl 1
http://edu4adults.blogspot.fr 1
http://edu4adults.blogspot.pt 1
More...

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education Success stories compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults education Document Transcript

    • P4I - Playing for Interculturality Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-GRUNDTVIG-GMP Version 1 – reduced (2012) INVESLAN (Coord.) SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATION OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATION
    • This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained thereinThis project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATION OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATION Work Package 2 ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES DELIVERABLE 3 SUCCESS STORIES – COMPILATION OF GAME-BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES IN ADULTS’ EDUCATION P4I - PLAYING FOR INTERCULTURALITY. Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES- GRUNDTVIG-GMP www.p4i-project.eu p4i@inveslan.com This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTORY NOTE.......................................................................................................3 GLOSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS............................................................................................6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................9 GREEK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES ............... 11 ITALIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES.............. 26 PORTUGUESE ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES.... 45 ROMANIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES ...... 66 SPANISH ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES ............ 82 UK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES .................... 109 US ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES..................... 125 GOOD PRACTICES – SUCCESS STORIES ..................................................................... 148
    • INTRODUCTORY NOTE
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” INTRODUCTORY NOTE INTRODUCTORY NOTE P4I - Play for Interculturality is a Grundtvig Multilateral project, funded by the European Commission, ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-GRUNDTVIG-GMP. The project has been approved in 2011 and will be implemented within the 2 years. While the latest tendencies point at a rather low level of adult population participation in lifelong learning initiatives, despite the increasing efforts in promotions and diversity of programmes, the project partners believe that the use of social games can positively influence the access of European adults to lifelong learning experiences, increasing the access rates, offering innovative and attractive means to develop key competences. P4I – Play for Interculturality seeks to take step forward and create an innovative social game that promotes apprenticeship of intercultural competences of European adults, motivating them to take an active role and interact with other users, boosting digital socialization and media literacy in parallel. The present report has been developed within the framework of work package 2 “Analysis on the use of game-based learning initiatives”, which aims at analysing the pedagogical potential of games (with a special focus on social games) applied to competences development, identifying those variables that influence the successful implementation of game-based learning initiatives, as well as gathering success examples and good practices on EU and international levels that could be used as inspirational experiences for adults training practitioners. The implementation of the work package has been coordinated by INVESLAN (ES). As follows, the report introduces different national realities concerning the game based learning initiatives: Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, UK, and US national reports will be presented respectfully. The last section of the report presents a collection of 28 good practices – success stories that were extracted from the national reports. More information about the project: www.p4i-project.eu
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” INTRODUCTORY NOTE 4 It has to be added that all the national reports have been elaborated according to the “Guidelines and working methodology for carrying out the analysis” that have been defined by INVESLAN (ES). All the data and findings have been collected according the mix – based methodology: a combination of desk research and qualitative research methods have been applied. In order to explore in detail the pedagogical potential of game based learning, as well as the barriers to uptake of games in learning practices and skills supported by game based learning approaches, a combination of 2 qualitative methods have been chosen: expert interviews and group discussions with practitioners. The combination of the two chosen methods allowed us investigate the game based initiatives from two different perspectives. Each partner has been asked to involve minimum 6 experts on the use of innovative teaching and training methodologies (especially those linked to games and video games), from different educational sectors. On the other hand, as far as group discussion, is concerned, it was organized in semi – structured form, with the direct target group - adult training practitioners as a second method that allowed us to explore the game based initiatives. Group discussion as a technique provided us with significant insights from the adult training practitioners’ perspective and at the same time, brought some added–value for the validation of the expert interview results. The participants of the focus groups had been asked to test two games: 1. Facebook sample of story generation: http://apps.beeherd.gr/p4i-stories/ 2. Irish example (3D game sample): http://neelb.arcaneindustries.co.uk/ As well as to fill in the SELF-CHECK INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” INTRODUCTORY NOTE GLOSSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” GLOSSARY 6 GLOSARY – KEY DEFINITIONS Social game-based learning is an informal tool that allows the acquisition of competences in a recreational environment. We move from “learning by doing” for the “learning by playing”, where interpersonal learning is involved, while a social game can only be played by exchanging information, knowledge and items with other players. Social gaming commonly refers to playing games as a way of social interaction, as opposed to playing games in solicitude. We may refer to: Educational games (Related or synonymous terms: Computer games; video games; serious games; game-based learning; instructional games): Games in general can be defined in surprisingly numerous ways, often changing the way games are used and perceived (Wittgenstein, 1958). Games as a series of choices or as rule based play are popular definitions. For the purposes of this report educational games for learning are defined as: applications using the characteristics of video and computer games to create engaging and immersive learning experiences for delivering specified learning goals, outcomes and experiences. Serious games (Related or synonymous terms: Educational games; video games; game-based learning; instructional games; sim games etc.): Michael and Chen (2006) give the following definition: ‘A serious game is a game in which education (in its various forms) is the primary goal, rather than entertainment’. It is worth noting that Huizinga defined games as a free activity standing quite consciously outside ‘ordinary life’, as being ‘not serious’ (1980), following this definition games cannot be serious. Callois similarly defined games as voluntary and therefore
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” GLOSSARY 7 also conflicts with the notion of serious games (1961: 10-11). This gives a good indication of the kinds of contradictions found in comparisons of the available literature1. Key competences: As established in “Key competences for lifelong learning: European Reference Framework”, annex of a Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning that was published in the Official Journal of the European Union on 30 December 2006/L394: “Key competences are those which all individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment. The key competences are all considered equally important, because each of them can contribute to a successful life in a knowledge society” (Ibid., p.3). 1 Definitions of Educational games and Serious games are taken from: JICS, “Learning in immersive worlds: a review of game based learning”, Prepared for the JISC e-Learning Programme by Sara de Freitas, 2006: p.10
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” GLOSSARY 8 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 9 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This final report “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” and its appendices contains the main conclusions of national and international research on the design and implementation of game-based learning initiatives in adult education and were developed within the framework of the Playing for Interculturality (P4I) Project (Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-GRUNDTVIG-GMP), Work Package 2, “Analysis on the use of game-based learning initiatives.” It aims at analysing the pedagogical potential of games (especially social games) applied to competences development, identifying those variables that influence the successful implementation of game-based learning initiatives, as well as gathering success examples and good practices on EU and international levels to be used as inspirations for adults training practitioners. The methodologies employed were to search for relevant information, hold focus groups of members of the target group, and interviews with specialists in the target group members. In each of the countries studied (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, the UK and the US) the use of game-based learning is a rapidly growing trend that is pervading different areas of knowledge. It has gained considerable traction and we can observe a significant qualitative change, nevertheless there is still prevailing gap in usage, in part due to negative stereotypes of gamers, limited expertise in ICT and in games among trainers, and a shortage of good educational games. While there is often a lack of pedagogical design behind current social games, the profile of social game players and gamers is increasingly broad, covering a wide demographic across gender, age and social status that offers an opportunity for game-based learning. Assuming the target audience to be adults, there is significant growth in their use of social media such as Facebook and of social games at this time. The gap between access and participation has closed significantly so that the platform on which the game would be made available is critical to determining who would likely use it and whom else they might recruit to participate. What drives such players to play are the desire to meet new people, to cooperate, to try new games, find new forms of self-expression, to relieve stress, widen networks, experiment with new identities, and the desire to compete and challenge the others. Players tend to feel secure, respected, esteemed, empowered, in charge; they are likely to make an investment in it. A wide range of intercultural competences surfaced in the research on effective games. Those that seemed most appropriate as learning objectives for a social game for adults were self-
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 10 awareness of prejudices and stereotypes, the diversity of communication styles, suspending judgment and empathy. In addition, successfully engaging players will likely promote a number of related competences, including digital competences, collaboration, lateral and strategic thinking, and new forms of literacy, including problem solving, analysis and creative reconstruction of content, multitasking, critical judgment, trans-media navigation, and social interactions and negotiation. The pedagogical potential of social games to achieve these objectives and promote these competences derives from immersive and interactive engagement; self-paced, non-linear and branching activities with multiple outcomes; collaboration and competition; contextual learning that can simulate real life situations, such as solving problems socially; integrated precise performance measurement and feedback. Fun and engaging games capture curiosity and encourage players to work and play together for their mutual growth and success. The successful implementation of a game-based learning initiative depends on a number of variables, not all of which are under the control of the creators. Online gamers often suffer from slow internet connections, glitches in the platform functioning, technical literacy, even finding friends and foes with whom to play. Since the most important variable is engagement, that the player suspends disbelief and becomes immersed in the activities of the game which, if well designed, result in the change in attitude and behaviour that is sought the game design, development and deployment needs to avoid as many obstacles to this engagement as possible. A wide range of success examples surfaced in the search and conversations. Each of the national reports lists a select few that should be played for inspiration. From wildly popular commercial games such as The Sims and Farmville, to effective transformational games such as Darfur is Dying, Peacemaker, Global Conflicts – Palestine, and PING (Poverty is Not a Game), all share designs that bring players back, encourage them to involve others, and promote envisioning the real world in a different way. From them designers should learn to define very specifically what they want to achieve, provide for a variety of contexts for play (including traditional classrooms), and find both a compelling story and engaging activities to advance it. Taken together, the national reports are a rich collection of experience and intelligence that should be re-visited regularly in any design, development, and deployment process involving games to promote adult competences.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11 GREEK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: SQLearn
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 12 GREEK NATIONAL REPORT INTRODUCTORY NOTE The survey was conducted during the elaboration of work package 2 related to the analysis of the use of game-based learning initiatives in the partner countries. This report refers to the Greek desktop survey conducted during the months March and April 2012. The methodology used was to investigate on the internet for the relative information, to hold a focus group with members of the target group and conduct interviews with specialised target group members. The main findings of the desktop research will be elaborated here. Attached one can find the focus group report which was held on the 19th April 2012, in Athens, Greece. Furthermore, the results from the interview will be a separate attachment to this report. Methodology followed and experts contacted The methodology followed is as stated in the WP2 guidelines, namely to begin the investigation into the use of game-based initiatives with desktop research and analysis of results. The desktop research lasted for approximately 2 weeks and all results were collected in order to be analysed. Several types of sources were investigated such as websites, blogs, newspaper articles, white papers and reports originating from European funded projects. The primary part of the research returned a large volume of results which needed filtering and thorough overview. The second part of the methodology was to conduct, in parallel interviews with experts in social games (designers, developers, gamers, trainers using them etc.) but also to conduct a focus group with practitioners (trainers) using social / serious games. We held the focus group on the 19th April 2012, with 12 participants coming both from the trainer’s community teaching intercultural skills and competencies but also social/serious game experts (professors) researching how games are used in education.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 13 During the focus group (separate report has been created), the interview questions were posed and discussed. This report will provide a summary of the discussion. The focus group had the following structure: a) Presentation of the P4i project, b) Presentation by social game expert on the use of social / serious games in education, c) Presentation by intercultural trainer on skills and competencies of an intercultural trainer for adult education, d) Experiential games about intercultural skills and competencies, e) Discussion and presentation on the 3D game and story generator, f) Answering questionnaires / interview questions. The experts invited to participate in the focus group are listed under the heading Participant Matrix. The experts we discussed with during the interview stage were the following: 1. Mrs Maria Saridaki (trainer and researcher in social games), 2. Dr Eri Giannaka (researcher and professor at a HEI), 3. Dr Panagiotis Zaharias (researcher and professor at Cyprus Open University), 4. Dr Dimitris Gouscos (professor at Athens University teaching an MA course in how social games can be used in education, 5. Mrs Viki Zouka (Trainer of Greek language to foreigners at University of Athens and social game blogger), 6. Mr Andreas Derdemetzis founder of CowboyTV and game developer, 7. Mr. Argyris Stasinakis, chairman of WOW Group and designer/developer of the Knowledge Game, 8. Mr Marios Bikos IEEE chapter of University of Patras and promoter of gaming in HEI settings. Moreover, another activity conducted related to the research stage, was a second type of focus group held with Master students of the Athens Kapodistrian University where the P4i project was presented and the interview questions discussed. Finally, the last activity conducted in order to finalise this report was to attend the 1st Gaming Forum held in Athens, Greece on the 27th and 28th March 2012, where noted speakers of the gaming and educational community held presentations, introduced games, held game competitions etc. The report will elaborate further on the findings from the above conducted activities.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 14 GREEK MAIN FINDINGS An extensive research was conducted in Greece in order to investigate the game based learning initiative in Greece. The report is divided into the following sections: Social games based learning initiatives The majority of games used in an educational setting, identified during our research phase pointed to serious games and not social games. Serious and educational games are used extensively for educational purposes and range from primary to tertiary education promoting cognitive skills and knowledge to more advanced, behaviour and personal values, change. Primary education: serious games have been developed and had their educational value acknowledged by the Ministry of Education for teaching young people. One such game is the “Magic Filter/Potion”. Other initiatives come from the private and public sector where the game objective range from planning a city (like the game Aspis) addressing professional architects, planners , citizens but also for introducing planning in school and university curricula. Private companies have started in the last years to promote a social character to their games, namely creating a version for Facebook. These social games have not been fully immersed into education yet, and are mostly used for promotional and marketing purposes. There are games that are used as supplementary educational material and they are: a) “Informatist” for teaching management skills, b) “Electrocity” for environmental issues where Young students manage their own cities, c) “Gazillionaire” used in colleges for teaching business, maths and economics, d) “Magi and the sleeping star”, e) “Global warming interactive” teaching how global warming influence. Finally, a conclusion can be that social games do not necessarily teach specific school topics such as geography or psychology but make an effort to extend and support the thought process by surpassing the stigma that whatever is of educational nature is also boring.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 15 The profile of social games player From our interviews and research we received two types of information: Research community: a) 83% of Facebook users use it for online gaming, b) More women than men play online, c) Users wish to utilise their smart phones, the web and WEB2.0 tools and find a solutions to access lifelong training material from there, d) 97% of younger generations play computer and video games, e) New devices facilitate gaming. Educators’ community (adult training practitioners): Social games are not widely used for training purposes since the actual trainers themselves, did not use them during their training. Their description of the social gamer is that they are younger people playing computer and video games. Gamer community (game developers): From the interview question posed to them, they have not made any specific analysis of the gamer profile for their game design. They know the information from the gamers profile and from the gaming competitions that are being conducted globally. They are aware that gamers come from diverse backgrounds, geographical locations and age groups and that the average age of a global gamer is 37 years. Analytics are very important so that education is integrated with game design. Sample testing The sample testing of the two games presented returned the following comments: a) Both games are very easy to use, b) Interaction is medium to very much although not so engaging (story generator), c) 3D game gave only the first person experience and asking questions between the game make the user lose their game immersion, d) Story generator needs more interaction.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 16 Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adult learning Social games and serious games in an educative setting are still not widely use and we believe that their potential is not fully utilised. Moreover, we found out that there is a lack of pedagogical design behind the social games we have identified and they are used for information awareness campaigns, promotion campaigns and gaming. The new generation of trainees and pupils are ready for games in education but research depicts that their teachers and trainers are not. We do not prepare our children for the necessary change but for the world that we know and not the world they will get to know! This is a major drawback and the research community is trying to change it, hence the organisation of the 1st Gaming Forum 2012 aimed at discussing trends in game design and its application in entertainment, education and marketing. Another factor that might influence the Greek community and trainees to play more games and become more efficient is the high unemployment rate among youth reaching 36.1% (Jan 2012 figure) forcing hence, the trainers community to increase their use (games) in education. Identification of success elements of social games for education The success elements or characteristics of what makes a social game useful for educational purposes relate always to the pedagogical design and analysis of the target group for which it is targeting. According to Mr. Jacob Nielsen, member of the British Council in Copenhagen, Denmark, there are certain steps one must follow in order to ensure a game as an efficient educational tool. These are: a) Prepare the game properly and allow time following the game end, to follow up with the trainees. b) Ensure that there is diversity in the teams that play the game, this diversity will bring diverse experience and allow for enhanced exchange of know-how. c) Bring in external advisors / experts to build strong case studies. d) Ensure that there is real-world testing – this element is very important because the trainees will see how real people react to their decisions. They game they designed was about planning a city. e) The fun factor is key.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 17 f) Have small prizes to act as motivator. Other elements surfaced during our research were: a) Careful interaction activities need to be designed allowing for individual as well as social interaction. b) Link learning objectives to gaming content. c) Assessment and its structure / position in the game is very important as not to distract the trainee from the game. d) Ensuring that the trainees understand that this is part of the educational activity. Learning identification and evaluation If proper educational objectives have been set learning can be identified in the game. Evaluation needs to be carefully positioned in order not to distract the user from the game. Perhaps, evaluation can take place when ending the game and not within the actual game. However, this always depends on the skills, knowledge or behaviour you wish to enhance. Barriers to uptake of games in learning practice The Greek research, trainers and game developers community agreed that one major barrier is the mentality towards gaming in Greece. Gaming has a negative connotation which is different to the rest of the world. Another barrier of using games in the learning practice is the fact that the necessary background is lacking by the actual trainers and it is not in their mentality. One example from a school teacher: children on a school trip should experience nature (identify tree leaves) with their hands and where not allowed to take pictures on their mobile phones and share with their friends. Other barriers are the lack of ICT infrastructure in schools and state universities. There is a contrast between private training providers who usually have state-of-the-art equipment in their classrooms and experiment with new technologies in training delivery. The main conclusion is that serious and social games need to be introduced from a central perspective into the national curricula.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 18 Skills supported by game-based learning approaches Skills supported can be the following: a) ICT basic skills since users learn how to use the Internet, a computer, social media. b) Netiquette skills for online and group communication. c) Critical thinking competencies since their actions/decisions influence the outcome of the game. d) Organising group activities and work as part of a group. e) Share information and knowledge and also learn to learn (informally). f) Role-playing skills. g) Negotiation skills. h) Communication skills. Summary for the self-check intercultural sensitivity questionnaire The main focus group was held on the 19th April where 13 people attended. At the end of the focus group, a questionnaire was distributed among them related to the knowledge and skills of the group on intercultural sensitivity issues. The results gathered are the following: a) Q: History: the majority (more than 50%) stated that particular knowledge in history was not necessary in order for them to conduct their work. Only 1 reply was given related to this which thought that history knowledge facilitated their work, b) Q: Social sciences: the majority (60%) answered that it is quite useful to have social sciences background in order to teach a group in intercultural skills and competencies, c) Q: Geography: the answers to this question were divided where 50% thought that knowledge (and interest) in such an area is not so important, the other 50% though differently. The conclusion is that it depends on the group of trainees each trainer has, d) Q: Native language: 50% thought that good knowledge in the native language is essential for trainers while the other 50% thought it as not so important, e) Q: Language and society: the same replies as native language, f) Q: Non-verbal language: although this was a good question for discussion and of interest, the trainers agreed (60%) that it not so important to have such knowledge in these topics,
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 19 g) Q: Mathematics: the most important part was the ability of problem-solving, although answers were divided. i.e. the majority 70% answered that they were neutral to knowledge and importance, h) Q: Relation human vs. Nature: the majority 50%, thought that this is of very low importance and not specific knowledge is needed for their work, i) Q: ICT: almost all agreed that this is of high importance and their knowledge should be very high in this area, j) Q: Level of use of ICT tools as a game: 80% answered that they use ICT tools as games, k) Q: Use of ICT in education: again almost all use ICT tools for educational purpose (learn), l) Q: Satisfaction with the research method: (was slightly changed by us to read: how satisfied are in you the research that is being conducted in Greece related to the use of ICT / games in education): the answers were: 40% satisfied, 30% not so satisfied, 30% not satisfied at all.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 20 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS The recommendations and conclusions reached following the two focus groups conducted are the following: (they are being separated according to field) For the intercultural trainer – skills and competences • How can an intercultural trainer prepare for teaching such groups of trainees? Best is if they have undergone experiential training so that they are aware of their own abilities, skills / competences in the area. • Is special knowledge required (i.e. history, geography etc) for the trainer to conduct their work better? No, these are issues they should focus on before the training. • Culture is of outmost importance i.e. using ICT should be a habit and a training tool for the trainers already in their education. • Trainers should be aware of their stereotypes and prejudices. • How can a trainer remain neutral? By experiential experiences and training they realise their potential, skills and way of teaching. Moreover, they learn to prepare their lesson plans better. For the use of social / serious games in education • Veteran game users à get involved easier in an educational process where games are involved. • The Greek education / trainer community is not fully ready to use social games in adult education. • There are a growing community of Greek game developers. • Controlled vs. free learning environment. Which is best suited for our target group? Classroom vs. game • When should we include interaction in the game? In order not to interfere with the game immersion – interaction should be carefully planned. • Shock experience in game – can be a useful method.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 21 • User interaction - careful planning on how interaction between users should be designed. • Perhaps we can design based on gender in order to motivate users (scenarios). • What peripheral advantages can be drawn from the game i.e. learn ICT, learn history, learn about geography etc. Greek results: • Low ICT experience among trainers and educators. • There are many differences between other EU countries and Greece – in particular how and when they use ICT in education. • There are big differences between the different age groups. • Formal education is still more important and sought after than informal education / training. • When changes come from central government / i.e. initiatives and schemes, they are better and more quickly integrated within the educational system.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 22 REFERENCES: [1] Anagnostou K. Serious Games or simple games in Education?, accessed March 2012, from http://thinkinggamer.wordpress.com/2010/ 01/28/serious-games-or-games/ [2] Blog Kiosterakis.gr Serious Games accessed April 2012, from http://www.kiosterakis.gr/new/epikairothta/education/549-serious-games [3] Derdemetzis A. presentation from the 1st Gaming Forum Athens, “Gaming is not a Crime” Greece, 27th March 2012 [4] Gounari M. When serious games are introduced in education accessed April 2012, from http://www.gameover.gr/Serious-Games.17821.html?article_page=1 [5] Initial Vocational Training Centre AKMI, accessed March 2012 from http://www.iek- akmi.gr/paroxes/ekpaideytika-proterimata [6] Karalis T, & Raikou N, Greek national report of EU Project Development of Innovative Methods of training the trainers, Athens, Greece 2010 [7] Klopfer E., Osterweil S., Salen K. Moving learning games forward, MIT 2009 [8] Meimaris M. & Gouscos D., Minutes from the conference ECGBL 2011 (European Conference on Game Based Learning) organised on the 20-21st October 2011, by University of Athens [9] Mourlas K. et all, Serious Games Showcase and Best Practices 2011, accessed April 2012 from http://old.media.uoa.gr/sgsbest2011/ [10] Mouzakis Ch. Training Adults – Using The New Technologies in Training Adults, Athens, Greece 2006 [11] Nielsen J. British Council, presentation from 1st Gaming Forum Athens, “Future City Game / Social Game as an educational tool”, Greece 27th March 2012 [12] Papanis E., Greek Social Research blog, Educational, Psychological and Sociological Research, accessed March 2012 from http://penthileus.blogspot.com / http://epapanis.blogspot.com/2011/02/e.html
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 23 [13] Papastamos V. et all A proposition: Using electronic games (serious games) in teaching History in secondary education, accessed March 2012 from http://blogs.sch.gr/billbas/ [14] Pappa A, Video games in the classroom, Alibreto, accessed March 2012 from http://alibreto.gr [15] Pappas J. Dr, Who plays serious games – LUDUS Project, Conference 22 Feb 2010, Ioannina, Greece
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 24 ANNEX: Participant Matrix Greek focus group held on the 19/4/2012 in Athens, Greece Name and surname Age Gender Occupation Education Social games player (games played) Mrs Maria Psaraki 25-35 F Trainer Tertiary No Mrs Christina Karra 25-35 F Instructional designer Tertiary Farmville, Restaurant, Cafeworld, Amnesty game, Empire, Smurfs, Knowledge games, Greek games, Treasure Island, Jems, online quiz/ contests. Mr Giorgos Simopoulos 36-45 M Trainer Tertiary No games Mrs Biki Zouka 25-35 F Trainer Tertiary Role playing games: Mass Effect, Eve, World of Warcraft, Diablo Mrs Christina Kanellopoulou 25-35 F Instructional designer Tertiary BakeryStory, CityStory, Farmville, BrainChallenge, Smurfs Mrs Eri Giannaka 25-35 F Researcher Tertiary Who has the biggest brain (playfish through Facebook) Word Challenge (playfish through Facebook) Geo Challenge (playfish through Facebook) Mrs Maria Saridaki 25-35 F Trainer Tertiary Mr Dimitris Mylonas 25-35 M Researcher Tertiary Farmville Mrs Maria Lianou 25-35 F Junior Instructional designer Secondary Sims, angry birds Mrs Lia Tsiatsouli 25-35 F Junior Instructional designer Tertiary Mr Antonis Friggas M 25-35 Developer social games Doctoral 8ballBull, Sims, Angry Birds Mrs Sofia Tsiortou F 36-45 Instructional designer Tertiary Angry Birds, SecondLife, Backgammon Mr Panagiotis Zaharias M 36-45 Professor / researcher Tertiary EveOnline
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 25 2nd seminar / focus group held on the 24/4/2012 in Athens, Greece (University of Athens, MA course) Name and surname Age Gender Occupation Education Mrs Asteria Marantou 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Anastasia Kaltsoula 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Evjenia Siampanopoulou 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Menia Mavraki 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Antonia Seresly 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Mrs Katerina Fragkiskou 25-35 F Teacher Tertiary Dr. Dimitris Gouscos 36-45 M Professor Tertiary
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: GREEK NATIONAL REPORT 26 ITALIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: CNIPA PUGLIA
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 27 ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT DESK RESEARCH “What should we call these “new” students of today? Some refer to them as the N- [for Net]- generation or D-[for digital] - generation. But the most useful designation I have found for them is Digital Natives. Our students today are all “native speakers” of the digital language of computers, video games and the Internet.” The “digital natives”, that means the young generations of boys and girls that, since 1990, were born and grown up with Internet “love to play more than older generations”. Most of them had access to games and virtual worlds all lifelong and so they take for granted the high involvement and the active participation. They know what an extreme, positive activation means and when they don’t experience it, they feel bored and frustrated. They don’t have any reason to feel like that: it’s much more difficult to work well in less motivated environments with a low feedback and few challenges when you grow up playing sophisticated games”. When we study educational paths addressed to young people today we have to take into consideration that they are the first generation of students that have been constantly in touch with new information technology and communication tools: mobile phones, DVD players, laptops, desktops and videogames are part of their lives since their births and are integrating part of their everyday life. “Engage Me or Enrage Me”, this is the slogan of new generation. This kind of debate is concerning the trainers of the 21st century, showing a greater and greater interest towards the so-called “serious game” and they consider also the fact to show its efficiency to the people who weren’t born in the digital era too and that were approaching the digital world during the years, in different stages of their lives, being fascinated by this world. This last kind of people is called, always by M. Prensky, Digital Immigrants. “Today’s serious game is serious business” this is how Sawyer , well-known expert of this topic, that has the quality of making the word serious game famous, explains that the first word “serious” is referred to the aim of the game and the reason why it has been created, that is why he refers to serious videogames as “information applications realized by researchers and industrials with the
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 28 aim of using those videogames and technologies for objectives that go beyond the simple entertainment". The serious game is used with many different purposes and to explain or simulate any situation and topic, the fields that use this tool include from the medical ones to the military ones, enterprises, politics, religion, and ethics and so on. For instance, the videogames used at school with a didactic aim, reveal themselves as an efficient mean to explain to young people and children topics that could have been too complex if covered in a different way. Furthermore, always regarding the didactics, the serious game seems to be in line with the digital language the young use nowadays and are perfect interpreters. Michael and Chen, two experts in educational videogames, seem to agree with this kind of observations about the serious games. In their book “Serious Games: Games that Educate, Train and Inform” they describe videogames as: “ …a voluntary activity, obviously separate from real life, creating an imaginary world that may or may not have any relation to real life and that absorb the player’s full attention. Games are played out within a specific time and place, are played according to established rules, and create social groups out of their players.” So the primary objective of serious game is to teach something and do it in a pleasant and enjoyable way. The expression serious game became popular after the birth of the Serious Game Initiative in 2002, an association that dealt only with the research and development about serious videogames. Thanks to the growth of this association, the term serious videogame was included in common language and had the visibility it deserved, considering we are talking about a market of millions dollar. In the website dedicated to the initiative, the association explains what are its aims through its studies that are significant to understand the real extent of this: “Serious Game Initiative is focused on the use of games to explore new challenges about management and public sector. Part of its global features is to help creating a productive link between electronic videogames and different projects that concern fields such as education, health, training and public policy”. The serious games represent only a part of the tools used for educational, learning and practical purposes related to the use of computer. In fact, according to the aim they have we can talk e- learning, edutainment, game-based learning and digital game-based learning. The first concept, the one of e-learning, concerns the possibility to learn exploiting the Internet and consequently the possibility to spread distance information.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 29 E-learning is not limited to school education and university but it is used for company training and organizations that have offices in different cities. The Edutaiment is a form of entertainment with the aim of educating and enjoying. The purpose is to socialize people in entertainment activities such as TV programmes, videogames, films and websites. The term edutaiment is a neologism created by Bob Heyman. The expression was born by the merging of two words: educational and entertainment. The term edutainment is also used to refer to the sector of e-learning that tries to transfer key concepts in a funny way. This method can also be used fruitfully to cover delicate issues such as ethics, diversity and sex education. As far as game-based learning, it is defines as a branch of serious games, that deals with the results, concerning learning process, that are achieved using teaching games. The reasoning that underlies the intuition to use game as a tool to learn is clearly expressed by the following statement by Marc Prensky: “There is no reason that a generation can memorize over 100 Pokemon characters with all their characteristics, history and evolution can’t learn the names, population, capitals and relationships of all the 101 nations in the world”. The characteristics of GBL (game-based learning) are first of all to use competitive exercises that stimulate the students to defy each other or against themselves in order to be motivated to learn better, they often use elements of imagination that involve the players in learning activities that follow the path of a story and furthermore, with the aim of creating a really instructive game, the trainer has to be sure that learning the notions of the game are actually aimed at the score and the win of the game itself. Besides the fact that learning through a game is really attractive to young people, the GBLs, if structured in a correct way, can motivate students to better know and encourage them to learn from their mistakes. The digital game-based learning (DGBL) are closely connected with the GBLs, the only difference being that they refer only to games that are digital and therefore can be used only with the support of a personal computer. The DGBLs are the most popular educational games and the attention of studies is focusing on them, and it is not difficult to guess why, since it is not strange to find children who can use technology better than an adult a computer. The logic behind the processes of learning that we want to trigger with the use of serious game is the one learning by doing. In recent years, this expression has become quite popular since it was found to be in many respects, one of the best strategies to learn when it is not intended only as
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 30 a mean to memorize, but also to "understand". To understand and memorize, therefore, it seems that the best strategy is to do it by practically experiencing, through work, through the actions that are more stuck in memory. Since the objective, whatever the target we are addressing to, is not mechanical actions or concepts randomly, to really understand we gave to activate pathways that stimulate reflection and thought. The knowledge must be internalized; we must reflect, think and be aware (learning by thinking). The development of the serious games industry is becoming an object of interest and investigation and this is also proved by the fact that in Europe there are many programs that have it in Europe, one among all the LUDUS project. Objective of the project LUDUS is the creation of a European network for the transfer of knowledge and dissemination of good practices in the innovative field of serious games. In the context of the project LUDUS, a part of the activities for promotion, transfer of knowledge and creation of a network of experts, will take place in South East Europe. These activities aim to promote training and skills development and the capacity of local firms and other actors involved in the field of serious games. LUDUS activities include, among others, the analysis of the state of the art of serious games, a survey on the availability and interest of the ICT companies in the South East of Europe for the development of serious games, the organization of workshops, conferences, training courses, competitions, open labs, creating an online database of experts and other stakeholders, to build a website and a reference library, prepare promotional activities and a guide of good practices. The demographics show a constant increase of interest in the use of serious games. 31% of EU citizens aged between 16 and 49 are active players and European players’ average age is 30 years. Statistics reveal that this type of game is now an essential part of everyday life for a significant portion of the population, regardless of age, gender and social status, which can be seen as an indicator of familiarity with this type of technology and at the same time, as evidence of the importance of the game itself and, consequently, of serious games in general. The study “Citizen As Partners Information Consultation and Public Participation in Policy Making” by OECD (Organization for the Development of Cooperation and Development) has outlined an important framework for participatory policies of EU members. The report emphasized the need to strengthen the link between citizens and institutions, both national and European Union, in particular, stressed the need to make citizens participate in decision-making, supporting the traditional means of participation and consultation with the use of new ICT (Information and Communication Technologies).
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 31 Projects such as E-VITA (project co-founded by the General Directorate of Education and Culture of the European Commission within the Lifelong Learning Programme, Key Activity 3) that integrate Game Based Learning with concepts of inter-generational learning or VoiceS , that has the aim of promoting the dialogue among European citizens and their regional representatives of European parliament or local assemblies in order to build a mutual relation of change and trust, confirm the importance, pertinence and functionality of serious games. The “Videogamers in Europe 2010” study, realized by GameVision on behalf of the Interactive Software Federation of Europe (ISFE), shows that in Italy, adults play less than those in EU countries. Only 17% of adults are used to playing videogames. Italy is one of the EU countries where the adult generation do not have a high rate of video-gamers. Only 17% of people in Italy play videogames, while the European average is 25%. On the other hand, 76% of players play online games, while the European average is 71%. According to the statistics, 73% of people play free games and 22% play ‘pay per play games’. Italy shows the highest proportion of playing games on a “pay to play” basis. Italian players play mostly with games which are available on social networks and online, as opposed to videogames. One out of five Italian players takes part in multiplayer online games. The games which are most used are casual games such as puzzle, board, trivial and card games (played by 55%). According to the European average, Italian players play 59% for fun, 53% to relax and 39% to pass time. Particularly in Italy, there is a large rate of players; however they are not used to buying videogames. This suggests that they have a low budget for gaming and there is a consequent impact on the level of piracy. Normally, artificial systems such as computers, robots and telecoms networks, collect information about and interact with the environments they inhabit. This raises the question of how to build artificial systems that adapt to their environment. The attempt to answer this question has brought together researchers from a broad range of theoretical and technological disciplines. Building an artefact that knows its environment requires on the one hand a Theory of Knowledge, on the other a broad range of scientific and technical know-how. In other words, it requires collaboration between psychologists, philosophers, biologists, engineers, computer scientists, physicists and mathematicians. The collaboration between these researchers in these different disciplines has already produced important theoretical and practical results. To further promote this collaboration, the EU has created a Network of Excellence that brings together key
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 32 workers in the area. The staff of the NAC laboratory is part of this effort and it belongs to the University of Naples Federico II. The focus of the lab's activity is to reproduce psychobiological phenomena in artificial systems using Evolutionary Robotics and Artificial Life techniques. Several of the key researchers come from the Laboratory for Adaptive Robotics and Artificial Life - Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies National Research Council. They are involved to extend this approach to create effective new technologies that support psychological processes (learning, decision making, entertainment, etc.). In according with learning process NAC Lab has developed many projects. One of these is the pilot project LearnToLead, created to design, implement, and test a novel, online approach to training in team leadership (see Good Practice section). Moreover, related with the last tendencies, 2 young Italian developers are creating a different platform of social game but all their project are recent and available in beta version. These games are different because they pretend to make the users very active in the way of thinking, cooperating and acting on the real life. The first game is called Edgeryders and has created by an Italian developer Mr. Alberto Cottica (see Good Practice section), the second game is a “social activity game“ called Piqueon, it has created by Mr. Daniele Portaluri. Both represent a new way of gaming interaction. NATIONAL RESEARCH Following the guidelines of WP2, before the focus group, we selected the possible candidates, and experts of serious and social game, to submit them the semi-structured face to face interviews. The recruitment of experts was made through a research on Internet, followed by Phone calls and mail Exchange to evaluate their competence related to the field covered. From a list of 15 people we selected 6 experts and, during the month of April 2012, we submitted them a semi-structured interview according to WP2. The interviews were carried on at home with the interviewees, recorded with a digital recorder, and then listened to, analysed, protocoled and filed. The interviewees were: 1. Daniele Portaluri (Social game creator) 2. Carla Ruggeri (Journalist and researcher) 3. Livio Preite (Teacher and trainer)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 33 4. Piero Petrelli (ITC developer) 5. Riccardo Rizzo (ITC teacher) 6. Francesco Baccaro (ITC developer/designer) From the analysis of the answers, the results emerged were: Social games based learning initiatives The last trends prove that we’re experiencing a greater and greater use of this kind of games, above all for children. Learn enjoying it is easier and more motivating. The social game, furthermore, trains to the confrontation, enables to involve a very high number of users, destroys any architectural barrier. It’s becoming an easy and fast system. The most known social games and most successful are, according to the interviewees: The Sims Social, available also on Facebook, Cityville, Second Life, Foursquare, Peacemaker, Oilproject (with over 9000 students, it’s the greatest school online in Italy), Piqueon, EdgeRyders, StreetMood, Learn to Lead and Eutopia. Furthermore, the territorial potential of the application of serious game could be used as a tool to promote every territory, the artistic and natural beauties, arts and crafts and the typical features of the context of reference. The experts have recommended the social games based learning initiatives below: • Learn to Lead (pilot project); • Oilproject; • Edgeryders; • Eutopia. The profile of social games player From the interviews carried out the typical adult player is between 30/40, interested in digital technology, Internet and videogames (particularly console), curious and attentive to the news in this field. The player tends to be diligent in the initial phase of approach and knowledge of the game and becomes less and less fond of it, except if the system does not introduce such innovations periodically to maintain a constant level of interest for the user. What pushes the player to play is the desire to meet new people, try new games, the curiosity to test new applications and the desire to compete and challenge the others.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 34 Sample testing All the interviewees have tested the game 3D NEELB2. Everybody expressed a positive judgement about the use of 3D environments and interactive avatar for the purposes of the project. At the same time they suggested to improve the game speed of interaction and graphic elements. Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adult learning In this case the different backgrounds and professional experiences of participants emerged. In fact, those engaged in teaching activities and formal education prefer the use of serious games like Second Life or Oilproject, where they regularly organize social cultural and educational events. The ones who do not work in schools, would rather participate in less formal environments and creative ones such as Piqueon and Edgeryders, where users have to complete less structured missions and the solutions are not unique but depend on the participant's intelligence. Participants highlighted that the major pedagogical advantage of using social games, the ability to have a customized experience of the technological means (computer). Even socializing is an important aspect of social games. It also allows you to break down any barrier, both physical and social, since it interacts in a "non place", not necessarily a mirror of a real context. Furthermore, the same advantages, when considered in absolute terms that means constantly compared with the experiences of real life, could become disadvantages in terms of release from everyday life, representing the biggest disadvantage. Another disadvantage is the low possibility to control the content uploaded. As for the skills that can be supported by games (social games), it was determined that there are no limits to that effect. As regards the approach to learning, everyone agreed that there is an objective approach, but it must always be measured and studied in relation to the peculiar characteristics of the target group to which the social game is addressed. The experts have recommended the pedagogical potential of the use of games below: • language skills; • communication skills; • technical skills;
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 35 • opening-mind; • keeping in touch with many users; • implementation of knowledge; • sharing and comparing experiences from real life to digital environment; • learning process based on non-formal education; • keeping information about several interests; • involving the player in the decision making process; • increasing social skills and self-empowerment. Identification of success elements of social games for education The elements of success of social games for education, from the interviews carried out, are the result of the intrinsic nature of them as they are accessible to all and represent an element of change and innovation. They also allow an easy learning and playing, they have in themselves mechanisms that stimulate a better involvement of the player who does not feel at some point the stress due to learn at any cost. We list the elements of success that were identified: - nice and suitable graphic environment (Mr. Daniele Portaluri is working on the new graphic version of Piqueon); - non formal environment (success elements of Edgeryders); - active involvement of the user: make feel the player as an important person and bringing “something new” (main success elements of Edgeryders); - immediate gratitude and self-esteem; - the success of the action depends above all to each individual (supported by the other players); - good competition and ability in problem solving; - no mark or formal evaluation;
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 36 - clear and defined rules; - tutorials for gaming (video-tutorial). Learning identification and evaluation The interaction in interactive environments is easy and the learning as quick as the game is interesting. From the experience of the participants results that there is often a greater inclination to virtual rather than physical interaction. Learning can be measured by feedbacks with compulsory access that is taken seriously only if the game is funny. If you are in a class the encouragement could come from the teacher in the classroom, whether it is an informal environment, it provides rewarding moments that stimulate to keep. Of course the ones who are stimulated to learn and play above all for this rewarding mechanism, is of minor importance. We should consider that in Italy all game learning based initiatives are quite recent and belong to university research sector or private entrepreneurial attempts. Barriers to uptake of games in learning practice The barriers have been identified: - from a technical point of view as the broad band, the cost of connection and the multimedia tools. - from a socio-pedagogical point of view, the trainers are few and few ones are really able to manage the educational situations on the cutting edge. - language barriers. Skills supported by game-based learning approaches It's been difficult to identify areas universally valid for every kind of learner. However, you can find common elements that lead to define some areas more appreciated than others. They were foreign language, IT skills above all for the use of social networks, entrepreneurship and cultural insights, and then in order of importance educational subjects such as mathematics and social sciences. The skills supported in LearnToLead game are: - competition and cooperation; - leadership skills; - team working;
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 37 - effectiveness and efficiency; - competencies in “people management”, resource management and organization. The skills supported in Edgeryders game are: - influence common future of Europe; - share the social responsibility; - build a positive cooperation between citizens; - share information and good practice between citizens and institutional body. The skills supported in Piqueon game are: - technical skills through video, photos and media contents ; - responsible competition; - communication skills; - creativity and social activism; - learning through the actions of other users. FOCUS GROUP As has been explained, it should be considered that in Italy, all game learning based initiatives are relatively recent and belong to university research sectors or small entrepreneurial attempts. The participants of the focus group have been informed about these initiatives, however none of them have experience with the social games which are recommended by the experts (only 4 participants have experience with Edgryders). The focus group was held in Lecce on 27th April 2012 with the participants selected following the guidelines of WP2. The group of participants is composed by eleven people selected among teachers, trainers and people practising social game based learning. The focus group was led by Doct. Maurizio Melito, supported by the sociologist Cosimo Botrugno. The participants selected are:
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 38 1. Mr. Salvatore Cappilli (Graphic designer, ITC teacher) 2. Mr. Daniele Martina (Psychologist and Trainer) 3. Mrs. Alessandra Alfarano (Public Body Employed/sociologist) 4. Mr. Pierpaolo Ingrosso (ITC Teacher, E-tutor) 5. Mr. Salvatore Logica (Video Maker/practitioner) 6. Msr. Irma Zabulionyte (graphic designer) 7. Mr. Giovanni Avantaggiato (Community developer) 8. Mrs. Mariangela Schito (Italian teacher) 9. Mrs. Cecilia Catanzariti (Informal trainer/project manager) 10. Mrs. Nunzia Delle Donne (Intercultural Trainer) 11. Paola De Pascali (Intercultural trainer) In detail: The activities began at 9.00 with a short presentation of the project P4I made by Doc. Maurizio Melito, where the main aspects of the project have been presented and the general objectives. Then every participant was given a SELF-CHECK INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY and, after 20 minutes, all the tests have been filled in and hand over. The purpose of such questionnaire, as outlined in WP2, was to make the participants reflect on their intercultural skills before proceeding with a debate on the use of social games of the participants The questionnaires were developed in order to have an immediate feedback of sensitivity of participants to the topic covered. The debate was opened with a brief introduction by Mr. Melito on the use of social games, which was followed by the activity "my avatar" that was carried out as follows: each participant was asked to draw on a sheet the typical interface of their favourite social game, to give motivations to the actions of their avatar and to explain why the avatar exists and to explain the interaction of the avatar with the environment.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 39 From the following analysis of the works we can see that: a) The most popular games among participants are: - Second Life (6 participants) - Foursquare (6 participants) - Cityville (6 participants) - Sims Socials (4 participants) - Edgeryders (4 participants) - The World of Warcraft (3 participants) - Farm Ville (3 participants) - The Sims 3 (2 participants) - The Peacemaker (1 participant) b) The main common motivations of players are: - Widen the contact network overcoming the territorial distances (7) - Know the “different” through the virtual representation channels (5) - To disguise yourself and have a new identity (5) c) The main skills supported resulted to be - Gratitude and satisfaction - Learning a foreign language through the commands of the game and the interactions with other users - Giving value to the relational aspect - Growth and personal enrichment - Learning the use of technology d) The main activities carried out during the game were: - Cooking/eating
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 40 - Listening to music - Smoking - Talking on the phone From 10 to 10:15 we had a coffee break followed by the test of the game 3D NEELB2. Every participant had the opportunity to have access and complete the game to participate to the following focus group. Furthermore, every participant was asked to take notes of the answers given to every single question of the game. At 11.30 the focus group was opened. To start the discussion, we asked the participants to give their opinion about the game NEELB2, from that some critical points emerged: - Lack of personalization and characterization of the avatar - Slow game dynamics - Limited interaction with other characters Of course the group had understood very well the aims of the sample game and expressed a strong curiosity in knowing the following implementations of the game. Then, starting from the academic definitions of the three terms, Mr. Maurizio Melito began the focus group so that participants compared the answers given. Shortly after the debate has been focused on how the use of social games can foster intercultural attitudes at the expense of discrimination. A first critical aspect detected during the debate was that, when a participant (Alessandra Alfarano) noted that although the social games offer the opportunity to interact with an unlimited number of users, it happens that the greatest number of interactions exchanged by players are made within a limited circle. This phenomenon, according to Alessandra, does nothing but reinforce prejudices, stereotypes and discriminatory acts of their group. The answers of the group were many, but in the end it was agreed that it would be interesting to create a game where everyone is led to be born, grow and live in different ethnic communities, in order to make a virtual experience interacting with those communities most victims of discrimination.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 41 A second topic introduced by Mr. Melito concerned the use of social games as learning tool for adults about interculturality. The younger participants have immediately agreed about the need and the usefulness of this type of games in schools, like civic education. A question asked by a participant (Mr. Giovanni Avantaggiato) has suggested a number of critical points arguing that it is very difficult to influence the behaviour of adults because they have stereotypes and prejudices deeply rooted in their social actions. Some have supported the statement of Giovanni, others have argued that the number of people that approaches social games also includes a significant number of adults who, though attracted to these games, might be able to change their mental barriers in a virtual environment. Another topic emerged from these observations concerns the digital divide in Italy. Daniele Martina in fact, states that it is a phenomenon that is still too relevant and which helps to move away the adults from the world of technology, at least as concerns the field of learning. Peter Petrelli, however, answered back by saying that the university reforms and the use of e-learning platforms not necessarily academic has greatly reduced the digital gap, designing interfaces more and more intuitive and standardized. The focus group ended with greetings and the organizers thanking all participants for their involvement.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 42 CONCLUSION REMARKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In conclusion few ones added some comments, but from the few comments we could extract the following recommendations: 1. Present the social game in an appropriate way. This allows a positive approach. This can happen in the classroom or, if it is an informal environment, via web. 2. The information and clarity avoid moments of default. 3. An appropriate system of tutoring helps to develop the path in a correct way as video, text and picture, etc.). 4. Divide the game into steps and stop many times for clarifications and discussion in order to consolidate the knowledge that can be a help. 5. Sometimes, repeating the game allows all the participants to be at the same level to go on with another study.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 43 REFERENCES: (1) Jane McGonigal ( 2011), La realtà in gioco, Apogeo (2) Mark Prensky (2001) Digital Natives, digital immigrants, from www.marcprensky.com (3) Bryan Bergero (2006) Developing serious game, Thomson Delmar Learning (4) Michael David, Chen Sande (2005) Serious Game, games that educate train and inform, Thomson Course Technology (5) Ben Sawyer (2010) from www.bensawyer.net (6) Susi Tarja, Johannesson Mikael, Backlund Per (2007) Serious game - An Overview, from www.autzones.net (7) Castronova Edward (2007) Exodus to the Virtual World focus, Palgrave Macmillan (8) OECD (2001) Citizen As Partners Information Consultation and Public Participation in Policy Making (9) Luciano Gallino (2004) Dizionario di sociología Report Focus, UTET (10) Asi Burak, Eric Keylor, Tim Sweeney (2007) PeaceMaker: A Video Game to Teach Peace, from http://www.etc.cmu.edu (11) Marc Prensky (2005) Engage Me or Enrage Me, EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 40 (12) S. Hall (1997) Representation: cultural representations and signifying practices Report Focus, Sage in association with The Open University (13) B. M. Mazzara (1997) Stereotipi e pregiudizi Report Focus, Il Mulino (14) GameVision Europe (for ISFE) (2010) Video gamers in Europe 2010, from http://gamevisionresearch.com
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 44 Annex: Participants profile matrix Name and surname Age Gender Occupation Education Social games player (games played) Mr. Salvatore Cappilli 50 M Graphic designer, ITC teacher Second life, The World of Warcraft Mr. Daniele Martina 31 M Pychologist and Trainer Degree in psychology Foursquare, The Sims social Mrs. Alessandra Alfarano 35 F Public Body Employed/sociologist Degree in sociology Second life, The Sims social, Foursquare Mr. Pierpaolo Ingrosso 52 M ITC Teacher, E-tutor Degree in Economy and finance Second life, Farm Ville Mr. Salvatore Logica 31 M Video Maker/practicioner Degree in environment sciences (bachelor) Foursquare, Edgeryders, The World of Warcraft Mrs. Irma Zabulionyte 30 F Graphic designer Degree in business technology (bachelor) Second life, The Sims 3 Mr. Giovanni Avantaggiato 46 M Community developer Scientific diploma The Sims social, The peacemaker, The World of Warcraft Mrs. Mariangela Schito 28 F Italian teacher Degree in litterature Foursquare, Edgeryders, The Sims 3 Mrs. Cecilia Catanzariti 46 F Informal trainer/project manager Degree in pedagogy Second life, The Sims social, Farm Ville Mrs. Paola De Pascali 28 F Intercultural trainer Degree in social sciences (bachelor) Foursquare, Edgeryders, Farm Ville Mrs. Nunzia Delle Donne 52 F Intercultural Trainer Degree in sociology Second life, Foursquare, Edgeryders
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ITALIAN NATIONAL REPORT 45 PORTUGUESE ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: SPI
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 46 PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT INTRODUCTION P4I - Play for Interculturality is a Grundtvig Multilateral project, funded by the European Commission. The project has been approved in 2011 and will be implemented within the 2 years. P4I – Play for Interculturality seeks to take a step forward and create an innovative social game that promotes apprenticeship of intercultural competences of European adults, motivating them to take an active role and interact with other users, boosting digital socialization and media literacy in parallel. The present report comprises Portuguese contribution to WP2, pertaining the preparation of national research on the use of innovative teaching methodologies (especially those linked to games and video games), from different educational sectors. The main objectives of this report are: • To analyse the pedagogical potentials of games and social games applied to competences development. • To identify those variables influencing the successful implementation of game-based learning initiatives. • To detect good practices in the EU or international level. • To gather success examples that could be used as inspirational experiences for adults training practitioners. Followed methodology and contacted experts National research comprised two sources of information. On the one hand, desk research regarding case studies on social games based approach to education and training. On the other hand, qualitative research involving adult training practitioners and experts on the use of
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 47 innovative teaching methodologies (preferably linked to games and video games) from different educational sectors. Desk research was designed to collect main references and reports on the investigation object: social games based learning initiatives. A summary was prepared on the findings, including the extensive list of reports and references consulted. Desk research was based on internet search of investigation object keywords, in English and Portuguese: social games, learning, education, adults. It was also limited to Portuguese based initiatives. Qualitative methodology comprised expert interviews and focus groups. Expert interviews aimed at collecting in-depth information and provide spontaneous feedback on game based learning initiatives and their pedagogical potential. A total of six experts from different areas of expertise were contacted and interviewed. The names and occupation are presented in the following table: Table 1. Experts interviewed. Group discussions provided insights from an adult training practitioner’s point of view. They could also bring added-value for expert interviews results validation. A total of four trainers were present in the Focus Group session organised on April 23rd 2012. As a result of low turnout a second focus group was scheduled for May 4th. For this meeting there were six trainers on attendance. Name and surname Occupation Institution Area of expertise Maria João Spilker eLearning expert Business manager Personal eLearning business Education and Distance Learning Personal Learning Environments Filipe Penicheiro Game-based learning expert University of Coimbra – Interdisciplinary institute History and digital games Educational technology ICT applications for cultural heritage Teresa Pessoa Professor University of Coimbra – Psychology Faculty Teacher training Reflexive pedagogy ICT Teresa Pinto Business Manager Take the Wind (business enterprise) 3D Environments for education Ana Amélia Carvalho Professor University of Coimbra – Psychology Faculty mLearning Digital games Content structure Licinio Roque Professor University of Coimbra – Informatics Engineering Department Content engineering Interaction experience design Software engineering Information Systems
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 48 MAIN FINDINGS Social games based learning initiatives Social games based learning initiatives have always been present. However, only in recent years its full potential has been realised and as a result, according to interviewed experts, it is a fast growing trend. Promoting social skills through initiative games is one of the most relevant educational methods with a strong impact on a student motivation and learning process. Cognitive classroom management integrates different teaching techniques, where games adopt an important place. Those game based initiatives help teachers and trainers to deliver many different types of contents and at the same time they can create a rich, dynamic and inclusive educational context, where learners are the main part of the learning process. However, these games should be combined with formal educational methods, giving students a more solid background. Thus, the process of “gamification” of learning is rapidly pervading different areas of knowledge. Albeit still in its infancy, it has been successfully integrated in educational environments, the main reason being its perceived positive effects on learning. Whilst there has been some research into potential uses of digital games in the classroom, only a few evaluation methodologies have been made public, already suggesting relevant impact on student and trainee knowledge attainment and motivation. Regarding its use, there are two main theoretical approaches: • A behavioural approach, which views education as knowledge transmission. Game based learning approaches are therefore better carried over through quizzing, and as such there is no exploration, no stimulus, and not every area of knowledge can be taught through gaming. • A student-centred approach, where active apprenticeship is encouraged. Aligned with this view, games are more complex and exploratory, demanding new pedagogical strategies and methodologies. The teacher is key and classroom delivery is more important than the game itself. In both frameworks a wide variety of games typology is allowed. Serious games are a very successful trend. Albeit the ludic quality of the game is still present, the adjective “serious” does invite immediate perspective and reflexion. There are a number of games referenced:
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 49 • “PING” (Poverty Is Not a Game) used to promote poverty awareness in classrooms; • “Third world farmer”, where the player is responsible for a small area of land in central Africa, and has to “endure the hardships of 3rd world farming”, including natural and human- made disasters; • “Façade”, a relationship centred game, where couple friction needs to be managed by the player. • “Global conflicts – Palestine, an adventure game that addresses issues like tolerance. The last game is related to the “SIMS” franchise, and has been used for pedagogical purposes in Portugal. The commercial version is laden with stereotype so it is pretty useful. It also allows a number of interculturality issues to be explored, namely offering the chance of solving personal dilemmas. There is a complementary trend regarding the exploration of “alternate reality games” (or ARG) for education. These games have a more pervasive quality about them, and use “ubiquitous communication technologies to immerse gamers in fictional adventures which digitally augment everyday reality”. A traditional ARG is “Scavenger Hunt”, but it can adopt more complex and technology intensive forms. “Ludocity” webpage has a host of varied games destined to such contexts. “Second Life” virtual world has also been used in learning environments, namely roleplaying. These environments have a powerful effect of immersion that enables a person to take on another perspective, something unfeasible in real life. As such, moving beyond simulation, such platforms are helpful in varied sociological contexts. They have also been used in psychological contexts; albeit a deep level of specialised accompaniment is required. The usual procedure is to immerse the player with an “avatar”, gifted with a given personality and situation. Goals in these learning environments may vary between reaching a physical objective related to a subject, i.e., having a successful conversation with a number of people, or skilfully performing tasks. It has also been used to give the opportunity of playing the role of a minority group member or a victim of abuse, i.e., bullying or cyber bullying. History teaching in Portugal has received a considerable enhancement with the development of a number of games adapted for education. One example is Soure 1111, further discussed in this report (see case studies). Game integration in the classroom increased attainment of complex subject matters, such as political context of the era, social roles and inequalities,
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 50 currency and defence structures. Other commercial games like Civilization and Europa Universalis have also been used in history teaching. Examples of successful game approach in other areas of knowledge are numerous, namely the well-known game “Simcity” – which has been used to train people in urban management issues. “First person shooters” have been similarly used for war trauma recovery (psychology) or even as a warm up tool for surgeons or even a means to increase accuracy prior to surgery. Mobile learning, particularly among young students, is also a pervasive trend. Games are being adapted to mobile outlets as taking a computer to class is increasingly undervalued while powerful computer-like mobile phones have been developed. These audiences view learning as increasingly visual. For them images are fundamental elements of education. There is also a trend to make games related to daily issues. This is particularly evident in fields like maths. As a strongly theoretical discipline (and rightly so) it can benefit from analogies, i.e., performing simple arithmetic in a grocery store, which in turn are easily carried over through games. The profile of social games player Games player profile depends entirely on context and game typology. As different people react differently to the same game it is only possible to typify player behaviour by his game actions (the way he plays) but not beforehand. This happens in part because game response depends on a high number of variables that need to be taken into account regarding gamer profiling. Some of those variables are: • Learning capabilities are distinct from person to person – there are visual, tactile, explorers or competitive persons. • Grown-up keenness and predisposition to play a game is very varied, and may depend on game content and context. • Some people are naturally drawn to gaming, to certain themes or simply enjoy the challenge it entails. This is independent of age or background. • Social norms influence a person’s stance on playing. There is also a view that older individuals relate less to gaming and have developed a certain resistance, primarily viewing it as less serious and childish. This view is though controversial as game-based learning in adults has been shown to produce results, albeit in face of initial strong
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 51 resistance. This is evident across the board as no suggestion has been made by the experts regarding group exclusion. It is nonetheless possible to differentiate between social group’s responses to particular games. Thus, globally, there is a sense that men play more often than women and that they play different games. Men frequently play to compete and excel. They favour struggle and strategy. In contrast, women by and large prefer socially oriented games. There have been however examples of juxtaposition between genders that contradict those generalisations. There is a sense that shy pupils function better socially in virtual worlds than in real world. Regular players have (or gain) certain computers skills and have a certain ease interacting with the computer and other game players. They are frequently extroverts virtually, but not necessarily in real life. Some personality traits also influence one’s approach to gaming. Rational people tend to distance themselves from the game while emotional individuals tend to get very much involved. Finally one can typify addicted players, subject to harmful competitiveness. Sample testing Facebook game: Experts viewed it as marginally interesting, and some labelled it “humorous”. There was also the opinion that it did not amount to a game, but a mere quiz. Other areas of improvement were also pointed out as necessary to meet Project’s objectives in an effective manner. These pointers were: Broad difficulty in understanding game’s objectives, namely concerning the promotion of intercultural competences. Regarding this, a number of suggestions were readily made: o Adding an introduction to the game so as to make its concept clearer. o Value its strictly ludic content where people select alternatives and then see the story enfold. This would make people interested. On top of this a subtext would be added – i.e. playing with stereotyped beliefs and ideas, starting with the introduction of a person from a different culture that does not fit with preconceived ideas, etc. After the game there would be a joint reflexion. o A broader game narrative is required. The game immediately jumps into quizzing. An emotional narrative was specifically proposed to get into the game story and world.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 52 o Adding the possibility of choosing physical features of the person. Those features should be present in the final narrative. Other technical pointers were mentioned: • The final narrative is not in tune with the choices made. There was a concrete case of choosing and artist and that feature was not perceptible in the final story. • The arrow should command “page turning”. • The final text is tiresome. Spacing, font should be adjusted so that the text appears lighter. In Focus Group discussion, the educational value was not apparent, although there was a clear entertainment value. “This game is full of clichés and it’s difficult to adapt its structure to another subject: it would need a long list of questions and answers/options and its management would be complex. The game interface was considered very poor and romantic-like. Pushing the bottom is not the easiest way to play either; it should validated by pushing the option (sentence or word). The need for an explanatory introduction and objective clarification at the outset were also prevalent. “Considering this is a female oriented game, it should have a preliminary question about the player gender“. The game was viewed as “comical, but we don’t do much” and “pedagogical interest in training with foreign languages is foreseeable”. There were several ideas for improvement: “The game was very interesting to work on some story making skills. It enables trainees to understand how some random words transform itself in a story. The final text could be laden with errors, so the player could correct them. Game immersion would help make the task less dreary.” “The game would be interesting as a means of enabling discussion about perceptions. We could solicit each trainee to build a story. Then we would confront each other’s story and talk about differences in culture and history, and illustrate how a common ground can lead to different outcomes”. “An immigrant could write a letter to home reporting on felt discrimination”.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 53 Ireland game: The game was regarded as useful, the playability easy and the scenery appealing. Similarly the experts considered it “with potential” as it allows the player to identify himself with the avatar. As such it would be possible to make the target group deal with statements usually said in everyday life and to have cultural experiences outside their own environment. Furthermore, it was suggested that, if maximization of such experiences is the goal, the player would play the oppressed and/or victim of abuse. I such a case the avatar should not be viewed as a 3rd person (i.e. the body is always within view which makes identification more difficult) but as 1st person. This could also be enhanced by choosing specific features of the avatar – including gender and nationality. Improving the human qualities of bystanders was also mentioned as these actually behave like automatons. Instead they should look directly at the avatar, react to his presence, or even deny conversation altogether. Similarly concepts need better clarification. For instance, some experts weren’t able to understand the difference between prejudice and stereotyping. This should be made clear right from the outset. Accordingly, this game would need an introduction, comprising a brief context of place and situation, rules explanation and a small glossary of used concepts. It was deemed important that discussion on the responses and concepts should be present during the game and not after game completion, as some statements need instant contextualization. In contrast, some dullness was referred and game interaction was considered very limited: “There is nothing else to do – which is boring. People should be in context, instead of doing nothing in the middle of the streets. I find that lacking. These aspects of game dynamics need improvement”. As far as technical issues are concerned, the following pointers were mentioned: • Bystanders should repeat sentences. • There should be a street map. That would improve playability. • The sky should be a bit clearer. It looks a bit dreary. Regarding Focus Groups, game reception was mixed. In the next paragraphs some opinions and ideas are presented.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 54 The 1st focus group regarded the game in a positive light. Trainers mentioned the usefulness of playing a character in a testing environment, or a stepping stone for debate. “It could be used in a preliminary part of a class as it makes theoretical and complex concepts easier to discuss in classroom”. “The game is useful to confront target group with some discriminatory statements. I teach in a difficult environment and this game would be very interesting to make people aware of the contours of what is said”. “It would be interesting if bystanders physically react to the player. In real life we confront people we really don’t get along or don’t know how to behave. It would be interesting if some kind of awkward interactivity would develop”. There were some doubts regarding the game’s “rhythm” and usage on adult education: “I can see interesting applications like this. Anyway the duller parts need to be taken care of”. “…a waste of time for adults, it doesn’t seem interesting. Only children would find it the least interesting because they have patience to begin with”. Meanwhile the 2nd focus group viewed the game as generally poor, although its potential should be considered. The game was exceedingly focused on the concepts in a semantic point of view (stereotyping, discrimination, prejudice) without exploring their definitions. Some sentences were quite ambiguous as the answers weren’t always clear for players. A multi answer option must be considered as well as a scale to rate the answers, according to the concept relevance. The lack of objectivity of examples was pointed out as an obstacle to create a clear idea of the topic addressed and to reflect about interculturality. The players found that the game wasn’t reflecting the purpose of developing self-consciousness for interculturality. Some ideas for amelioration were proposed: “Instead of trying to define concepts and theories, this game should regard people’s own attitudes. For example, the game could test whether the avatar is demonstrating discriminatory attitudes in specific environments/scenario (e.g. To help or not to help a Muslim/old person/protestant with its shopping bag). “The game should include dialogues with a more subtle language where the player could identify himself in those words. Dialogs revealing good practices in intercultural topics, some
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 55 questions about different cultures and some videos related to the theme should improve the game. Some other types of discriminatory/stereotype/prejudice should be also included. “Educating for difference is the main key for this project where adults should learn the importance of interculturality and be aware of their discriminatory behaviours.” The playability was quite easy but the dynamic was regarded as slow. The scenery was considered appealing but the interactivity between the characters and the environment should take a step further (cars and people moving, etc.). “The lack of sound makes the game poorer; it should be included sounds from the environment and people’s voice and tone as they talk to the avatar. “The game could be improved to a level where the player could play and gather some points according to their answers and actions during the game.” Finally, group members were unanimous on the fact that the game should reach a satisfying conclusion. Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adult learning Overall, several beneficial effects were attributed to game based learning, notwithstanding the fact that different games have different benefits. Firstly, it allows carrying over complex issues in an accessible manner to most people, frequently making it possible to materialize abstract thought. This quality needs however careful consideration as abstract, non-linear notions are not easily translated to games. Simulation of reality is in itself important, but not enough. There are areas where this is paramount. Learning to fly with the help of a flight simulator is appropriate and satisfactory. However, to convey complex thoughts and notions, simulation is as sufficient as reality. This is most true when dealing with human related capabilities, like critical thought and intercultural issues. Soure 1111 was given as an example of the challenging aspect of conveying complex issues. In this case concepts were stripped to the indispensable so as to make gamers reflect on the Reconquista subject and retain some demanding ideas. Gameplay was afterwards discussed in an open discussion to ensure concepts were discussed and made clear.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 56 Secondly, the gamer learns without knowing, making it possible to learn about an issue, which would otherwise take several classes, in an entirely ludic context. Roleplaying for example enables subconscient training of decision making skills, or action on the face of uncertainty. For such a result to be accomplished balance must be apparent between playability and scientific accuracy. Constant feedback is also believed essential to understand what the gamer is taking in from the game. This information is relevant either prior to playing, during playing or afterwards. Consequently, a proper learning environment is critical. Thirdly, gaming enables first-hand experience of an environment that is not present or possible in real life. Interaction technologies, in particular, enable experience immersion with a sense of control. It’s a player driven experience. Decision making increases motivation and stimulates sense of control. When you overlap this possibility with learning you are able to suggest learning, not “preach” learning. However some risks should also be regarded: • There is a chance the game will only serve as entertainment, failing to fulfil its pedagogical role. • In quiz games, the alumni or trainees may not be responding the way one would expect. For instance there could be guessing involved, which is not recommended. • There is also the risk of perception. Trainees need to realize that the game really improved their skills and knowledge. • A simulation game is very effective in immersing the player in a given environment, but there is also the risk of not being able to transpose those skills onto the real world. This is to say there are skills that cannot be learned in a particular set of games like simulation and RPG. These possibilities need to be transposed into game design. It is strongly recommended that game delivery should balance game playing with traditional class as one is able to complement the other’s shortcomings. Every effort should also be made to make the trainee realize it is not a game solely destined to entertain.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 57 Identification of success elements of social games for education A number of necessary characteristic for a successful game were identified. Primarily the game should have an element of simplicity; specifically it should be intuitive to the player. It is also important that there are no barriers to play regarding to the game’s platform (i.e. browser). Graphics are similarly paramount. A beautiful scenery or set is halfway the struggle. The game should pose an interesting challenge. For instance, there ought to be exploration capabilities. A single and clear purpose to the game is only helpful if complemented with mystery, choice and unpredictability. Furthermore there should be a good story behind gameplay, as a good underlying narrative is always a powerful mean to garner attention and long term interest. Ideally, the player should feel like he’s the author or at least a strong determinant of the unfolding story. Skill apprehension should not be apparent and rather hidden in a ludic subtext. Conveying the basic aspects and philosophy of a game is very important. Normally a tutorial should appear. This element should be minimal or optional. Game design should take this element into account. If necessary, a tutorial would only appear to inexperienced players or to the ones that have some difficulties managing it. In any case it is important that this feature comes up when needed, having the concern of evading information overload. Specifically regarding the promotion of intercultural skills, the presence of avatars is very useful. However, these should talk and interact. In this context video is less interesting than avatars. Finally, there is a number of psychology tricks referred to as being in use in social games development (i.e. Facebook), for instance: • Player also brings other players (friends). • A system of rewards. • Communicate a sense of inevitability and pressure to play. Although such language and delivery tools are nowadays widely used, these tricks should be carefully considered in game-based learning as pernicious effects can also be expected.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 58 Game design must take into account all aforementioned success elements, but the most important feature should be constant feedback from target groups, namely test pilots prior to full release of the game, so as to fine tune the final aspects of the game. Learning identification and evaluation According to expert review there were some attempts to develop evaluation metrics on game based learning initiatives. Unquestionably, as previously mentioned, classification depends heavily on game type. Anything mechanical is easier to repeat and categorize. When complex games are concerned, and when notions like negotiation and compromise (essential concepts in interculturality) enter the frame, categorisation is very difficult. It places considerable importance on the qualitative methodologies which categorize discourse before and after game play. Such methodology was used in a scientific context in Soure 1111, in itself developed to enhance students’ knowledge of history. As exploration games are very complex, metrics and evaluation were difficult issues. So, it was analysed how students explored and passed knowledge on, namely game play related questions (and its evolution) and history knowledge attainment (true aim). Soure 1111 experience led to the conclusion that a useful methodology would be based on social interaction instead of solely depending on knowledge as a result of the gaming experience. This approach regarded game exploration as a foundation for joint debate and thinking, in a structured manner, leading to comprehension of historical phenomena and sharing of a common language. Generally, the Kirkpatrick model has been used to evaluate satisfaction. This is a commonly applied model of learning evaluation, but can also be employed specifically to evaluate game based learning. This test can be complemented with in-class discussion, namely using conceptual mapping and a glossary of terms. Capability Tests are used as well. These are psychological tests developed to measure skill, awareness, perception and problem-solving capabilities. They attempt to understand how the adult uses the game, and what has been gained in the process. A target group sample is interviewed and opinions are collected so as to understand how the concepts were apprehended.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 59 There is also a possibility of direct evaluation in group learning. The followed methodology is to identify outliers and try to justify differences in learning. This is mostly combined with auto- evaluation or questionnaire-based evaluation. In the latter case the questionnaire must be short and simple as a long and complex questionnaire makes its delivery impossible in classroom. The teacher or trainer would need to dedicate a substantial amount of time to its analysis, something that is not desirable Some other forms of evaluation have been used like measuring response time (in eLearning). Barriers to uptake of games in learning practice Barriers were generally linked to ease of access and the “fun” quality of games. In fact, one of the most important barriers is info-exclusion, as game base learning has its own set of challenges regarding software manipulation and other computer skills. This can be apparent even in case of teachers and trainers. Proper training of both groups - teacher and student, is therefore important. In addition, even though Portugal has experienced a solid investment in digital access (to computer and/or the internet), it remains as an important barrier to game based learning. Even today, small traditional classrooms are unprepared for novel methodologies of teaching and training, and gaming is made more difficult. Gaming, even serious gaming, is often perceived as ‘fun’ (and rightly so). However this view can undermine efforts to learning, i.e., student or trainee may disregard this game based learning and not take it seriously enough. Another issue is exposure time to the game. When played in class context there is limited time to understand and play the game. Game selection and pedagogical strategy must take this into account. Some games that need a lot of exposure time to produce required effects are not recommendable if a discussion prior or after game exploration is also included. Although benefits of game uptake in learning practices are recognized, teachers need substantial preliminary preparation, especially if some sort of dedicated evaluation is required. Of course early preparation is offset with fewer long term workloads, but Teacher and trainer available time for game preparation and exploration need also to be considered.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 60 Skills supported by game-based learning approaches There are contrasting views regarding the scope of skills supported by a games approach. On one hand, there is a perspective that all skills can be promoted with the help of games, and mostly depend on imagination and games design. There are a whole range of games, and supported skills are merely dependent on the nature and extent of challenges posed by such games. On the other hand, some experts say that some areas of knowledge seem to benefit differently from a game based approach. Human-based skills, i.e., writing, the ability to think critically, negotiation and consensus building seem to benefit less. This can be explained by the difference between real-world and virtual world skills. Not only there is a strong obstacle to convey knowledge in these areas, but also there are no easily identifiable metrics to measure attainment. Additionally, some areas simply do not use as much game-based approaches. This is the case of hands-on disciplines, like computers or mechanics, or more practical, exercise based, like maths. In specific cases like these, games need a whole new approach. Virtual environments only serve as testing grounds. Conversely, some skills benefit greatly from games approach, namely everything that is reproducible and mechanical: learning languages, medicine/anatomy are given examples. In these cases there is clear evidence that students feel more motivated, content is presented in an unusual way and there is an added sense of creativity. In any case, it is a general opinion that a games approach is always beneficial in any setting, for the least as an ice breaker.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 61 CONCLUSION REMARKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Research revealed no identifiable top-down national or regional level public bodies or programmes specifically supporting said initiatives. This leads to the existence of individual research initiatives in a broad range of areas as opposed to a set of integrated initiatives in certain areas. As such, wide-ranging reports regarding these issues were not detected, either at national or regional level. A number of relevant initiatives and research can nonetheless be identified in Portugal in a broad scope of areas. There were initiatives destined to promote citizens awareness and social participation, entrepreneurship, management and knowledge in history and medicine. This suggests that a games approach to education is not only widely applicable and effective but also already pervasive. A focus on history-themed initiatives was also found. According to research, games are primarily directed at children and young students, as only a few initiatives were specifically targeted at adults and even less so as far as adult education is concerned. The platforms used were also diverse. There are initiatives using established interfaces or virtual worlds like Facebook and Second Life, but also windows based, either autonomously or in specific platforms (flash, e.g.). “Gamification” is in fact a growing trend in learning and is rapidly pervading different areas of knowledge, in part because of a widespread view that has very positive effects on learning. Gaming enables a student-centred approach, where new pedagogical strategies and methodologies can take benefit of games exploration and immersion capabilities. There is however the clear notion that a proper learning environment is critical, hence the paramount significance of classroom delivery and accompaniment. Benefits involve the ability to carry over complex issues in an accessible manner to the trainee, namely making it possible to turn abstract thought in concrete terms. The gamer also learns without knowing. Thus, learning can be accessible to a wider range of trainees as it makes possible to learn about an issue in an entirely ludic manner. In this context, balance between playability and scientific accuracy cannot be overstated. If the game only serves as entertainment, it will fail to fulfil its pedagogical role. If, otherwise, the learning over imposes the ludic aspect of the game, the learner may lose interest in the game.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 62 Other elements of success have also been made clear: • The game should pose an interesting challenge. For instance, there ought to be exploration capabilities. • There should be a good underlying narrative. • Conveying beforehand basic aspects and philosophy of a game is very important. Normally a tutorial is used in a careful and not overbearing manner. • The use of an avatar was deemed very effective as it enables the identification of the player with the avatar’s actions. To ensure game design takes into account said success elements, there should be constant feedback from target groups, namely test pilots prior to full release of the game. A wide scope of game genres have been used for educational purposes: role playing games, alternate reality games, Second life based games, SIMS like games, Turn-based games, SIMCITY like games, 3D educational tools (e.g. in use in medicine). These have been specifically made for education or, for added impact, are a ready adaptation of very successful commercial games. Player profiling depends entirely on context and game typology. Different people react differently to the same game hence only being possible to typify player behaviour after playing the game. The view that older individuals relate less to gaming is not evidence-based. Game-based learning in adults has in fact also shown positive results, albeit in face of initial strong resistance. Regarding game impact evaluation, a mix of individual analysis (e.g. questionnaires) and group debate and opinion sharing is essential.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 63 REFERENCES: [1] My Village – Educação para a Cidadania (n.d.) Currículo e Programas Educação para a Cidadania, URL: http://dgidc.min- edu.pt/educacaocidadania/index.php?s=noticias&id=36# (consulted in 30/03/2012) [2] EUROCID (2010), URL:http://www.eurocid.pt/pls/wsd/wsdwcot0.detalhe?p_cot_id=6336&p_est_id=13158 (consulted in 30/03/2012) [3] Baptista, R. J. (2008), Role Playing Game – Uma Estratégia no Contexto Educacional, master dissertation, Porto, FEUP, 211 pg. URL: www.citma.pt/Uploads/Ricardo%20José%20Vieira%20Baptista[1].pdf (consuled in 30/03/2012) [4] Campos, P. And Campos, A. (2009), “SimCompany: An Educational Game Created through a Human-Work Interaction Design Approach”. Proceedings of the 12th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Part I, 2009. URL: http://wowsystems.pt/papers/Campos-HumanWork-Interact09-V2.pdf (consulted in 30/03/2012) [5] CITEVE (ed.) (2010) Game4Manager: Energy, Environment, Quality and Safety, URL: http://www.game4manager.com/G4M/site/theGame (consulted in 30/03/2012). [6] Correia, T., Ribeiro, H. (2010), Multimedia Educational Contents to Enhance Knowledge, Porto, University of Porto, 8 pg., URL: http://repositorio- aberto.up.pt/bitstream/10216/23820/2/1182.pdf (consulted in 30/03/2012) [7] Bettencourt, T., Abade, A. (2007), “Reflexões sobre ensinar e aprender na Second Life – um estudo preliminar”, in ced^SL - workshop on Communication, Education and Training in Second Life, Aveiro, May 2007, URL: http://cleobekkers.files.wordpress.com/2007/06/apresenta_1workshop_aveiro24maio07.pdf (consulted in 30/03/2012) [8] Esteves, M. et al, (2009), “Using Second Life for Problem based learning in Computer Science Programming”, in Jarmon, L., Lim, K. Y. T.; Carpenter, B. S.; (Eds.), Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, vol. 2, No. 1, Austin, Texas, April 2009, URL: http://journals.tdl.org/jvwr/article/download/419/462, consulted in 30/03/2012
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 64 [9] Esteves, M. et al, (2009), Using Second Life in Programming's Communities of Practice, Vila Real, UTAD, 8 pp., URL: http://home.utad.pt/~leonelm/papers/CRIWG/MicaelaCRIWG.pdf (consulted in 30/03/2012) [10] Morgado, L. C.; Sousa, A.; Barbosa, L.; (2008), Ensaio de utilização do mundo virtual Second Life no ensino de programação de computadores, Vila Real, UTAD [11] Carvalho, J. R., Roque, L., Penicheiro, F., (2010) “Um estudo das dinâmicas de apropriação do jogo Portugal 1111 – a conquista de Soure em contexto escolar”. Proceeedings of the IX SBGAMES conference, Florianópolis, 8 a 10 de novembro 2010. URL: http://coimbra.academia.edu/FilipePenicheiro/Papers/429494/Um_estudo_das_dinamicas _de_apropriacao_do_jogo_Portugal_1111_-_A_Conquista_de_Soure_em_contexto_escolar. (consulted in 30/03/2012) [12] Carvalho, J. R., Penicheiro, F., (2009), “Computer Games in History Teaching”. Proceedings from Conferência Videojogos 2009, Aveiro, Portugal, 2009. URL: http://coimbra.academia.edu/FilipePenicheiro/Papers/363751/_Jogos_de_Computador_n o_Ensino_da_Historia (consulted in 30/03/2012) [13] Gomes, T. and Carvalho, A. A., (2008), “Jogos como Ferramenta Educativa: de que forma os jogos online podem trazer importantes contribuições para a aprendizagem”. Proceedings from Conferência Zon | Digital Games 2008, Minho, Universidade do Minho, 2008. URL: http://www.lasics.uminho.pt/ojs/index.php/zondgames08/article/download/351/327 (consulted in 30/03/2012) [14] Neves, P.; Zagalo, N.; Morgado, L. (2010) “Expressive Productivity in Videogames: Benefits from Applied Research in Normative Studies”. In Videojogos 2010. N.l.: UTAD, 2010. URL: http://gaips.inesc-id.pt/videojogos2010/actas/Actas_Videojogos2010_files/VJ2010-FP_P_99- 108.pdf (consulted in 29/04/2012) [15] Pereira, L. L.; Roque, L. (2009). “Design Guidelines for Learning Games: the Living Forest Game Design Case”. In Breaking New Ground: Innovation in Games, Play, Practice and Theory. Proceedings of DiGRA 2009. Coimbra: UC. URL: www.digra.org/dl/db/09287.16436.pdf (consulted in 29/04/2012)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 65 Annex. Focus group participants profile matrix 1st Focus Group (April 27h 2012) 2nd Focus Group (May 4th 2012) Name and surname Gender Education Occupation Area Social games Ana Rita Mineiro Female Classical languages and literature  Trainer  Portuguese None Ana Rita Domingues Female Modern languages and literature  Trainer  English None Silvia Rocco Female Psychology  Trainer  Trainer training Behavioural sciences Italian Behavioural sciences games Nuno Simões Male Computer based education  professor  Computers “Virtual School” game Name and surname Gender Education Occupation Area Social games Duarte Freitas Male History  Trainer  Researcher  History “Soure 1111” Tiago Maia Male Modern languages and literature  Trainer  Portuguese English None João Cunha Male Multimedia and audiovisual  Trainer  Technical/C onsulter  Multimedia  Audiovisual None Dora Ferreira Female Geography  Trainer  Researcher  Urban Planning  Mobility None Cátia Furtado Female Geography  Trainer  Consulter  Local developme nt None Miguel Carnide Male Environmental Engineering  Trainer  Consulter  Innovation None
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: PORTUGUESE NATIONAL REPORT 66 ROMANIAN ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: INSCMPS
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 67 ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT INTRODUCTION The present analysis was elaborated in frame of work package 2 - Analysis on the use of game- based learning initiatives and respecting the Guidelines and working methodology elaborated by the coordinator INVESLAN, the leader of WP2 of which main objectives were: - To analyse the pedagogical potentials of games and social games applied to competences development. - To identify those variables that influences the successful implementation of game-based learning initiatives. - To detect good practices in the EU or international level. - To gather success example that could be used as inspirational experiences for adults training practitioners. It includes all information related with game-based learning initiatives, especially in Romania, collected during a desk research undertaken in the period February – April 2012 and main findings collected in frame of interviews with experts and group discussions with practitioners, undertaken in the same period. Methodology followed and experts contacted Objectives o Social games based learning initiatives in Romania o Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adult learning o Identification of success elements of social games for education o Barriers to uptake of games in learning practice o Skills supported by game-based learning approaches
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 68 Target group The direct target groups: adult training practitioners and experts on the use of innovative teaching methodologies (especially those linked to games and video games), from different educational sectors that will be actively involved during the research stage. The data were gathered following the defined mix – based methodology: desk research and qualitative research methods, such expert interviews and group discussion. Desk research aims at collecting the main references and reports regarding the investigation object: social games based learning initiatives in Romania. Qualitative methodology: In order to explore in detail the pedagogical potential of game based learning, as well as the barriers to uptake of games in learning practices and skills supported by game based learning approaches, a combination of 2 qualitative methods were used: expert interviews and group discussions with practitioners. The expert interviews helped us to collect the in-depth information about the topic and on the other hand, can provide with spontaneous feedback. The main objective was to provide in – depth know –how on game based learning initiatives and their pedagogical potential from the experts point of view. Requirements and criteria for expert interviews: Six qualitative face-to-face interviews with Romanian experts were organized. The experts interviewed are specialist from companies specialized on design of educational software and specialist on the use of innovative teaching and training, from schools, universities and training centres. During the interviews we follow the interview guidelines provided by the WP2 leader exploring the following topic: testing a game sample, social games based learning initiatives in the partner countries: tendencies; profile of social game player (factors Influencing Social Game Selection and networking – where?); analysis of pedagogical potential (educational benefits) of of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adult learning; identification of success elements of social games for education ; barriers to uptake of games in learning practice; skills supported by social game-based learning approaches; how learning may take place (learning evaluation); good practices-examples.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 69 Group discussion was organized with the direct target group - adult training practitioners in order to help us to explore the game based initiatives. Group discussion was organized involving 13 adult training practitioners. The profile of participants is in Annex. MAIN FINDINGS The main findings that can give an overal imagin about social networks and social games learning initiatives in Romania were collected during the desk research via internet or bibliografic research. Social games based learning (GBL) initiatives During the interviwes with the expers and group discutions were identified some GBL initiatives which are avaible in Romanian language: - A WEBSITE FOR LEARNING 60 LANGUAGES: Digital Dialects website2 features free to use online games for learning languages. Language resources include games for learning phrases, numbers, useful words, spelling, verb conjugation and alphabets. Games use Macromedia Flash Player. - SOME WEBSITEs THAT PRESENT LEARNING SOFTWARE PROGRAMS WHICH RUN IN ROMANIAN LANGUAGE3, for example www.educational-freewer.com that prezents high-quality free educational software and websites - mostly for kids, but also for grown-by different categories and also by language. There are presented the following educational softwers: Celestia - Free Space Simulation4 is a free real-time space simulation that lets you experience our universe in three dimensions. Navigate through space and visit Saturn, Mars and the Sun! Games For The Brain - Exercises For Mental Sharpness5 On this website, you will find several small but quite difficult Java games and puzzles that gives your brain a bit of exercise - memorizing images, solving anagrams and answering trivia questions. 2 http://www.digitaldialects.com/Romanian.htm 3 http://www.educational-freeware.com/language/Romanian.aspx 4 http://www.shatters.net/celestia/ 5 http://www.gamesforthebrain.com/romanian/
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 70 Gcompris - Educational Games For Linux and Windows6 GCompris is an educational software package which offers different activities to kids from 2 to 10 years old. Gcompris is part of the GNU project. It is available for both Windows and Linux. GeoGebra - Geometry, Algebra and Calculus Freeware7 GeoGebra is a free and multi-platform dynamic mathematics software for schools that joins geometry, algebra and calculus. GeoGebra is written in Java. Google Earth - View The Earth From Space8 Google Earth is an amazing piece of software displaying maps, 3D buildings and satellite images of the entire world. Highly recommended. Mingoville.com - ESL (English As A Second Language) For Kids9 In the flamingo city of Mingoville, kids can learn English as a second language for free the fun way in an instant immersion environment. Missions include body parts, numbers and letters, colours, nature and seasons and much more. Ptable.com - Dynamic Periodic Table Of Elements10 On the website ptable.com, you find a feature-rich interactive periodic table of elements created in XHTML. Each element links directly to a Wikpedia page that describes it in detail, including density, melting point, appearance, occurrence and much more. Scratch.mit.edu - Let Kids Program Their Own Games and Animations11 Scratch is a programming environment for beginners, where kids can use a simple programming syntax to create their own interactive stories, animations, games, music, and art, and share their creations on the web Sebran's ABC12 is a freeware collection of 12 different activities for kids 4-9 years old. It includes counting games, a Hangman game, Memory games, typing games and much more. This free software offers a variety of fun activities and games that are tailored to help young children learn letters and the alphabet. Some of the games even introduce some fundamental reading skills as well. Test Geography Knowledge with the Seterra Geography Tutor Software13 Seterra is an interesting Windows-based application that makes geography more interesting for students, and presents geographic facts to students in a format that is easier to remember. It is offered as a free map quiz game, but it actually serves as a useful educational tool for both the classroom and the home. 6 http://gcompris.net 7 http://www.geogebra.org/cms/ro 8 http://www.google.com/intl/ro/earth/index.html 9 http://www.mingoville.com/ro.html 10 http://www.ptable.com/?lang=ro 11 http://scratch.mit.edu 12 http://www.wartoft.nu/software/sebran/romanian.aspx 13 http://www.seterra.net
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 71 Wikipedia.org - The Greatest Free Online Encyclopedia14 is an excellent multilingual, online encyclopaedia compiled by a distributed network of volunteers from all around the world. www.tuxpaint.org - Free Drawing Software for Kids15 can run both in full-screen mode and in a window. It has a configuration section with many options, and supports a variety of different languages. - A PROJECT ABOUT GAMES IN EDUCATION AND TRAINING, financed by European Commission - LLP ProActive:Fostering Teachers’ Creativity through Game Based Learning16, coordinated by University of Madrid and involving partners from Spain, Italy, Romania, UK. The project aims to stimulate the creativity of trainers working in LLP sub-programmes, developing a conceptual framework for integrating different learning metaphors; to introduce innovative ICT- based experiences in teaching and training practice, adapting and enhancing the game editors, integrating five learning metaphors; to implement co-design creativity sessions and pilot sites for addressing school, university and vocational education scenarios and to validate the proposed approach as a means of learning and evaluate its impact on teachers’ creativity and students’ outcomes. The profil of social games players It is very difficul to make a profil of social games players because the diversity of games and also the increasing rate of number of social networks users. We can only give a general overviwe regarding the Facebook in Romania as most used social network as follows: According with Facebrands.ro17, the number of Romanian users of Facebook is: 4.719.000. The evolution of social networks in Romania show that in one and a half years the number of Facebook users increased by 5 times, Romania is on 6th position in world as growth rate and 47th as number of users. In the figure 1 there are some data regarding the Facebook in Romania published on 29th of November 2011 at Social Netorks Conference, Bucharest, Romania. 14 http://ro.wikipedia.org/ 15 http://www.tuxpaint.org/ 16 http://www2.ub.edu/euelearning/proactive/joomla/index.php 17 http://www.facebrands.ro/map.html
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 72 Figure 1. Sample testing Were tested by the experts during the interviews:  Sample of STORY GENERATION: http://apps.beeherd.gr/p4i-stories/  Irish example - NEELB2 (3D game sample): http://neelb.arcaneindustries.co.uk/ The experts considered that the most important is that the games are simply to use, likes the idea of story and also to create an virtual environment and an avatar in 3D that makes the game more attractive. To be attractive and motivational for learners/trainees is the most important characteristic that was recommended by experts. For the project purpose – games for intercultural competencies, the most adequate seems to be, in the experts’ opinion, Story generation, but taking into account the need to be attractive, The evolution of social networks in Romania In Bucharest Facebook users are 32%, 4% are in Iasi, 5%Cluj-Napoca, Timisoara 5%, 4% Constant and Brasov 3%. Romanian users spend 23 days in a month on Facebook, and each user has in average 115 friends. In gender perspective 50% are men and 50% female and aged between 13-65 years. 40% of Romanian access social networks from work and 34% by phone.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 73 motivational, allowing active participation most of them agreed that a combination between the two samples tested is better. Some of experts underlined the need of creating a virtual environment that connects the information with its applicability in real life. The intercultural competencies are strongly related with communication and interaction in order to understand and have a proper behaviour in real cultural environment that differs from your own. Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games for adult learning) Games can actually play a crucial role in the educational process. They get learners engaged and interested in the material, and they can serve as a catalyst to the learning process. Creative teaching refers to teachers who use imaginative ways to make learning process more interesting, exciting and effective18. GBL is an ideal candidate to stimulate creative teaching methods. Games provide challenging experiences that promote intrinsic satisfaction and opportunities for learning authentic19 20. Increasing the pedagogical potential of using GBL is provided by the possibility of combining the five basic types of pedagogical process: acquisition, imitation, experimentation, discovery and participation and intuitive nature, stimulating and creative games in general and digital in particular. GBL enhances the teacher's role: The teacher's role evolves from the classroom instructor or tutor to guide the flexible, one that offers students a feedback right when they need. GBL is a way to come close to the students: The experience of teaching allows teachers to enter students' culture and reality environment using tools that integrates all day. In addition, students usually have difficulty in maintaining attention during a lesson less traditional face this problem where the activity GBL. 18 NACCCE (1999). All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education, Report to the Secretary of State for Education and Employment the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, UK 19 GEE, J. P. (2007). Good videogames and good learning: collected essays on video games. New York: Peter Lang Publishing; 20 MIMS, C. (2003). Authentic Learning: A Practical Introduction & Guide for Implementation. Meridian: A Middle School Computer Technologies Journal, 6(1)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 74 GBL is a way to come close to the students: The experience of teaching allows teachers to enter students' culture and reality environment using tools that integrates all day. In addition, students usually have difficulty in maintaining attention during a lesson less traditional face this problem where the activity GBL. GBL enhances learning achievements: GBL practices appear to contribute to good learning outcomes. For students, it is easy to learn through play. They seem to learn the information included in the game, and to remember the better as the activity was more attractive. GBL points: Students feel more attracted to a GBL activity than a lecture and define games as a new and enjoyable learning. GBL stimulate self-learning and learning by doing: Students become independent during the session and fail to GBL perfectly handle interaction with computers and game interface. GBL encourages collaboration between students: Typically, students work together to help one another or to reach agreement before deciding how to act in the game space. GBL helps improve visibility schools: design and implementation of GBL visibility contributes to teaching in schools participating in the eyes of public administration, education policy makers in local and community. Identification of success elements of social games for education - Conflict, Objectives and Rules: To attract users, games introduce an element of conflict usually very well described and defined and require the involvement of the player. Action and background stories are built around this conflict, setting goals and objectives that the player will have to meet to complete the game. To reach these targets, the player must act according to rules of the game, those that define what can and can’t be done in the game universe. - Short feedback cycles: Games implements usually short response cycles (feedback). In this way players perceive the immediate impact and their actions in the game space (eg. In an action game if you fail to solve a puzzle you will be killed). This mechanism shows how well the player is doing. - Involvement and virtual reality: This feature comes from the fact that games are designed to provide entertainment user. In games, this is achieved by applying different techniques: stories attractive foray into 3D virtual world, increasing the difficulty, etc.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 75 - Challenge: An appropriate and balanced level of challenge is one reason games are so appealing. Good games are neither too easy nor too difficult for players. - Adaptability: An almost unique feature of the game - that runs in a system determines gaming experiences ranging from one player to another and from one release to another. Adaptability is usually used in commercial games to determine the challenge level changes depending on player skills and the knowledge of the game, as well as to ensure a balanced experience in online games. A interesting example of adaptability is playing Left4Dead ™, a target very good game. In this game, an artificial intelligence system, "Director", controls the level of stimulation, and positioning of elements, creating a dynamic experience of the game replay value. - Resume: The best you can play more than once. However, this feature is not present in all games and requires a good design, and an appropriate balance of play features such as adaptability (presenting different challenges each time) and virtual reality (a good game can be resumed as long as the story can be reread). - Other features are closely related to the context of the game, such as where it is used as distributed players, etc.. Some of the most interesting features in terms of education are: Reward systems: a rule, games player rewards results as a mechanism to increase its involvement. One of these methods, for instance, giving players points based on the time they solve a problem, accurate way of solving the problem or decision they take at a time. Reward is a combination of experience points, items, money and new skills and abilities requirements after each game.rds players receive are public and visible during the game as a social recognition. - Competition: Some games stimulates competition "good" not only among colleagues / other competitors but the player himself (self-competition) by noting its score or rankings available online. Although some games seem to rely on complex technologies (such as 3D graphics) to motivate players, others, such as BrainTraining ™ have demonstrated that encouraging competition can be achieved by the elements described above, is very important motivating factors for a player. - Collaboration: Some games, especially MMOGs (Massive Multiplayer Online Games - Free Online multiplayer) promote collaboration among competitors. In some cases these games are designed as a collaborative experience in other games, cooperation is a decision each player. Learning identification and evaluation Studies in GBL show a clear relationship between digital games and learning. There are several arguments in favour of digital games as learning tools. It supports more than ever that they can
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 76 increase student motivation for learning the nature of their engagement, as discussed in Section 2.1. Indeed, digital games can provide challenging experiences that promote the intrinsic satisfaction of the player, keeping them involved and motivated. In addition, players have fun while playing a game because you have to learn to play. Indeed, the games, the challenge increases as the game advances. This leads players to improve their skills and learn new strategies to end the game. Another feature of digital games that aligns perfectly with the requirements of learning is that the game provides short response cycles (feedback). This allows players to freely explore the game environment and checking their own hypotheses, learning by trial-and-error, receiving immediate information you can use to correct the wrong assumptions in a risk-free. This feature is well aligned with educational needs, taking into account that most methods require educators to provide students educational response (feedback) from their actions. However, the traditional approach where the instructor must record the student using conventional means (eg. Manual) to produce a gap until students will receive feedback. Digital games minimize such differences to zero. Because digital games place the player in a world where free exploration without requiring the intervention of an instructor, video games are ideal environments to promote learning authentic "learning by doing" (learning by doing), making your experience of the student leader learning. In this digital games can provide meaningful learning experiences simulating scenarios with a high degree of interactivity that we normally only find in the real world where they encounter real problems. Consequently, digital games is an environment to promote active learning and improve problem solving skills not necessarily memory. Can increase their personal fulfilment and lead to high performance, as demonstrated in specific target groups (schools). Barriers to uptake of games in learning practice  GBL design requires training and support: game editors that provide a large selection of features can be difficult to use. This means that teachers will need training and support time to practice enough to know the publisher so that they can create a functional game and resolve any doubts or problems.  Design GBL is a big investment of time: The development and use of games in the classroom requires more time than other methodologies and sometimes is difficult to combine with other teaching activities.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 77  Technical Challenges: Managing the real-time sessions of game requires a good quality Internet connection that may not exist in schools. Other technical problems may occur suddenly, such as Editor’s incompatibilities with operating systems. Skills supported by game-based learning approaches Social Games is an easy and relaxing way to harmonize the relations of a group, favouring inter- knowledge, communication and cooperation. With these games you create an informal relationship with the facilitator encourages the spontaneity and freedom of expression of the participants. - Psycho-education values transmitted through social games: - Develop pro-social behaviour, pro-group by giving importance to the proper identity of game partners; - Develop the ability to anticipate the reaction partners by recognizing the right of the emotions; - The foundations of assertive communication, negotiation and cooperation, behaviours conducive to good adjustment group; - To an increased self-esteem participants in the communication about realistic and personal potential; - Adequacy favours those children with behaviour or grades opponents of self-isolation; - The foundations taking behaviours and roles according to each job; - Promotes fitness behaviours in social activities: the restaurant, store, theatre, etc.; - Encourage manifestation skills, cooperation, resource exploration and discovery, problem solving in the group with the negotiation, communication and networking positive.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 78 CONCLUSION REMARKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS National analysis of social games based learning show that is a significant number of social networks users and many of them usually play games that enhances their social competencies but not only. In Romania the number of Facebook users increased by 5 times in one and a half years, Romania is on 6th position in world as growth rate and 47th as number of users that proves the possible sustainability of final product of project; Romanian market is open for innovative tools for learning. There are also games develop by Romanian specialist, companies specialized in educational software that can be a good example and there are projects that support and encourage the development of games based learning with high impact on educational process. The high interest showed by Romanian users of games and GBL prevue the utility of our project. The main barriers in the development and implementing the GBL identified by analysis must be taken into account in our project in order to assure that our final product will have a good impact on the Romanian market of GBL.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 79 REFERENCES: (1) Constantinescu, R.S. (2012) eLearning and Software for Education Conference, Editura Universitară (2) Făt, S., Labăr, A.(2009) Eficiența utilizării Noilor tehnologii în educație EduTIC, from http://www.tehne.ro (3) Malone, T.(1989)What makes computer games fun? SIGSOC Bulletin, 13(2-3), 143 (4) Gee, J. P. (2003) What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy, New York: Palgrave Macmillan (5) Aldrich, C. (2004) Simulations and the Future of Learning: An Innovative (and Perhaps Revolutionary) Approach to e-Learning, San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer (6) Amory, A., Naicker, K., Vincent, J., y Adams, C. (1999) The use of computer games as an educational tool: Identification of appropriate game types and game elements, British Journal of Educational Technology, 30(4), 311–321 (7) Dickey, M.D. (2005) Engaging by design: How engagement strategies in popular computer and video games can inform instructional design, Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 67-83 (8) The Horizon Report 2011, p 20. The New Media Consortium: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/HR2011.pdf (9) Futurelab (2006) Teaching with games: Using commercial off the-shelf computer games in formal education, http://archive.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/project_reports/teaching_with_games/TW G_report.pdf (10) Sara de Freitas, Becta (2008) Emerging trends in serious games and virtual worlds, http://open.jorum.ac.uk/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/11703/data/downloads/defreitas_g ames_virtual_worlds.pdf
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 80 (11) Simons, R.J. (2004) Metaphors of learning at work and the role of ICT, Workshop Learning and Technology at Work: London (12) Fondul pedagogic din spatele ProActive In L. Mason, S. Andreuzza, B. Arfè & L. Del Favero (Eds.), Improving learning, fostering the will to learn. Proceedings Biennial Conference EARLI (pp. 31). Padua, Italy: Cooperativa Libraria Editrice Università di Padova (13) Simons, R.J., Ruijters, M.P.C (2008) Varieties of work-related learning, International Journal of Educational Research, 47, 241-251 (14) Moreno-Ger, P., Torrente J., Bustamante, J., Fernández-Galaz, C., Fernández-Manjón, B., Comas-Rengifo, M. D.2010 Application of a low-cost web-based (15) e-Adventure Int. J. Med. Inform. Vol 79, pp. 459-467, (2010), doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2010.01.017. Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2010.01.017. 2010 (16) Moreno-Ger, P., Burgos, D., Martínez-Ortiz, I., Sierra, J.L., Fernández-Manjón, B. (2008) Educational Game Design for Online Education (17) e-Adventure, Computers in Human Behavior 24(6), 2530–2540 (18) Miglino, O., Di Ferdinando, A., Rega, A., Ponticorvo, M. 2007 Le nuove macchine per apprendere: simulazioni al computer, robot e videogiochi multi-utente, EUTOPIA Alcuni Prototipi. Sistemi Intelligenti, 19 (1), 113-136, ISSN: 1120-9550 (19) Miglino, O., Delli Veneri, A., Di Ferdinando, A., Benincasa, B. (2008) EUTOPIA-MT: La Formazione alla Mediazione attraverso un Gioco di Ruolo, On-line. In Proceedings XIV edition of AIPñ sezione sperimentale, Padova (20) Miglino, O., Venditti, A., Delli Veneri, A. Di Ferdinando, A. (2010) EUTOPIA. Teaching mediation skills using multiplayer online role-playing games, World Conference on Educational Sciences, Istanbul 4-8/2/2010 (21) Delli Veneri, A., Miglino, O. EUTOPIA-MT: conflict management through digital worlds, E- book: " (download version At www.fridericiana.it/schedanew.asp?isbn=9788883380884)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 81 Annex: Participants profile matrix Name and surname Ag e Gend er Occupation Education Social games player (games played) Mitu Diana 42 F Trainer MBA ConQUIZtador Alexandrescu Valentina 47 F Trainer University Story Generator Stanciu Alina 32 F Engineer University Farmville, NEELB Games Cretu Marian 36 M Engineer University Farmville Predonu Maria 52 F Statistician University ConQUIZtador, Farmville Militaru Dan 28 M Electrician High school Airport Demo Paraschiv Ioana 33 F Accountant University Story Generator Pascu Dorin 37 M Architect University Farmville, ConQUIZtador Palade Cristina 23 F Hairdresser High school ConQUIZtador Lazar Andreea 28 F Baker High school Story Generator Stoica Ioana 26 F Dentist University Farmville Sava Claudiu 39 M Commercial Worker High school Airport Demo, Farmville Cristescu Mihai 29 M Engineer University Farmville Popa Adrian 42 M Commercial Manager University Airport Demo Danciu Razvan 27 M Agricultural Engineer University ConQUIZtador Petre Vasile 35 M Project Manager University Story Generator Frentescu Adrian 32 M Teacher University Air Travel, Farmville Mugurel Andrei 43 M Teacher University Air Travel Bunduc Madalina 29 F Teacher University Arabian World
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: ROMANIAN NATIONAL REPORT 82 SPANISH ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: INVESLAN in collaboration with IEGD
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 83 SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT INTRODUCTION The present report has been developed with the framework of Playing for Interculturality Project (Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-GRUNDTVIG-GMP), work package 2 “Analysis on the use of game- based learning initiatives”, which aims at analysing the pedagogical potential of games (with a special focus on social games) applied to competences development, identifying those variables that influence the successful implementation of game-based learning initiatives, as well as gathering success examples and good practices on EU and international levels that could be used as inspirational experiences for adults training practitioners. Two Spanish partners: IEGD and INVESLAN has closely worked together to optimize the expertise and present the adequate and valid research results. Methodology followed and experts contacted The present report has been elaborated following “Guidelines and working methodology for carrying out the analysis” that have been defined by INVESLAN (ES). The data has been gathered following mix – based methodology: desk research and qualitative research methods, such as expert interviews and group discussion. The qualitative research was implemented during the months of March – April, 2012. The group discussion has been organized by IEGD, which took place on the 2nd of April, 2012, in Barcelona, aiming to test two game samples and collecting a feedback and recommendations as well as identifying intercultural competences to be included in the social game that will be developed within the framework of Playing for Interculturality project. As a result, 11 participants attended and contributed to the group discussion. The Profile Matrix can be consulted in ANNEX. The references and desk research bibliography have been selected according to the following
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 84 criteria: reference authors in games and technology enhanced teaching and learning in Spain; actual and current references offering valid information on the investigation topic. At the same time, 6 expert interviews have been conducted, aiming to explore the game based initiatives in Spain and identify the success elements of games for education. The following experts in innovating and training methodologies, as well as game based learning, have been contacted and interviewed1: Julio Hidalgo, Design Manager of Social Games at Digital Chocolate (Barcelona) Esther Hierro, Communication Manager at Marinva: juego y educación (Barcelona) Carlos González Tardón, Founder of Online Consultancy of Video Games (Asesoría On-line sobre Videojuegos) (Madrid) Pablo Moreno Ger, Associate Professor in the Department of Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence and Member of the e-Learning Research Group at UCM (Madrid) Baltasar Fernandez Manjón, Associate Professor in the Department of Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence (DISIA) and Vice Dean , Foreign Relationships at the Computer Science School and co-leader of e-Learning research group at UCM (Madrid) Jazno Francoeur, Art department director – Eurosia at DigiPen Insitute of Technology (Bilbao) Paula Paunero, Coordinator of Alternativa 13 initiative, ANESVAD (Bilbao) Carme Romero, Game designer and consultant for the Alternativa 13 initiative, El bicho games, (Bilbao/Barcelona) It has to be noted that to analyse and study the trends and development of social games/online gaming is not an easy exercise indeed, as from the sociological point of view, in order to understand the phenomenon, we have to consider the key crucial issues to our understanding of online gaming and associated social relations, including: patterns of play, legal and copyright issues, players production, identity construction, gamer communities, communication, patterns of social exclusion and inclusion around gender, race and disability and future directions in gaming etc. The scope of the present report and main aspiration is to shed some light on the game based learning initiatives in Spain, aiming to describe the latest tendencies and collecting the good practices of game based learning initiatives2.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 85 MAIN FINDINGS Games (social games) based initiatives As reflected in the Horizon Report 2011 K-12 Edition, which identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within education around the global3: “Game based learning has gained considerable traction since 2003, when James Gee began to describe the impact of game play on cognitive development. Since then, research and interest in the potential in gaming on learning has exploded, as has the diversity of games themselves, which the emergence of serious games as a genre, the proliferation of gaming platforms, and the evolution of games on mobile devices. Developers and researchers are working together in every area of game – based learning, including games that are goal – oriented; social game environments; non-digital games that are easy to construct and play; games developed expressly for education; and commercial games that lend themselves to refining team and group skills”. Within the context of the above described global trends, if we turn to study the Spanish context in particular, although we find an emerging number of initiatives and certain developments and can observe a significant qualitative change around the games, game based learning is a field with still much to do. As follows, we identified and would like to highlight certain implemented initiatives on different levels: state level (or national initiatives) as well as join collaboration projects among the universities and private companies. First of all, we would like to highlight two particular initiatives in the field that are aimed at digital competences promotion, that were launched by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports in order to bridge the first gap of resistance (as pointed by the majority of the interviewed experts) of usage and application of the digital games in the classroom:
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 86 RECURSOS EDUCATIVOS: http://ntic.educacion.es/v5/web/profesores/ A website, containing a number of interactive multimedia educational resources (educational games included), organized by subject and level, oriented to the professorship and educational community. The website has been initiated by the National Institute of Educational technologies and training of teaching staff (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado). FORMACIÓN EN RED: http://formacionprofesorado.educacion.es/ A training web, launched by the National Institute of Educational technologies and training of teaching staff, providing a list of in situ and online courses for the professors, including agreements, licences etc., coming from both public and private sectors. The training web is offering a number of training courses, including “Application of didactical games in the classroom”. Furthermore, we would like to highlight a few initiatives in the field of university – game company/provider collaboration that are still very few though, however it can be considered as an important advancement and step forward in promotion and application of game based learning: PROFESIONES DIGITALES: http://www.profesionalesdigitales.es A national online portal oriented to the universities, companies, students and all professionals, who are interested in the field of Digital Contents in any of its modalities: video games, animations, virtual reality, graphic design, audio-visual edition and post-production etc. has been launched in 2008, co-funded by the FEDER within the framework of PEOC. Within the framework of the programme, since 2008, more than 4200 students from 24 universities around Spain, could take part in a number of training actions in the field of audio-visual production, 3D animation etc., as well as more than 150 university – company collaboration agreements have been signed. As an example of the latter, we could take the renewed agreement of Electronics Arts España and University of Alcalá. The joint project that aims to continue the investigation on how the virtual communities of certain video games facilitate the learning processes related with curricula contents and civic education. The project aims to continue integrating the video games as an educational tool, motivating the students. The project aims at providing the professors sufficient resources, so they would be able to contribute and convert the information
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 87 about the particular videogames, available in the internet, in an accessible material, used in the classrooms. A special portal has been designed to the professors in order to make the most advantage of the video games and use them in the classroom: http://www.aprendeyjuegaconea.com/index.php. Furthermore, as a fruit of collaboration between the Electronics Arts España and the Univeristy of Alcalá, the educational guide has been developed “Learning with video games” (Aprendiendo con video juegos)4. Another example that is worth mentioning, that aims at bringing together the world of academia and a number of leading companies: eMadrid - http://www.emadridnet.org/. The network eMadrid – is a project, financed by the Community of Madrid, which aims at promoting the investigation and development of technology enhanced learning, coordinated by the University of Carlos III (Madrid) and counts on participation of the following partners: Universidad Autonoma (Madrid), Universidad Politécnica (Madrid), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Madrid) and UNED, as well as other universities and leading companies. Last, but not the least, we also would like to share the e-Adventure5 project we learnt about during our investigation stage that called our attention as a good practice in the promotion of educational games and game like simulations in educational processes. The e-Adventure platform is a research project aiming to facilitate the integration of educational games and game-like simulations in educational processes in general and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) in particular. It is being developed by the <e-UCM> e-learning research group at Universidad Complutense de Madrid, with three main objectives: reduction of the development costs for educational games; incorporation of education-specific features in game development tools and integration of the resulting games with existing courseware in Virtual Learning Environments. The core of the e-Adventure project is the e-Adventure educational game engine, that runs games defined using the e-Adventure language. Authors can use the graphical editor to create the games or directly access the human-readable source documents that describe the adventures using XML markup. With e-Adventure, any person can write an educational point & click adventure game. Slow progress and obstacles Nevertheless “the acceptance of potential benefits of educational gaming has increased gradually within the research community” (Moreno – Ger et al: 2009)6 as well as we can observe an increasing number of initiatives of game based learning application, the majority of the interviewed experts agreed that the development concerning the game based learning initiatives are quite limited in Spain, as “the majority of initiatives have been developed in collaboration of big partnerships” (ex. 4), comparing to the European level. As Moreno-Ger et al.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 88 (2009) puts it, “Some major obstacles also hinder the application of games in education, such as teachers rejecting games out of a fear that technology may replace them or teachers who do not want to find out that know less about the topic than their students. The reluctance of teacher to use video games is also related to one of the most intangible and difficult-to-resolve issues, which is the social perception of game. Although the games are being embraced by players in all age ranges and genders, games are still perceived by a large sector of society as mindless toys for young male kinds” (Ibid.). In terms of major obstacles, the following ideas have been shared by the interviewed experts: “Traditionally, the problem is in the infrastructure. But there are problems on all levels. Too big rejection on behalf of professorship or college culture that is the first barrier. A lack of training of the professors, to take the most advantage of the computers. Furthermore, social image do not correspond, the problem in media as well as resistance on behalf of the parents. In terms of more technical aspects, the costs of development are very elevated, as well as we have a technical problem: how to reduce the cost” (ex.4) “The initiatives of game based learning are quite limited and we are talking about small scale games, such as casual games. The infrastructure is one of the main barriers I could say, as well as the inclusion of games in the school curricula” (ex.5) “There is not much of a game industry here, game sector is developing. It takes at least 5 years to grow; it takes skills long time to grow. Furthermore, you have to bring other players together. The government is not fully embraced in the game industry. They don’t take them seriously as business (ex.6)”. Game industry and active gamers in Spain A significant qualitative change around the video games in particular has become clear in the recent years, reaching even governments. As Checa (2009) observes, video games tend to be viewed as a cultural creation of huge potential7. According to the data of Spanish Association of Entertainment Software Distributors and Editors8, in 2011 the video game industry was the main entertainment industry in Spain, referring to the turnover that reached 980 million of euros. Nevertheless, the latest turnover shows the decrease of 15%, comparing the data of 2010. Despite the latter decrease, we can observe an increasing social acceptance9, while 62% of teenagers and 24% of elderly people identify themselves as habitual users. The report, developed by the GfK Consultancy (2010) “The Future of Video games”10 (El Futuro del Videojuego) points at the increasing popularity of online games. 16% of the video gamers,
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 89 believe that online games allow to meet interesting people, 25% of them believe that video games allow to compete with the best around the world, while 26% of video gamers think that the online game allows to save and avoid displacement in order to be able to play with friends and 33% of them think that online game allows a constant development of “digital” competences. At the same time, the report reveals some interesting insights on the future of video games: it is estimated that the future of video games will have a strong social character as well as a strong social acceptance (Ibid.). According to the Newzoo Games Market Report 201111, in Spain we have 15.000.000 active gamers, 40% of them – spend money on games. It is estimated that in 2001 it was spent around 1.600.000.000 EUR on games12 (for more details see Figure 1): Figure 1. Money spend on games in 2011 Source: Newzoo, the business of games, 2011 Referring to the above mentioned report, in terms of time spent on games, we see that 26% of active gamers spend the time on console games, followed by 16% of active gamers spending time in social networks. The report also provides some interesting insights, so-called “fun factors”, such as: 13% of game time is spent on mobile games, 72% of Nintendo DS gamers also play games on their mobile phones or iPod/iPad, 430.000 paying MMO gamers use an online payment system, 30.000 paying female mobile gamers like gardening etc.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 90 The profile of (social) player/gamer The “gamer” concept is widely used and is commonly understood to represent a person who plays games and contains aspects of gaming behaviour (e.g. types of games, amount of play), motivation to play (e.g. profit, enjoyment, social interaction), generational, as well as cultural dimension (Alklind et al.: 2009)13. “An established distinction is made between hardcore gamers, who are dedicated and spend much of their time playing and casual gamers who enjoy gaming, but are less concerned with the type of game and may not be willing to sacrifice too much time on it, at the expense of other activities” (Alklind et al.: 2009). In addition to that, we can identify other type of gamers, such as: power games, social gamers, leisure gamer, dormant gamers, cyber athletes, incidental gamers, as well as occasional gamers. Trying to define a profile of (social games) player is not an easy exercise. Avoiding certain stereotyping, we can identify two types of players: players who play for pleasure and the ones who play for training purposes. The second type of the player, as highlighted by one of the experts “has other kind of predisposition” (ex.2): “Playing for pleasure we receive a type of pleasure that is hardly possible to obtain any other way. When you realize that your efforts have the result - its enormous enjoying. It gives you reward and security” (ex.2). A typical adult player (to be more precise, video player) could be associated with the following characteristics: 25 years old, 60% male and 40 % female. In terms of the profile of video gamers, referring to the above mentioned report “The Future of Video games”, we can distinguish three different profiles: Hardcore player, Casual player and “Cani-casual/gramer”. The hardcore player is distinguished by the following characteristics: intensive (plays many hours), expert (has been playing for the last years), demanding (in terms of brands and games), and informed (is familiar with the market and shares information in the network), while casual player is described by the following characteristics: sporadic (plays few hours), and recent player. In between those two profiles, we have a profile of “cani – casual/gramer”. The report shows that hardcore players are habitual online players, with a strong tendency to play with friends. Online gaming with friends feeds the wish to compete and allows the cooperative gaming. In a meanwhile the “gramers” have outlined certain obstacles regarding the online gaming: slow internet connection, failures on the platforms, which as a rule on weekends are overcrowded; language and communication difficulties; distance feeling and lack of knowledge about the opponent; difficulties in choosing the type of opponent (level of game, language etc.); even finding a connected player with whom to play; no playing habit
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 91 (many friends do not play online). Interestingly enough, casual gamers do not tend to play video games online, but they do play Facebook games, such as Farm Ville, Causes, Mafia Wars etc. Last but not the least, it has to be highlighted that no significant gender differences have been observed, rather more cultural topics, although in terms of video games we can notice a male public dominance. Interestingly enough, as it was shared by majority of the experts, in terms of social games - a female dominance can be observed: “social games attract a more female population” (ex.4). On the other hand, as stated by one the experts: “Looking on rapprochement on personal level – we have no gender differences; rather I would say that it’s unisex, while motivations are similar (ex.2)”. Moreover, it was also observed a demographic change, 14“in fact, nowadays more and more women are playing” (ex. 6). Control situation, knowing what is going to happen, the feeling of well-being are most common factors that motivate and encourage playing. In terms of game selection, two main ideas have been shared: due to individual interests (interests and knowledge defines the game preferences) and social facilitation – if you know someone who plays. Defining the key motivations for playing games, Burn and Carr (2006) distinguish three main motivations: ludic, representation and communal, that are suggested as a way of categorizing types of gamers´ motivation (Crawford et al)15. Sample testing and self-assessment of intercultural sensitivity As stated above, on the 2nd of April, 2012, a group discussion has been organized by IEGD, aiming to test two game samples and collecting a feedback and recommendations as well as identifying intercultural competences to be included in the social game that will be developed within the framework of Playing for Interculturality project. As follows, we would like to present a summary and main outcomes of the group discussion. Introduction to the focus group development in Barcelona After explaining the project to the participants and the objective of the focus group, participants introduced each other and then filled out the self-assessments on cultural sensitivity individually. Then we tested the two sample games, the participants worked in groups and had the opportunity to play both games. After each game was played, there was a discussion on the impressions, opinions, feedback, participants had about each game. The last part of the
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 92 focus group was an open discussion on the different questions on the guidelines, and other related topics that came up. The focus group finished with a brainstorming and discussion on the key intercultural skills the participants thought would be interesting to take into consideration for the development of the project’s social game. Participants’ self-assessment on intercultural sensitivity The majority of participants evaluate themselves as being quite interculturally competent. This might be due to the fact that most of them work in the intercultural field, directly or indirectly, are from diverse origins, and have international experience. Participants with less experience with interculturality evaluated themselves differently, in general less competent and with more limitations. It is interesting to see the contrasts. However, it could also be that participants have evaluated themselves in general more competent that they actually are. This happens sometimes with this type of self-assessments where people only have to judge themselves without being given specific situations or actual conflicts to be solved. In general participants are very curious about other cultures, don’t avoid intercultural interactions, and are interested in working with and in other cultures. They also say that they are able to see things from different angles and are knowledgeable of cultural differences. However, they evaluate themselves as having some difficulties in coming up with creative ideas and flexible solutions that take into considerations the beliefs or ways of doing of others. In addition they are less capable of predicting the effects of their behaviour on others. From the last paragraph, it can be concluded that there is still a need of developing flexibility and knowledge of other ways of thinking and doing. Participants might have the knowledge about and the experience with diversity through practice, but there is still place for improvement for the ability of switching mind-sets. Using Bennetts’s DMIS model, participants might be on the adaptation stage, but not yet on the integration stage, where people is able to use multiple cultural frames of references in evaluating intercultural situations. In conclusion, from the self-assessments filled out by this focus group’s participants the main intercultural competences that need to be developed are: o Knowledge about cultural differences in communication styles, verbal and non-verbal. Especially related to directness-indirectness and face issues. o Communication skills to be able to use effectively and appropriately those different communication styles depending on the intercultural interactions and situations.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 93 o Flexibility and adaptation skills o Ability to switch mind-sets or between worldviews, which implies knowledge about cultural differences o Ability to deal with ambiguity and complex intercultural interactions At the end of the focus group session the participants developed a list of the intercultural competences they thought would be interesting to include in the social game. Since it was a group with experience in the intercultural field, we think the list will be of great help. The list is added at the end of this section. Testing the sample games All the participants were asked to test two game samples: STORY GENERATOR and NEELB2. Particular feedback and recommendations were collected, see Table 1 below. Table 1. Participants’ feedback – testing the sample games Game sample Comments Recommendations and suggestions 1st game sample: Story Generator Too simple with only eight questions; It needs more information, the results don’t reflect what was answered on the questions; Visually weak, needs more work on the design, it’s not very appealing; Boring and badly written; The objective is not clear: is it a game? To generate a story is not a goal in itself, something should happen; Could be labelled as sexist; Needs more elaboration, it seems incomplete. It would be good to be able to choose aspects related to diversity which can lead to intercultural conflicts (ethnic origins, gender, age, religions, etc.); It could be useful if you could create your own profile and identity as well as the other party’s identity. Also to be able to alter or change your identity while playing. The more options to create your own and the others identities, the best. At the same, there is a risk or stereotyping from the beginning; It would be interesting to have more questions to follow up: “what would you do next?”, etc.; It would be more interesting to have interaction instead of just generating a story.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 94 Game sample Comments Recommendations and suggestions 2nd game sample: NEELB2 More interactive than the first one, at least you can participate and do something; The context is good; More educational objective than the first one; It doesn’t add too much to do it online, you could do the same on paper; The design is basic and tedious; It’s too slow; The objectives are not explained, not clear; The objective is limited if you just have to answer the questions, and it’s just a right or wrong answer; The results should be shown and explained; There is no self-reflection, the player judges another person’s perceptions; Is it a social game? There is no interaction with other players. Explain the objectives better and more explicitly at the beginning; Define, explain, and give examples of each concept before starting to play; Start with a mini-quiz on the concepts, then play, then explain the concepts and its implications; The design needs more possibilities of action and sound; Needs to show what are the consequences of those perceptions and actions; Players need to be questioned, interrogated, in order to make them reflect on the answers (“how would I react?” “Has this happened to me?”); Needs more complexity and challenge, it’s too simple; People don’t want to play to be judged or graded, but for entertainment or learning purposes. Gaming experience: types of games usually played, motivation behind playing and learning outcomes After testing the two game samples, the participants of the group discussion, have been invited to share their personal gaming experiences. As follows, we will present the main insights and
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 95 comments on the type of games usually played, motivation behind playing and learning outcomes. Types of games usually played The participants who play social games do mostly through Facebook or on their phones. The most popular games amongst those participants are: Draw Something, Words with Friends, Scramble with Friends, and City Ville. Those games are mostly entertaining and fun, have a competitive aspect on them, as well as a socializing piece. Draw Something: by OMGPOP U.S. American firm. The game takes its inspiration from the Pictionary game. Players are given words (Elvis, football, etc.) and have to draw them on-screen for Facebook friends to guess. It’s one of the most popular social games of the moment. Words with Friends: by Zynga. Based on Scrabble, it challenges players to create words in order to score the highest, while playing against other people. Scramble with Friends: by Zynga. Players compete against other players to find as many words as possible on the game board. Each match consists of three rounds of two-minutes, and the player with the most points at the end wins. Besides Facebook and Ipod, Ipad, etc. it can also be played on Google Play. City Ville: by Zynga. The goal is to develop a city by farming, constructing, and collecting rent using energy points. There I no cost to play but players can purchase content. The player can also visit his/her neighbors’ cities and perform different jobs there. Players can also send other players gifts and help them complete goals. Other online games played Some participants don’t play social games; however they play videogames on their electronic devices (computer, phone, Ipod, Ipad etc.): 1. Traditional games like: Chess, Backgammon, or Tetris. 2. More recent video games like: Angry Birds, Tiny Wings, Harbor Master, Runaway, Sam & Max, Monsters Hollywood. They mostly play against the machine, although sometimes play against other players online. Some participants play neither social games nor other video games, do not know a lot about them, or are not interested. They shared they prefer face-to-face games or to socialize with
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 96 people face-to-face, instead of doing it online or alone. Other reasons given are lack of time, find them boring, or don’t see the benefit or meaning of playing. Table 2. Motivation behind the playing and motivation for not playing Motivation behind the playing Motivation for not playing Mostly fun and excitement Preference for face-to-face games As a way to relieve stress Preference for socializing on a face-to-face manner, instead of online To compete Lack of time It’s a mental workout Find them boring To connect with other people: o as a way to maintain relationships and stay in touch with distant friends and relatives o to meet new people o with some games the more people you have in your network, the faster is your advancement Don’t see any meaning on it, just play for playing Learning outcomes Participants of the focus group stated that they don’t use social games or other online games with the objective of learning but for entertainment and relax. It’s also a way for them to exercise the brain, but not exactly to learn. However, most participants declared that it’s a great idea to develop a game with an educational goal. They insisted, though, that it should fundamentally be fun and exciting. They also stressed the need for a competitive aspect on it. Some participants affirmed they take online courses or participate on webinars on a regular basis. So they use the Internet with learning objectives, although they differentiate learning from playing. Nevertheless they stated that a game which incorporates the two goals, learn and play, could be an excellent tool. The social networking carried out while playing has the objective of: o having fun with friends
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 97 o maintaining relationships and staying in touch with distant friends and relatives o meeting new people o competition and winning objectives: for some games the more people you have in your network, the more points you get and the faster is your advancement Analysis of pedagogical potential of the use of games (with a focus of social games) for adult learning As concluded by participants of focus group, the educational game has a lot of potential. Participation, motivation, flow status, strategic decision taking, active participation engagement and concentration – were the most frequently mentioned elements/factors of games potential in adult learning by the interviewed experts. As follows we would like to share some particular insights that were collected: “There is no a better way of learning something than playing, if you enjoy something, you will learn playing. While playing a lot pressure disappears. You are more focused on playing than doing wrong or bad. Your motivation will make you do better” (ex.1) “A game– is a platform with a lot of potential, that allows transmitting values, competences, related to the creativity, which is possible to transmit through the ludic dynamics” (ex.2) “Playing you are not afraid to make mistakes, you can be more creative, you can experiment” (ex.3) “A game awakens the necessity to share, to feel part of something bigger” “Some people learn visually, some people learn inactively, drawing etc. We process information in a different way and games allow that all” (ex. 6) “A game allows us to develop a very particular physiological space where everything is possible. A space of tranquillity (peace) and security“(ex.2) “We like to have challenges, clear objectives. The game represents a way/mode of escaping from the reality. The game allows us to do things that we are unable to day to day, like an exodus” (ex.2) “You can play the same game over and over, because it’s interactive, because there is architecture of the story and as a developing you are creating this architecture as system of rules. It’s a player that creates his story within the story” (ex. 6)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 98 Our desk research findings confirm the experts´ insights. As Prensky (2001)16 puts it: “Digital Game-Based Learning is precisely about fun and engagement, and the coming together of and serious learning and interactive entertainment into a newly emerging and highly exciting medium — Digital Learning Games” Looking for an answer what makes games enjoyable; Alklind (2009) refers to the Sweetser & Wyeth theory and defines a GameFlow model that contains eight elements: concentration, challenge, skills control, clear goals, feedback, immersion and social interaction. Concentration means that a game should capture the player´s attention and hold it throughout the whole game; challenge means that a game should have tasks that match the players´ skills level; players´ skills capture aspects related to how players should learn, develop and master game skills; control covers aspects that players should a sense of control over the game shell, the characters and actions they take; clear goal means that the game as well as sections of the game, i.e. levels, should have goals that are made clear to the player; feedback means that the player should get immediate response to their actions and they should be informed on their progress towards the goal; immersion relates to the players involvement in the game and social interaction means the game should support social interactions through the game, such as competitions, collaboration, as well as social communities (Ibid.). Identification of success elements of games (social games) for education Analysing the success elements of games application in education, or very particular elements that make a game as a successful experience, the following elements can be identified: clear objectives, systems of feedback, and graphically attractive (mechanics of the game), sharing functionality and certainly – fun factor, as it has been already highlighted in the previous section. “I would say there one thing and one thing alone – fun factor. Game has to do with repetitive mechanic, something you have to repeat over and over. So for instance - Mario. What does Mario do? He jumps. Ultimately that character for the last 20 years is all he does - he jumps…Why are angry birds so fun? Is one mechanic – shoot the bird, hit the pig. That is so mechanically entire game. But there has to be reward. Because if you think about it, at the end of day, what did you really get of the game. You could say you are wasting your time. Because what you are doing - is giving a chance to achieve something, giving a reward (ex.6)” Talking about social games in particular, social interaction and social dimension are one of key success elements, as “human being nature like to socialize, we are worried about the around” (ex. 2): “We are social animals, social games allow us to stay in contact in a ludic way with the persons with who we like to share, compete etc., as we need to be compared, to be a part of the other” (ex. 2).
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 99 Self – expression, challenge, reflexion, friends representing something in common, interesting, cooperation and competition, intrinsic motivation – could be added to the success elements list. In addition to that, Marchiori et al. (2012)17 argues that educational games allows the educators to take advantage of their learning-by-doing, problem solving, narrative features and their ability to generate and keep flow states. The ability of games to keep students engaged and motivated throughout a lesson – is identified a key aspect in the educational success of the games application. To put in a nutshell, we would like to summarize this section with 10 reasons that were identified by ConnectED18 why game based learning works in education: 1. Familiarity: students are already familiar with many of the devices, regularly using iPads, iPhones, PSPs etc. 2. Engagement: engages the disengaged, teachers report regularly on how using digital resources in class captures student imagination. 3. Blended learning has a real place: blending traditional printed media with interactive multimedia gives you the best of both worlds, technology no longer needs to play a supporting role. 4. A cost effective option: handheld multimedia devices can be cost effective and versatile additions to the classroom with teachers now using iPads, PS3, Wiis and shortly no doubt the new PS Vita. 5. Content galore! Educational apps abound and it’s now really easy to create your own multimedia educational content for use on everything from language labs to Macs, Pcs and iPads. The internet is stuffed full of free resources to help bring content to life. 6. On a mssion! Game based learning also refers to the use of ‘mission’ and ‘quest’ based learning. 7. Flexibility: game based learning techniques are not just restricted to inside the classroom. Robust and durable these new technologies mean educational content can still be accessed on the move. 8. Stay ahead: getting stuck in and embracing new technologies helps brings teacher multimedia skills up to date, equally an understanding of game based learning helps to support schools and teachers to make the most of the technologies they already have. 9. 21st century workplace skills. More and more organisations require different skills from the old Industrial model. Game based learning encourages these 21st century requirements of independent thinking, mission and quest based tasking, communication and collaboration skills 10. The students love it. On a recent game based learning project designed to engage Y5 pupils in literacy at Foxhill Primary School when asked “Who likes writing?” at the start of the project, only 13 hands out of 23 went up. When asked “Who has enjoyed writing about our eye pet?” all 23 hands in the class went up!
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 100 Learning identification and evaluation Learning identification and evaluation, as observed by the experts, is a controversial subject matter as there is still an on-going discussion in academia world regarding the topic. As far as evaluation of the gaming experience and learning outcomes is concerned, the following suggestions were collection from the interviewers: “By trial, by experience, by testing at the end” (ex.1). “Establishing parameters for each activity, punctuation which would mean something” (ex.2). “There is no magic receipt – taking advantage of the richness of the game, avoiding an “exam”, observing how the player is interacting and playing, looking at how he/she shares, compares and compete etc.” (ex.4) “Evaluation should be part of the game, inside the game, integrated” (ex.5). As proposed by Serrano et al. (2012)19, evaluation could be improved by taking advantage of in-game interaction, such as the user behaviour during the game the type and number interactions performed by the user while playing. As a result: “The processing and logic involved in Learning Analytics can be used for other purposes different than education. The proposed LAS can help games in tasks like debugging in the game design (statistics could show game points with no return), and testing (the LAS could spot if the user is playing the game as it was specified in the design)” (Ibid.). Barriers to update of games in learning practice In terms of barriers on user level, it was acknowledged by the experts that the barriers are minimal. On the other hand, the major barriers stressed instead were related to the prevailing negative connotations of the playing the games: “when you play, people don´t take it serous” (ex.1). On the other hand, as already mentioned in the introduction of the section, resistance by the professorship was indicated as one the main barriers to update of games in learning practice. Furthermore, we have not to dismiss the economic barriers (technological costs of game development), as well as the privacy issue, particularly, in social games: “one of the disadvantages of social games – you feel no intimacy” (ex.1). It can be argued that one of the barriers of games in learning practice application lies also in the design process, while the design of effective educational game implies taking into account a balance between the entertainment and educational value. “For this reason, involving
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 101 domain experts in game creation (from inception to design and from initial development to testing) becomes crucial. Achieving this effective integration can be very complicated as different problems arise, such as the use of different vocabularies and differing short and long- term goals for the game” (Marchiori et at.: 2012). Moreover, Begoña Gros (2008)20 in her book “Video juegos y aprendizaje” (Video games and learning) argues that despite the evolution of the video game in terms of contents, genres and platforms has been enormous, the technology for learning/teaching has followed one line and presents a rather conservative model. The educational software presents an imitation of the text books, while the educational games make an emphasis on the contents rather than usability, motivation and immersion. The developments of pedagogical design seem rather poor and anchored in the less innovated concepts of learning: the contents are the most important and have to be transmitted in the lineal way, the feedback is limited to the basic information details about the final answers. Gros (2008) stresses the importance of designing the environments that would facilitate the learning and not only the instruction. The techniques of video game design require accumulated knowledge on graphic design, perception and psychology, motivation etc. To overcome the above described barrier, Gros (2008), referring Malone (1981)21, defines three fundamental aspects that appear in almost all the computer games and guarantee its success: challenge (the player is challenged to reach for objectives, that in reality they are unable or don’t know how to reach), curiosity (the game offers multiple alternatives, new characters etc. and encourages curiosity in way that the player maintains its motivation to continue improving) and fantasy (the games seem to provoke not immediate mental images for the senses and have a capacity to generate unreal ideas). Those three elements are of key importance for the development of the game and are used as element of motivation in the majority of the educational programmes (Ibid.). Skills supported by game – based learning Obviously, the strongest advantage of the usage of the digital games implies the obtaining of digital competences (Gros: 2009)22. On the other hand, referring to Prensky (2005), gaming allows obtaining a number of the competences, such as: collaboration, decision taking under pressure, persistence and ethical behaviour, calculation of risks, lateral and strategic thinking (Ibid.). Lacasa (2011)23 refers to the new forms of literacy24 and applies the model Henry Jenkins. Today the society implies using the new forms of expression that can be learnt in fact through video games. As a result, she provides a list of key abilities related to the new forms of literacy:
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 102 problem solving, new forms of manipulation and information presentation, assumption of new identities, analysis and creative reconstruction of the contents, multitasking, allocated knowledge, collective intelligence, critical judgment, trans-media navigation, social interactions, negotiation (Ibid: p. 118-119). It was agreed by the experts that a wide range of skills in fact can be supported by the game – based learning: “Any skills: the concept of game is very wide – any area can be supported, but above all – soft skills” (ex.4). “All the abilities related to coordination, physical capacity, anticipation, capacity to take decisions, create strategies” (ex.2). “On cognitive level, gaming allows to improve mental affectivity, understanding, perceiving different players etc.” (ex. 3) “It is proved, that peoples multitasking skills are better “(ex.6).
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 103 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PLAYING FOR INTERCULTURALITY SOCIAL GAME All the interviewed experts were kindly asked to share their recommendations for our social games. The following suggestions were collected: “Taking into account certain constraints, such as: accessibility – zoom – people that can see blue etc.” (ex.1) “Unlimited gaming and continuous challenge. Structures well designed and prepared” (ex.2 ). “If we travel more… A game allowing running around the world and looking for uniting aspects or a trip around the world looking for common things – improvising – could be an interesting approach for the game. In fact, we have more things in common, than the things that separate us” (ex.2). “The game should entertaining, not only teaching above all” (ex.3). “The game should expose a lot of context in cultural differences topics, not only the facts” (ex.4). “The game should be simple and easy and obviously should be fun, people should enjoy it. The games should be easy if not - they provoke stress. They (players) want something to relax, but something that has a challenge, the players are conscious. People want this kind of transcendence”(ex.1).
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 104 CONCLUSION REMARKS Although we could find an emerging number of initiatives and certain developments and can observe a significant qualitative change around the games, game based learning is a field with still much to do in Spain. As we could learn during our investigation stage, research and interest in gaming on learning has increased considerably, nevertheless a list of obstacles is significative, social perception and acceptance above all. Despite prevailing conservative trends by applying the educational software that presents an imitation of the texts books and with a main focus on the contents, the potential itself of games for education is promising, as confirmed by the interviewed experts and participants of the focus group: participation, motivation, flow status, strategic decision taking, active participation, engagement and concentration – can be identified as key aspects in the educational success of the games application.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 105 REFERENCES AND NOTES: 1 We would like to express our special gratitude for all the experts for their kind collaboration and contributions. 2 It has to be noted that the majority of the studies and reports made in Spain, focuses on video games, therefore as a result, the present report might reflect this tendency. 3 The NMC Horizon Project identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within education around the global. Retrieved from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/HR2011.pdf 4 More information: http://aprendeyjuegaconea.com/files/guia_UAH_2007.pdf 5 More information about e-Adventure project: http://e-adventure.e-ucm.es/ (e-Adventure is currently undergoing the development of 2.0 version, therefore the new features are being added). 6 Moreno-Ger et al. (2009) “Digital Games in eLearning Environments: Current Uses and Emerging Trends”, Simulation & Gaming, SAGE Publications 7 Checa Godoy, A. (2009) “Hacia una industria española del video juego”, Comunicación, Nº 7, PP. 177-188, ISSN 1989-600X 8 Spanish Associations of Entertainment Software Distributors and Editors: http://www.adese.es/ 9 It is worth mentioning the Gamer Inside project, which can be considered as the first audio- visual documentary project about the historic memory of the first generations of gamers. The project aims to show the global impact of video games in the different societies around the word. To achieve, it the project is analysing the influence of gaming in sectors as diverse as education, culture and industry. Nowadays, the project counts with more than 185 testimonies, which come from persons belonging to more than 15 different nationalities, most of them located in Spain. More information about the project: http://thegamerinside.com/ 10 “El futuro de videojuego”, GfK Emer Ad Hoc Research, Nº estudio: 9259, Junio 2010, retrieved from: http://www.adese.es/pdf/fcuantitativa.pdf
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 106 11 The data in the 2011 Newzoo Games Market Report is based on analysis of our proprietary consumer data combined with extensive industry benchmarking. Retrieved from: http://www.newzoo.com/ENG/1591-2011_Revenue_Report.html 12 Casual websites: these are games played on or downloaded from casual game websites including playing Premium versions of games, downloaded from such sites (but not social networks such as Facebook); Social networks: international and local networks such as Facebook, Hi5, Vkontakte, Orkut etc.; PC/Mac boxed: These are games on a CD or DVD (boxed product) that you install on your PC, laptop or Mac before playing; PC/Mac download: These are games that you download and install on your PC, laptop or Mac before playing (excluding MMO game downloads and premium “casual” games from casual game websites); Mobile devices: This includes all mobile (smart) phones, iPod, Touch, iPad or tablet (but not handheld consoles); MMO games: Massive Multiplayer Online (Role Playi ng) games, often referred to as MMOs or MMORPGs (e.g. World of Warcraft, Aion, Seafight, Lords of the Rings Online) and Virtual Worlds; Console games: This includes Xbox, Xbox360, PlayStation 3, PSP as well as older consoles. 13 Alklind et al (2009) “Gamers againts all odds”, in Learning by Playing. Game – based education system design and development, 4th International conference on e-learning and games, edutainment 2009, eds. Chang et al, Springer 15 Crawford et al (eds.) Oline Gaming in the context: the social and cultural significance of online games, Routledge advances in sociology 16 Prensky M., “The Digital Game-Based Learning Revolution”, retrieved from: http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/prensky%20-%20ch1-digital%20game- based%20learning.pdf 17 Eugenio J. Marchiori, Ángel Serrano, Ángel del Blanco, Iván Martínez-Ortiz, Baltasar Fernández- Manjón (2012). Integrating domain experts in educational game authoring: a case study. In proceedings of the 2012 Fourth IEEE International Conference On Digital Game And Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning (DIGITEL 2012), pp. 72-76, Takamatsu (Japan). March 27-30 2012. (doi: 10.1109/DIGITEL.2012.20)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 107 18 ConnectED is a sell technology & advice focused around the delivery of rich interactive media to enhance teaching and learning. Retrieved from: http://www.connectededucation.com/2012/02/ten-reasons-why-game-based-learning-works- in-education/ 19 Ángel Serrano, Eugenio J. Marchiori, Ángel del Blanco, Javier Torrente, Baltasar Fernández- Manjón (2012). A framework to improve evaluation in educational games. In Proceedings of the IEEE Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), Marrakesh, Morocco, April. 20 Gros Salvat, B. (2008) Video juegos y aprendizaje, Graó: Barcelona 21 According to Gros (2008), Malone was the first author to present for the first time the value of video games in education through a series of intrinsic characteristics of video games that has an important impact on learning. 22 Gros Salvat, B. “Certezas e interrogantes acerca del uso de los videojuegos para el aprendizaje”, Comunicación, Nº7, Vol.1, año 2009, PP.251-264. ISSN 1989-600X. 23 Lacasa, P. (2011) Los videojuegos. Aprender en mundos reales y virtuales, Ediciones Morata: Madrid 24 Literacy is understood as an ability to know and control consciously the rules and elements of a determined language.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 108 Annex: Participants profile matrix Name and surname Age Gender Occupation Education Social games player (games played) Jacobo Ocharan 42 M Humanitarian Aid manager MA in Journalism Yes: Draw something, Words with friends Other video games: Chess, Angry birds, Cut the rope, Harbour Master, Slice it Clara Vergés 39 F Biologist PhD in Biology Yes: Draw something, City Ville, Scramble with Friends Other games: Scrabble Jordi Mont 30 M Marketing on- line, web designer Electronic Engineering Plays online games: Runaway 1 & 2, Sam & Max, Monsters Hollywood Rodrigo Prieto 38 M Journalist- Researcher PhD in Social Psychology No Jessica Gonzalez 23 F Media education Political Sciences No Greg Proulx 61 M Professor of English language and global competence BA in Linguistics No Connie Capdevila 47 F Psychologist MA in Psychology No Rob Giardina 40 M Intercultural trainer MA in Conflict resolution No, but plays games: Angry birds, Chess Georgina Dalmau 28 F Marketing on- line BA in Sociology and Market Research, Postgraduate in Social Research No Eva de Andres 33 F Administrative Assistant Administration grade, computer management No Javier Barguño 39 M General Manager of Innovation Theoretical Physics, MBA by IESE No, but plays Backgammon online
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: SPANISH NATIONAL REPORT 109 UK ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: Learnit3D
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 110 UK NATIONAL REPORT INTRODUCTION In conducting interviews and focus groups and reviewing available publications, research, opinion and examples it is evident that the area of social games specifically for learning is at a relatively early stage of development and uptake. There are examples of successful social games and successful games based learning. There is evidence of huge uptake of social networking and social gaming, mass uptake of games technologies and increasing receptiveness and uptake of games for learning in all phases of education. However there appears to have been limited attempts to marry all of these areas together to create bespoke social games for learning in the way that P4i proposes. This suggests that P4i is a timely, relevant worthwhile undertaking! However for the purposes of this research, it is therefore necessary in part to consider the separate pertinent elements of social games, games technologies and serious games based learning initiatives to determine the potential for capitalising on their combined potential and how that might best be achieved. Methodology Followed Expert Interviews: Qualitative, approximately 1 hour, face-to-face interviews with experts in the use of innovative teaching and training methodologies. Topics explored:  Testing a game sample  Social games based learning initiatives in the partner countries: tendencies  Profile of social game player  Analysis of pedagogical potential (educational benefits) of the use of games for adult learning
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 111  Identification of success elements of social games for education  Barriers to uptake of games in learning practice  Skills supported by social game-based learning approaches  How learning may take place (learning evaluation)  Good practices-examples Experts Interviewed: Mr Brian Bishop Brian has 15 years of learning and development experience and academic work in business and human performance technology, he typically works with e-learning companies and L&D departments to speed development, improve learning transfer, and improve customer satisfaction. He has worked on award-winning 3D immersive learning simulations. As the owner of Efficacy Experts (www.efficacyexperts.com), Brian has consulted with a variety of e-learning companies and L&D departments to improve internal and customer performance. He completed his PhD, publishing research titled Systemic Performance Analysis of an Industry: Immersive Learning Simulations. He has previously led Instructional design teams for Caspian Learning, OnCommand, Evolving Systems, Industrial Multimedia and TeleTech@home where he worked on virtual blended training programs using a virtual classrooms, asynchronous e-learning courses, simulations, videos, and self-guided discovery. Mr Peter Stephenson Peter Stephenson has 12 years experience in senior production roles in the digital games and learning industry. He has produced over 40 serious games titles and recently worked at Ubisoft on the AAA title Driver San Francisco. He has extensive production and client management experience in the UK, Europe and USA, winning national awards in 2008, 2009 and 2011 for his roles in production. He has held roles from producer to studio director and has experience across all aspects of the development lifecycle. He has held P&L level responsibility for medium and large scale projects. Peter is currently working as a Programme Manager (EMEA) for SAI Global, managing learning developments for clients such as Airbus, Allied Irish Bank, Total and Sony Mr Robert Hill Robert is an experienced professional in education and public outreach. He is the Director of the Northern Ireland Space Office and was formerly Business Manager at the Armagh Planetarium. Robert has also worked extensively with government agencies, education
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 112 authorities and industry on global STEM and skills related initiatives. He has enthusiastically embraced games based learning in his work with schools, universities, education authorities and science outreach activities. Mr Robert Deighton Robert is an experienced e-learning professional having created applications and software for schools, businesses and military clients. His knowledge of the development cycle of these 3D and 2D applications spans all disciplines, design, art, programming and QA. He now works for Playdemic (www.playdemic.com), a casual and social games company, in the role of Creative Producer. He is directly responsible for all mobile and digital platform delivery, content and quality assurance. Mr Chris Brannigan Chris Brannigan is Chief Executive Officer and one of the two co-founders of Caspian Learning (www.caspianlearning.co.uk) a leading provider of games based learning and simulations. Chris leads the R&D of the technology and drives the commercial activities of the business. He leads a research team to develop tools that integrate learning and memory research methods with interactive computer games technologies. These tools are being deployed in government, corporations and schools around Europe. Mr Mike Carter An experienced classroom teacher, subject leader and Education Authority Advisory Teacher for ICT he has also worked as an independent Educational ICT Consultant, as Professional Development Officer for Anglia Television on the development of educational resources and as Deputy Manager of Gateshead City Learning Centre, a centre of innovation and excellence for educational ICT. He now owns and manages Tyncan Ltd (www.tyncan.com). Providing training and consultancy to schools and businesses and operating a learning and conference centre. Group discussion: Group discussion with 10 adult training practitioners to explore game based initiatives. Held: 11/05/12 Tyncan Training Ltd Newcastle upon Tyne www.tyncan.com
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 113 Facilitator of group discussion: Mr Mike Carter An experienced classroom teacher, subject leader and Education Authority Advisory Teacher for ICT he has also worked as an independent Educational ICT Consultant, as Professional Development Officer for Anglia Television on the development of educational resources and as Deputy Manager of Gateshead City Learning Centre, a centre of innovation and excellence for educational ICT. He now owns and manages Tyncan Ltd. Providing training and consultancy to schools and businesses and operating a learning and conference centre. Focus of Group Discussion: 1. Intercultural competences 2. Testing a game sample, 3. Gaming experiences The profile of social games players in the UK The profile of social game players and gamers in general is increasingly broad covering a wide demographic across gender, age and social status. This suggests that there is good potential, from the point of view of receptiveness to the medium of social games, given well crafted contextual content and instructional design, for positive levels of engagement with a social game addressing intercultural competences across the demographic of the target group. “The stereotype of the young gamer is no longer accurate” and “the overall trend is for the mean age of a gamer to match that of the general population.” (Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication Who plays, how much, and why? Debunking the stereotypical gamer profile http://129.105.161.80/drupal/sites/default/files/Whoplaysfinal.pdf) A study of adult social game players (over 18) carried out by Information Solutions Group in 2010 for PopCap (www.popcap.com) reported the following findings in respect of UK social gamers: Gender: In the UK 58% of social game players are female. Age: In the UK social gamers average 38 years old. 20% are less than 30 years old 21% are 30 – 39 years old
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 114 20% are 40 – 49 years old 38% are at least 50 years old. Living Situation Social game players are broken into three primary categories: Single with no children (28%), Married with children living at home (28%) Married with children not living at home (17%) Others (27%) Employment Status In the UK, 47% of social gamers work full-time 8% are retired. 11% are homemakers 10% work part-time 7% are not currently working. Educational Attainment A total of 37% in the UK who play social games have received an undergraduate degree or higher 29% received an A levels/AS levels/Scottish Highers/NVQ levels 3 or 4 13% received more than 5 grade GCSEs or equivalent. Income 22% of the UK social gamers earn less than £15,000
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 115 19% earn between £15,000 and £25,000 20% earn between £25,000 and £38,000 23% earn £38,000 or more. Other findings of note: Women are more likely to play with people they know (68% vs. 56% for males) Men are more likely to play with strangers (41% vs. 33%) than women are. 83% of respondents said they have played games on Facebook which is the most popular platform 28% have purchased in-game currency with real-world money. The average gamer has played six social games. More than 50% of gamers started playing a game because a friend recommended it or because they saw a friend playing it in a news feed or other social stream. Sample testing Sample testing during both expert interviews and the focus group suggest that there is value in and receptiveness to both of the examples used. This is in keeping with conclusions drawn from the wider research and points to the benefits of a blended approach utilising both formats alongside a range of social networking tools and mechanisms as part of a holistic proposition. No significant resistance to, or difficulty in engaging with, either sample was encountered. Analysis of pedagogical potential use of games (with a focus of social games) for adult learning Research suggests that the pedagogical potential of games for adult learning is high. Well designed games inherently possess qualities, skills and challenges which are also features of good learning generally. These include: Immersive and interactive rather than passive Non-linear and branching with multiple outcomes or consequences
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 116 Self paced learning Learning by doing Collaborative learning Applied learning Contextual learning which can simulate real life Replay / Practice Opportunities for learning from safe failure Social Fun and engaging Motivation through competition, targets and rewards Precise performance measurement and feedback Embedded mentoring Above all games are experiential and immerse the player in challenges aimed at achieving goals. Essentially learning by doing. “Tell me and I forget, show me and I remember, involve me and I learn” (Confucius) “Game spaces are often highly immersive and can be collaborative.” and “Using immersive spaces, learners may share learning experiences and rehearse skills for the ‘real-world’.” (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearninginnovation/gamingreport_v3.p df) The social potential of games to involve learners in interaction, competition and collaboration with others has potentially huge benefits. “Technology-based learning need no longer be a solitary experience; indeed the relative anonymity has been shown to encourage shy students to participate more than they would in a classroom environment.” “Technology-based learning need not be about accessing information. It can take the form of a complex, multi-faceted, scenario-driven experience where other ‘people’ form part of the mix.” Kevin Corti, Pixel Learning, (http://www.pixelearning.com/docs/game_based_learning_discussion_paper.pdf)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 117 “Synchronous learning technologies connect people from all over the world to share ideas. It promotes social skills with technology as a bridge” (Brian Bishop). Games technologies and approaches offer opportunities for rich simulation of real life experience which would be otherwise difficult or impossible to experience. Games technology can provide rich environments and experiences for learners to experience and interact in. “By creating games as metaphors, children and adults can utilize role play and narrative forms to imagine and empathize with other people, events from history or with potential scenarios from the future and to experiment and rehearse skills in safe, protected environments.” (Turkle 1994) “Virtual worlds afford the potential to examine issues of fluid identity and the slippage between persona and self affords a reflective process that can serve to encourage self awareness, examination and growth. In addition, we understand the ability to experiment with one’s own identity can increase tolerance for the identity of others who might be different” (Turkle 1994). “I never try to teach my students anything. I only try to create an environment in which they can learn” (Albert Einstein). Games offer active rather than passive experiences. “Games provide a platform for active learning, that is, they are learning by doing rather than listening or reading, they can be customised to the learner, they provide immediate feedback, allow active discovery and develop new kinds of comprehension, there is also evidence of a higher level of retention of material.” (http://media.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/Serious-Games_Review.pdf) Many of the skills required for and developed by games based learning are pertinent to real life skills development. “Games based learning skills are aligned with 21st century skills frameworks. A good learning game demands particular skills and attributes and offers game based pedagogy insights.” (http://www.wlv.ac.uk/PDF/sed-cedare-royle-gamingsummary.pdf)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 118 “Game-based learning is often experience-based or exploratory, and therefore relies upon experiential, problem-based or exploratory learning approaches.” (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearninginnovation/gamingreport_v3.p df) Identification of success elements of social games for education “The best learning takes place when motivation to learn comes from a source inside the learner, not outside such as “it's a fun new way to learn” (Brian Bishop). “Games are motivational, in part, due to their uncertain outcome and the focus on a goal or challenge that the user needs to accomplish… Multiple game goals or different levels of goals provide incentives and challenges for players once an initial goal is accomplished. Game players, therefore, must develop skills and strategies in order to win or achieve a goal... Unlike most formal training or education, in games there are multiple paths into success” (Bonk and Dennen, 2005). In response to the question “What are four words that are the keys to successful social games?” (Flash Games Summit, March 8, 2010) Dan Fiden of Playfish, producers of “The Sims Social” (www.playfish.com) responded:  Social - provide a context for meaningful interaction  Relatable - pick themes and mechanics that are understandable and aspirational  Rewarding - emotionally rewarding and socially, reinforcement schedules to keep players engaged  Emergent gameplay - easy to pick up but emergent complexity and depth (http://freetoplay.biz/2010/03/08/4-keys-to-a-successful-social-game-that-every-developer- should-know/) Dorman Woodall, Director of SkillSoft Learning, (www.skillsoft.com) identifies key motivating elements in the design of learning for adults: “Key elements can make a dramatic difference in the effective design and delivery of instruction to adult learners.”  “Humanistic psychologists tell us that the way people feel about an endeavour influences their commitment to it. That is to say that if the ‘student’ feels “secure, respected, esteemed, empowered, in charge, they are likely to make an investment in it”.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 119  “Information is more likely to be acquired, retained, and retrieved for future use if it is learner-constructed, meaningful, relevant, builds on prior knowledge, is logically organised in learnable chunks, and has built-in or learner generated memory devices to assist in retention and use of the information for the future”  “Behavioural psychologists tell us that behaviour change is brought about by learning experiences that include the following elements:  Observation and imitation of role models  Guided, spaced practice with specific feedback on the student’s performance  Positive reinforcements for the student’s efforts  Practice in applying and using the new learning in a variety of situations (www.skillsoft.com/infocenter/whitepapers/documents/blended_learning_strategies_wp.pdf) Kevin Corti of Pixel Learning (www.pixelearning.com), suggests principles for the development of good learning games as follows:  Relevance to the learner NOT generic products  Adaptive programmes NOT off-the-shelf products  Byte-size-chunks NOT six hour lumps  Parallel NOT linear  Open-ended NOT closed loop  Just-in-time NOT when scheduled  Connected NOT standalone  Engage NOT switch off  Active participation NOT passive dissemination  Fun NOT boredom  Learning by doing NOT learning by telling  Learn by failing NOT fail but trying  Peer-to-peer NOT one-to-many  Simulation NOT assimilation  Role-play NOT no-play (http://www.pixelearning.com/docs/game_based_learning_discussion_paper.pdf) “Within an effective game-based learning environment, we work toward a goal, choosing actions and experiencing the consequences of those actions along the way. We make mistakes in a risk-free setting, and through experimentation, we actively learn and practice the right way to do things. This keeps us highly engaged in practicing behaviours and thought processes that we can easily transfer from the simulated environment to real life.” New Media Institute
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 120 (http://www.newmedia.org/game-based-learning--what-it-is-why-it-works-and-where-its- going.html) In relationship to serious games (however these elements are useful and worth consideration in the development of any learning game) the RETAIN model sets out required aspects: Relevance  presenting materials in a way relevant to learners, their needs, and their learning styles  ensuring the instructional units are relevant to one another so that the elements link together and build upon previous work Embedding  assessing how closely the academic content is coupled with the fantasy/story content where fantasy refers to the narrative structure, storylines, player experience, dramatic structure, fictive elements, etc Transfer  how the player can use previous knowledge in other areas Adaption  a change in behaviour as a consequence of transfer Immersion  the player intellectually investing in the context of the game Naturalisation  the development of habitual and spontaneous use of information derived within the game (http://media.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/Serious-Games_Review.pdf) Barriers to uptake of games in learning practice Barriers to adoption include:  “Access to technology  Technical literacy  Negative perception in some traditional education quarters.” (Robert Deighton)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 121 “Fear that games ‘dumb down’ educational content. The perception that they are not adhering to the traditional learning experience” (Robert Hill). “Perceived high cost and complexity are major barriers. In many instances, learning practice is focused mainly on quick knowledge acquisition and not the acquisition of skills and expert performance” (Chris Brannigan). Sara de Freitas states: “There are significant barriers to uptake of games in educational practice. These include:  access to the correct hardware including PCs with high end graphics video cards;  effective technical support or access to suitable technical support;  familiarity with games-based software;  community of practice within which to seek guidance and support;  enough time to prepare effective game-based learning;  learner groups who would like to learn using effective game-based approaches;  cost of educational games software or licenses.” (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearninginnovation/gamingreport_v3.p df) In relation to P4i, access to appropriate hardware and familiarity with the technology used within the target audience will be key considerations if barriers to uptake are to be avoided. At the same time the development and provision of appropriate support mechanisms and tools, in various forms, and a community of practice will be crucial in ensuring that learners exposed to the social game are engaged and enabled to continue to make continued best use of it. Bonk and Dennen (2005) found that: ‘in addition to using post-game reflection, another way to build conceptual knowledge is to engage in dialogue with peers or experts about the game during game play. Specific cognitive tools such as discussion forums, bulletin boards, debate tools, concept mapping tools, surveys and polling tools, might be used to support [Massively Multiplayer Online games] MMOG by mediating social interaction and fostering depth of discussion’ (2005:29). They found that groups with cognitive support tools outperformed those without the tools. Strategic planning scores were also found to be higher with teams that had access to ‘cognitive tools’. (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearninginnovation/gamingreport_v3.p df)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 122 Skills supported by game-based learning approaches In relation to the use of games based learning in schools Learning and Teaching Scotland suggests that games based learning approaches can provide a number of benefits:  motivating learners to succeed and to continually improve  fostering self-esteem, self-determination and enhancing self-image  facilitating collaborative learning  implicitly developing learners ability to observe, question, hypothesise and test  facilitating metacognitive reflection  developing complex problem-solving skills (http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/usingglowandict/gamesbasedlearning/about/understa nding.asp) “The social interactive dimension of game play has potential for supporting learner cohorts, even those who are geographically distributed, and also has potential for developing team- based skills, not least leadership, coordination and communications skills” (Sara de Freitas). “The shared goals of the player-community provide many opportunities for team skills and inter- working” (Sara de Freitas). (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearninginnovation/gamingreport_v3.p df) In relation to Role Playing Games (RPG’s) Cradwell comments: “There are several language and non-language based learning skills developed directly when students become involved with RPGs.” “These include but are not limited to Following Directions, Vocabulary, Research, Independent/Self-Directed Study, Planning, Choice/Decision Making, Mental Exercise, Evaluation, Cooperation/Interaction, Creativity/Imagination, Leadership, Problem Solving, Critical Thinking, Predicting Consequences, Figural/Spatial Reasoning, Taking Other Points of View, Asking Questions, Ethics, Prioritizing, Interrelated Learning, and Continuity of Learning”. (P Cardwell (1995) "Role-Playing Games and the Gifted Student). (http://www.interactivedramas.info/papers/phillipsrpgclass.pdf)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 123 The skills required by and developed in games mirror those generally accepted to be required in modern life. “Games based learning skills are aligned with 21st century skills frameworks. A good learning game demands particular skills and attributes and offers game based pedagogy insights.” (http://www.wlv.ac.uk/PDF/sed-cedare-royle-gamingsummary.pdf)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 124 CONCLUSION REMARKS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Learning through games and social interaction can offer significant benefits to learners in the development of intercultural competences. Games offer mechanisms for skill development, engagement and motivation and opportunities to simulate real life scenarios and facilitate safe rehearsal and reflection. Social interaction offers additional motivation through interaction with peers and mentors as well as opportunities to share experiences and develop collaborative and communication skills. The potential for a social game in this area is great. Its’ success will depend on several key factors:  Carefully selected and constructed subject matter which is appropriate in level, engaging and presents a challenge to the learner.  Sound instructional design which creates self paced, branching and unfolding learning and engaging gameplay experiences.  Effective mechanisms for social interaction, sharing and collaboration.  Effective mechanisms for feedback and reflection. The conclusion of this report is that P4i should pursue a blended approach, which brings together the best features of available interactive games technologies and social networking structures and tools. In short it is not sufficient to create a game in itself. The game should be the central feature of a wider proposition incorporating a range of supporting social interactions.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: UK NATIONAL REPORT 125 US ANALYSIS ON THE USE OF GAME – BASED LEARNING INITIATIVES Prepared by: Twin Learning LLC
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 126 US NATIONAL REPORT STATE OF THE SHELF Recognition of the value of play in learning did not begin with the battle of Waterloo or the playing fields of Eton. Pedagogues as far back as Plato and as radical as Rousseau discussed its place in both learning and education. Games first became digital in the ‘60s and have grown to become a $40 billion business worldwide. With the advent of a worldwide web of knowledge and media it has been estimated that people spend as many as 3 billion hours a week just playing online [1], but it is only in the last few decades that scholars have begun in earnest to study what makes digital forms of play tick and how that is related to learning. James Paul Gee was perhaps the first to point out that the long-running debate about games vs. learning was based on a false dichotomy, and illustrated three dozen ways that good game design is, by nature, good pedagogy [2]. Academic departments in game studies and in game design have opened in universities around the world. Initiatives such as Serious Games, Games for Change, and Games for Health have convened game designers and producers together with researchers to create new applications targeted at purposeful learning [3]. During the same period, considerable advances have been made in understanding how people learn, and dedicated educators have been aggressive about attempting to apply that new view of learning to today’s youth and adults. Two centers of excellence that early on produced significant contributions to the scholarship of learning are the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) and the Learning Technology Center of Vanderbilt University’s Peabody School of Education. Their work [4, 5, 6], particularly the National Research Council’s How people learn [7], has helped shape our approach to defining learning activities which might be incorporated into transformative games. Research into learning styles [8] and learning as a social system [9] color our view of social games as a transformative activity. Information technology has been used with some success in teaching subjects such as mathematics and reading for more than three decades. At Stanford University in the 1970’s, Pat Suppes did seminal work in intelligent computer-aided instruction and used it to teach college students symbolic logic, elementary school students remedial mathematics and reading through
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 127 what became Computer Curriculum Corporation (now Pearson’s SuccessMaker), and now gifted high school students through the Stanford-based Education Program for Gifted Youth, an online charter school. Even though Control Data Corporation’s online effort, PLATO, was a more significant development effort, Suppes’ NSF-funded research led to a more adaptive curriculum [10, 11]. Over the years John Anderson and Kurt Koedinger at Carnegie Mellon University developed a memory model and adaptive curriculum [12, 13] that has been productized as Carnegie Tutor, as has Jean-Claude Falmagne whose “knowledge space theory” led to the ALEKS system [14]. Other psychologists, cognitive scientists, and even ethnographers have been struggling with how technologies can be brought to bear on the learning process. At OISE, Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter used their Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) as a platform for studying metacognitive processes at work in project-based learning, observing, among other things, phenomena later to become an integral part of what is now referred to as a “reputation system” in such offerings as eBay and Amazon.com, as well as massively multiplayer online games (MMOs), and incorporating commenting and ranking as an essential mechanic. This work has a counterpart in the work of Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger on “communities of practice,” which describes how members move from “legitimate peripheral participation” to full membership [15]. At the Peabody School of Education at Vanderbilt University the learning sciences group did groundbreaking work in the use of stories to scaffold problem solving and pioneered the device of the teachable agent to enhance motivation [16, 17, 18]. This work has migrated to the University of Washington with John Bransford and to Stanford with Daniel Schwartz. Numerous studies have tried to define how and where technology can best be applied to learning [19]. Most recently, a team of ethnographers led by Peter Lyman, Mimi Ito, and Barrie Thorne spent nearly four years studying the informal learning behaviors of youth at various venues to understand better how they were learning from each other at “networked publics” [20]. In their synopsis they point out that, “Youth respect one another’s authority online, and they are often more motivated to learn from peers than from adults. Their efforts are also largely self- directed, and the outcome emerges through exploration, in contrast to classroom learning that is oriented toward set, predefined goals” [21].
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 128 The recent rapid growth of game applications that coattail on more popular social media sites such as Facebook raises the question what methods could be drawn from these applications, which are adopted by tens of millions of users in a matter of months, to nurture collaborative learning among youth and adults immersed in like topics and activities. For one thing, the demographics of digital game play has changed dramatically. In 2010 the successful game company PopCap (now owned by Electronic Arts) conducted a survey of gamers, the purpose of which was to determine the percentage of US and UK Internet users who play social games at least once a week, understand the game play behavior and preferences of social game players, and to create a profile of the typical social game player. In the US and UK, respectively, 54% and 58% of social game players are women, the average age being 43. Most (95%) play several times a week and a third play several times a day. The length of sessions varies from a quarter of an hour to two hours. Most played for fun and excitement with stress relief and competitive spirit the other two top reasons for playing. Most (83%) went to Facebook to play, and almost half went there specifically to play games [22]. The Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project revealed that social networking sites nearly doubled in usage among people ages 50 and older since last year, and has grown 100% among people ages 65 and older [23]. Jay Jamison, a partner at BlueRun Ventures wrote in TechCrunch about the upcoming IPO for Facebook that the public’s tastes for internet-based social networks is not sated but rather users are adopting new, interest-based social networks such as Pintarest, a virtual pinboard (10M monthly unique users in the US in January 2012), Thumb, a community for instant opinions, and Instagram, a photo sharing site that was bought by Facebook for $1B this month [24]. But social gaming makes up for a significant part of activity on Facebook. Zynga alone accounted for 12% of Facebook’s 2011 revenue and 15% of their 1Q2012 revenue [26, 27]. Greg Richardson, CEO of social game company Rumble, claims that the $10B evaluation set for Zynga’s IPO is a function of their focus on delivering games that fit today’s digital lifestyle. Their games can be accessed instantly, the UI and UX are easy to master, users can try the game out and play at no cost [28]. The study of the phenomenon of games in our cultures and the study of how to make them have both become legitimate academic exercises. The classic textbook in game design was authored by Katie Salen, then of the Parsons New School of Design, and Eric Zimmerman, then of GameLab (which produced Diner Dash, a seminal time-management game and one of the first of the casual games genre) and, along with its companion reader, is still used in college
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 129 game design programs today [28]. Professor Salen has since founded two schools, one in New York and one in Chicago, whose curriculum and pedagogy is based on principles of game design [29]. More recently, their textbook has found some competition in the higher education market and the commercial game industry in the form of a new textbook by Jesse Schell, professor of entertainment technology and game design at the Entertainment Technology Center (ETC) at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), and founder and CEO of Schell Games [30]. Professor Schell’s book has a companion deck of cards, each of the hundred of which is a different lens on the game design process [31]. Equivalent guides to good game design targeted at both the education and the training industries include one by Clark Aldrich that aims to show faculty members and instructional designers how to identify opportunities for building games, simulations, and virtual environments into the curriculum, how to successfully incorporate these interactive environments to enhance student learning, and how to measure the learning outcomes [32]. A pair of seasoned training professionals have also authored a useful guide to game-based learning focused on simulation games [33]. Clark Quinn and Marcia Conners have managed to use their familiarity with cognitive science and such concepts as cognitive apprenticeship, situated learning, and constructivism to ground their how-to book. A tome that was brought to my attention in the course of our group discussion with experts in the fields of game and learning was written by Wills, Leigh, and Ip on the subject of role-based online learning and targets educators and trainers “seeking to engage students in collaboration and communication about authentic scenarios” [34]. Drawing on their extensive experience and practice it aspires to be a “comprehensive guide to the design, implementation, and evaluation” of the role-playing approach to learning. Drafting on the success of such social game studios as Zynga, the “gamification” movement has taken hold in the training, education, and consumer world, at least in the US. The most explicit guide on how to apply game mechanics and principles of motivation derived from games is Gabe Zichermann and Christopher Cunningham’s Gamification by Design [35]. The book is very explicit on notions such as engagement, i.e., loyalty, and lists the metrics it is to be measured by as recency, frequency, duration, virality, and ratings. It discusses in detail player motivation with respect to pleasure, rewards, and time, dwelling on force, flow, reinforcement, intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, and the player’s progression to mastery. The authors go into game mechanics in depth, covering pattern recognition, collecting, surprise and unexpected delight,
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 130 organizing and creating order, gifting, flirtation and romance, recognition for achievement, leading others, fame (getting attention), being the hero, gaining status, nurturing (growing). It cites case studies and even includes two tutorials, one on coding and one on gamification platforms. If Zichermann and Cunningham’s book is the compleat guide to gamification to date, perhaps the most informative, if cynical, discussion of how persuasive psychology is applied to acquiring and monetizing player is Tim Roger’s “who killed videogames? (a ghost story) [36]. We are indebted to Kris Hattori who works at an education technology industry newsletter entitled EdSurge.com and an educational game startup named luckybirdgames.com for tipping us to this source which describes an apocryphal presentation to investors by two social game company executives who tell the story of how they hook players into progressively greater “engagement” with a social game. Perhaps the most optimistic game maker around is Jane McGonigal, who, while completing her doctorate at the University of California, Berkeley, in performing arts and media, was also puppet master on one of the most successful early alternate reality games (ARGs), I Love Bees, which game she describes in an essay drawn from her dissertation in Professor Salen’s collection, The Ecology of Games [37]. Her recent best-selling book, Reality is Broken, takes apart games she has made and played and suggests that by drawing upon such play one could motivate players to make contribution to the betterment of humankind [38}. At least two of her games that we have participated in have done that with some success. World without Oil got people thinking about and describing how a shortage of oil would impact their lives, and Urgent Evoke had them trying to encourage social entrepreneurship. She reveals the “four secrets” to making ourselves happy, viz., satisfying work, the experience (or hope) of being successful, social connection, and meaning, and argues that including these in activities can keep people engaging in collectively accomplishing something that might never have otherwise. McGonigal’s reflections on her own work and games is remarkably consistent with the results of a recent study of older adults in Spain, The Netherlands, and Greece, which concluded that challenge, socialization, fun, learning opportunities and escape from daily routine were the main reasons why adults would be interested in playing games [39]
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 131 Just as Facebook is unlikely to be the last word in social networking, browser-based social games will likely soon give way to more mobile versions. Connie Malamed, a visual and information designer, makes a credible case that a “new era of mobile learning and performance support is upon us,” and argues that the affordances of mobile devices will usher in this era. She cites as the characteristics of the use of mobile devices that will contribute to mobile learning are that it is supportive, collaborative, gestural, learner-centric, informal, contextual, user-generated, fun, and sensitive and connected [40]. Her perspective is reinforced by an excellent essay by Jonathan Stark on, “The 10 principles of mobile interface design,” that details exactly how different that user experience is [41]. INTERVIEWS Over the course of the last two months we conducted a dozen in-depth interviews face-to-face or by phone with pioneers of the videogame industry, veterans of the training world, scholars and critics of the game world, and the producers of some of today’s most engaging games. The purpose of the interviews was to gather intelligence on how best to make a social game that will help European adults learn digital, social, and civil competencies, and gain cultural awareness and expression. The interviews were informal and, in addition to general questions about games, social media, learning, and interculturality, we tried in each instance to evoke specific answers to questions such as, What are the stickiest social games out there? What makes them sticky? What are people learning playing them? What are people getting from each other playing them? What keeps grownups from playing social games? What would you do to make a game to help people understand each other? More importantly, during the course of each conversation the interviewee returned to emphasize and re-emphasize some point they thought was particularly important for the enterprise. Jeff Braun, who discovered Will Wright and with him founded Maxis, the startup that brought us SimCity and The Sims, insisted that the game was not the thing, rather it was the extrinsic motivation, a reason to consider the issues, that was critical. Evoking the concept “chocolate covered broccoli” often used to describe educational games, he insisted that the exercise be undertaken by the players with some specific reward as the real goal of the interaction. Steve Mayer, one of the original team at Atari when Pong was introduced in 1972, felt that the most successful metaphor on which such game play as was called for would be should be based was the small village, where players could both be a part of their own village but interact with players in other villages. Clark Aldrich, training simulation designer and
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 132 producer, and author of several well-received texts on simulations and games, was one of several to emphasize how important it was to be very specific in what you intended to achieve through game play, perhaps posing problems or issuing challenges that simply could not be solved without an intercultural approach. Andy Kimball, who founded a game-based training company over a decade ago, also emphasized that the most important item to address in the design process was the results you sought from the game play. He evoked the decades of designs that Thiagi (Sivasailam Thiagarajan, PhD) has contributed to multicultural games, each game targeting a specific issue [42]. Jimm Meloy, former worldwide director of e-Learning at Autodesk, felt that finding ways to engage players in different cultures could start with their own and then follow commonalities to other cultures. The more academic of the interviewees, such as BJ Fogg of the Stanford University Persuasion Lab, tended to emphasize not only the behaviors that the game seeks to promote but also the manner in which success would be measured. James Paul Gee, chaired professor of literacy studies at Arizona State University and author of several books about games and learning, emphasized that the success of the game would likely be measured in how people changed not only in what they say but how they behaved, and in the virality of the game – how well it motivated players to involve others in the game play. Jesse Schell of CMU drilled down on ways to determine what the impact we wanted to have with the game was, and to consider what experiences we could create for the players that would likely have this impact. Karl Kapp, professor at Bloomsburg University, suggested recording every game transaction between players and playing it back so that the players could observe their own behavior. Matteo Bittanti, professor of Visual and Critical Studies at California College of the Arts, prolific author and film and game critic, suggested engaging players in real world activities that themselves involved the change we sought. In addition, two young game producers, John Say, founder and CEO of Say Design studios in Irvine, California, and Shanghai, China, and Michael Martinez, senior product manager at Zynga, emphasized that clear objectives and simple rules were the surest way to achieve results with players. Some of the games that interviewees described in the course of our conversation suggest strategies we might pursue or mechanics we might want to apply. Andy Kimball pointed to BaFa’ BaFa’, a cross-culture simulation developed by R. Garry Shirts designed for those who are in situations that require an experiential understanding of another culture [43]. After participants are given a brief orientation to the exercise, they are divided into two groups or "cultures" and
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 133 are introduced to the values, rules, expectations, and customs of their new culture. Observers are exchanged between the two cultures. After a fixed time, the observers return to their respective groups and report on what they saw. Each group tries to develop hypotheses about the most effective way to interact with the other culture. After the exercise, the participants discuss and analyze the experience and generalize it to other groups in the real world. The simulation allows players, among other things, to develop empathy for behaviors without attaching a specific cultural identity to it. Kimball pointed out several lessons that could be learned from the success this simulation and others have had. First, a “medium fidelity” simulation is likely to be more engaging for players than one which does not help them suspend disbelief or one which is close to being, but fails to be convincing because its very attempt at verisimilitude distracts players who find fault with it. Second, the “behavioral epiphany” that such simulations seek is prompted by a conflict in which the player is required to make a commitment. It is that investment that engages the player in such a way as to be interested in and affected by the result. Third, it should be remembered that there are different types of cultures – organizational, generational, gender, professional, etc. – and that anchoring learning in commonality (e.g., what a Pakistani engineer has in common with an American engineer) can lead to appreciation of diversity. A simple way of making explicit conflicts is to pick a set of priorities and then develop scenarios where hidden agendas may surface. If you value health, property, and convenience, where do you park your car at a mall? Near where it’s crowded or far away where you have to walk? Another game that illustrates self-interest in conflict is the Dollar Auction. As described In Wikipedia, “The dollar auction is a non-zero sum sequential game designed by economist Martin Shubik to illustrate a paradox brought about by traditional rational choice theory in which players with perfect information in the game are compelled to make an ultimately irrational decision based completely on a sequence of rational choices made throughout the game. … The setup involves an auctioneer who volunteers to auction off a dollar bill with the following rule: the dollar goes to the highest bidder, who pays the amount he bids. The second-highest bidder also must pay the highest amount that he bid, but gets nothing in return. Suppose that the game begins with one of the players bidding 1 cent, hoping to make a 99 cent profit. He will quickly be outbid by another player bidding 2 cents, as a 98 cent profit is still desirable. Similarly, another bidder may bid 3 cents, making a 97 cent profit. Alternatively, the first bidder may attempt to convert their loss of 1 cent into a gain of 96 cents by bidding 4 cents. In this way, a
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 134 series of bids is maintained. However, a problem becomes evident as soon as the bidding reaches 99 cents. Supposing that the other player had bid 98 cents, they now have the choice of losing the 98 cents or bidding a dollar even, which would make their profit zero. After that, the original player has a choice of either losing 99 cents or bidding $1.01, and only losing one cent. After this point the two players continue to bid the value up well beyond the dollar, and neither stands to profit” [44]. In describing this game, Kimball analogized it to the thesis in a recent article in the Economist which argued that people vote against their own self-interest primarily to keep whoever is below them in social economic status there, below them. Not being last is more important than being closer to first. Professor Schell described the development process for PeaceMaker that originally took place at CMU [45]. Initially the team working on the project wanted to make people understand strategies for peace in the world. Experienced game designers argued that to get something universal across it was necessary to be very specific. Those familiar with the problems with relations between the Israelis and the Palestinians were afraid the conflict was too real, too threatening for a game (this reflects a similar observation by Jimm Meloy about the difficulty of structuring play that touches on hard issues such as immigration or the economy). However, the basic insight that led to the development of the game was that the real reason the conflict was so difficult to resolve was that people think it is simple. As Schell put it, “both sides think, ‘If they would stop being such jerks, this problem would go away.’” So, the objective of the simulation is to show how complex the problem really is, to put players in roles that allow them to see that. So, the game is not about peace or aspiration, but rather to help players appreciate the position of the “other” side. The lesson to be learned from this is that “transformational games” start with asking, what are all the problems, but then must focus the ones that have solutions that the game could simulate. In a similar vein, Steve Mayer alluded to the Kurosawa film, Roshomon, to illustrate the point of seeing the same situation from multiple viewpoints. Professor Kapp shared with me an extract from his book, Gadgets, Games and Gizmos for Learning, that describes a game developed for SAP, the German enterprise software company [46]. SAP “needed to provide their project managers with a learning experience to address a specific challenge—managing teams whose members were scattered across the globe. With team members in Germany, Japan, America, and India, a SAP project manager must contend with issues such as cultural differences, time zones, disparate expectations, communication styles, and other issues a local team may not encounter. SAP partnered with an e-learning
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 135 design company, Enspire Learning, located in Austin, Texas to craft six, hour-long modules tackling six major difficulties with distributed, or ‘virtual,’ teams the training including a 20-minute capstone simulation for each of the six modules. The capstone simulation allows the learners to experience virtual team management as a team leader. The learner makes key strategic decisions about a simulated project and assigns work packets to three distributed segments of the team, based on their skills, cultural differences, and the work in question. After making strategic decisions, the project is executed and the learner experiences the effects of their actions, mitigating any issues that arise. Enspire and SAP recognized the significant design challenge of meaningfully discussing cultural differences while remaining sensitive to the cultures of learners world-wide. This challenge was addressed by using a trick from the gamer’s Massively Multiplayer Online Role Play (MMORPG) games. The team created a fictional world called Orth with its own fictional cultures. The team from the Orthian region of Sampo considered timeliness as paramount, while the culture from Shananees viewed time very loosely. Understanding and deciphering these differences influence how the learner makes decisions. “So how does the learner measure progress? To coincide with SAP’s standard processes, the simulation fixes the timeline and resources, leaving three measures of a successful project: Quality, Feature set, and Morale of your team—your “QFM” score. Choices the learner makes directly or indirectly affect her ability to deliver a finished project of high quality, with a maximal feature set, and high team morale. … The simulation provides the learner feedback throughout the execution stage. A team lead may complain of being assigned work his team finds boring, or he may thank you for providing them with new communication technologies. At the close of the module, the learner’s virtual mentor, Linda, provides the final QFM score, general feedback on performance and feedback on specific learner decisions that significantly impacted the learner’s scores.” Professor Kapp claims that the lessons of the simulation are learned even though the events take place in a fictionalized world. Whether that sort of transfer is indeed accomplished in this case would have to be judged by the players post-simulation performance in the workplace, Kirkpatrick’s level three. It is, however, the question Steve Mayer suggests be asked of every activity players engage in during a game intending to change them, “Is the experience transferable?”
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 136 Professor Gee pointed us to a game sponsored by the Knight Foundation in Macon, Georgia. Macon Money was a social networking game developed by Area/Code Entertainment as an experiment “to see if we could use serious games as a vehicle to build community,” a spokesperson for the Foundation said in a news report [47]. Organizers distributed special symbol-coded bonds, each redeemable for an unknown denomination in Macon Money, $10, $20, $50 or $100. The catch was that each player got just half a bond, and to turn it in, they had to find the person holding the other half. The bonds were strategically sent out to different communities. Therefore, the game forces people from different racial and economic classes to find one another and redeem their bonds as a team. To find their match, players used a variety of methods: social media, online message boards, the Macon Money website at www.maconmoney.org, or even face-to-face contact. Once the people holding the two sides of the bond turned it into the Macon Money office, they received “Macon Money,” in increments of $10 to $100, which could be spent at various downtown businesses. The businesses, in turn, were reimbursed with real money by Macon Money. The game succeeded in getting people from different parts of town together, at least for purposes of the game, and received international recognition. By contrast, Professor Gee was quite impressed with the success of Facebook games like FarmVille, whose designers “are geniuses at manipulating people, taking principles of motivation and behavioral economics” to make a profit and opine that the same principles can be applied to games for change. Clark Aldrich emphasized many of the most popular games available, such as Plants vs. Zombies or Angry Birds, are successful by virtue of the very simplicity of the user interface and user experience, a lesson he hoped would not be lost on us. In Nashville, Tennessee, last week, we were given a look at a project developed by Little Planet Learning for Ely Lilly, the global pharmaceutical company, which sought to emphasize the cultural diversity of their 40,000 employees worldwide. As a catalyst to the project several dozen employees were interviewed and their stories about how they came to work for the corporation, what they did there, what they valued about their work and their colleagues, and why respect for each others differences was important to their workplace. These were woven into an initial presentation meant to catalyze other employees to contribute their own stories to the collection. It was an excellent illustration of the points that Steve Mayer made for a game designed in part around storytelling, though the example of such a collection that he used was
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 137 the Shoah Project initiated by Steven Spielberg in which stories of the concentration camps in World War II are being collected from survivors. We went around a bit with John Say about the success of Words with Friends and Draw Something. The asynchronous nature of the multi-player games allows them to be what Steve Mayer called “interstitial,” something you can play while getting along with your real life. They are based on classic game mechanics but allow players to feel in touch with each other as they go about their business. It’s worth taking a look at the report of an interesting talk given at the Game Developers Conference (GDC) last month by Steve Meretzk and Dave Rohrl of Playdom entitled, “The 10 key social games of the year” [48]. The list includes Slotomania, Zombie Lane, Bubble Witch Saga, Gardens of Time, Monopoly Millionaires, The Sims Social, CastleVille, Social Empires, Triple Town, and Words with Friends. If we were to attempt to summarize the most important exhortations from those interviewed it would likely come down to a few key points. First and foremost, be clear what your objective is, what specific behaviors you want engage players to adopt, and design as simple a game as possible to achieve that. Second, role playing and storytelling are two tried and true approaches to broadening peoples view of themselves, the world they live in, and the perspective of others. Third, engage people with each other, preferably to make something or solve something together. GROUP DISCUSSION The group that was convened at SRI International in Menlo Park, California at the end of March was smaller than intended. Two people begged off earlier in the week and two were no-shows on the very day of the get-together. In the end there was a mix of three generations of researchers, analysts, and designer/producers. In the beginning the discussion focused on the project itself and it was apparent that by whom, when, and where the game was intended to be played were critical design issues. We then moved on to discussing the distinction between what was required to effect changes in attitude and how that could affect behavior, one participant pointing out that in some instances attitude change followed on changed behavior, even if the opportunity or occasion of the behavior change was serendipitous. The simple act of doing something with someone
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 138 from a culture with which you were unfamiliar is likely to make you look more favorably on that culture in the future. This line of thinking led to a discussion of mixing activity in the real world with activity in the game. This seems particularly attractive when mixed in with online role playing as a means to allow a player not only to experience vicariously that which someone from another culture might in a virtual world (e.g., an African-American avatar entering a white bar) but also to extend that experience into the everyday world. The example of a Jewish-American woman in suburban Palo Alto, California, realizing after the Twin Towers fell on 9/11 that ever after Americans would look differently on those whom they blamed for that disaster prompted her to spend the whole of the next day doing everyday things dressed in a burka. The reactions she provoked from ordinary people in that guise painfully confirmed her intuition. Examples of citizen science were cited as samples of people working together to see things differently. The crowdsourcing of protein folding research pioneered by University of Washington’s Center for Game Science and Department of Biochemistry through the medium of the game Foldit was cited [49], as was the efforts of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO), whose 1,400 members and observers from 52 countries contribute over a million observations per year [50]. If that visualization online or in the real world were done with changeable cultural lenses (e.g., in an Alsace marketplace note the objects from Germany or vice-versa across the border) it could lead to the sharing of new perspectives. We returned to motivation several times in the course of the discussion. Everyone was of course familiar with such game mechanics as levels and leaderboards and badges, but we struggled with what sort of rewards would incent players to continue to be engaged in a game about interculturality. The most likely solution seemed to involve teams that worked together to best other teams, rather than individual achievement. In framing the research on kids’ informal learning and digital media, Mimi Ito posited a spectrum of genres of participation on the internet that went from friendship-driven (people whom you know in the real world that you socialize with in Facebook), to interest-driven (working with strangers on a mission in World of Warcraft or collaborating with others from around the world to sub-title anime) [51, 52]. It is such a common interest that could get diverse players to interact. An industry analyst cited the policy in his son’s baseball league in San Francisco that team be made up of players from different neighborhoods so that kids broaden their view of the world. In a city where there are over 100 different languages spoken in homes, this represents a step in the right direction. Playing
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 139 together to win forged a bond among children who might otherwise have never encountered each others culture. But if the game were to have a real-world component, and be driven at least in part by competition, what sort of challenges could you assign players to engage them productively toward a better sense of other cultures. The work of the Center for Civic Education was cited for its efforts to encourage people to identify something in their community that could be changed for the better by legislation then work together to effect that change [53]. One gamer described the Big Urban Game (B.U.G.), commissioned by the Design Institute of the University of Minnesota with the goal of encouraging the residents of Minneapolis and St. Paul a way to see their surroundings in a whole new way, and to think about the design of urban space. The game was a race between three teams, each of which was attempting to move a 25-foot high inflatable game piece through a series of Twin Cities’ checkpoints in the shortest amount of time. The game was played by residents who joined one of the three teams: red, yellow, or blue, then chose the route that they felt was the fastest, and either called the BUG 800 number or voted on-line for their favorite. Each evening, a team of volunteer movers carried the pieces through the city, following the route that had received the most votes. During the days of the race, the piece stood as a landmark at its current location, and became a center for community activity. Players could travel to the piece’s location and roll a giant set of dice. The totals generated by the dice rolling of each team were compared, and the team with the highest total got a head- start in that evening’s run [54]. The sense of silliness and the fun of the race appealed to the group who then discussed ways to turn traditional project-based and problem-based learning and make it more engaging. Solving a community problem together could bring more enjoyment into personal challenges and developing competencies. One game developer described the mechanic in the Xbox game, Castle Crashers, that fosters communications and teamwork. Players operate as a team, if one dies the other can heal them. Together they can perform tasks they couldn’t individually. He suggested that the same could be done by creating problems or missions or challenges that required more than one cultures approach to solve or complete. This was extended by an analyst who suggested that debate be incorporated into a game, taking current cross-cultural issues, assigning a side to players arbitrarily and measuring before and after the opinion of the group. He used the example of the Oxford-style debates broadcast in the US on National Public Radio (NPR) that use experts but follow a similar format [55].
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 140 We circled back to the hybrid type of game that, like an ARG, has both an online and a real- world component. The example of Beast, perhaps the first alternate reality game, a viral marketing campaign for the film A.I.: Artificial Intelligence that Steven Spielberg finished upon the death of its director Stanley Kubrick, was brought up [56]. The ARG had a system that allowed players to receive game-related messages via email and voicemail. We imagined a player who had been assigned the role, and avatar in the virtual world, of a Muslim woman and who, during the day in the real world, was given tasks by texts consistent with her persona that the player would have to perform interspersed with the players real everyday routine. If we were to attempt to sum up the sense of the group it would be that hybrid (virtual world and real world) game play involving role playing and interactions about players both as a team competing to complete challenges together against other teams would be a serious avenue to explore. The real world tasks should be not only for the sake of the game play but have social impact as well. The most important element would be having players from different cultures working together to a common end and structuring their challenges so that their very differences would be critical to the common solution. While we did not play games to initiate or provoke discussion at this session, a week later we did take advantage of the occasion of a guest lecture to a class of about 60 graduate students from 30 different countries at the San Francisco campus of Hult International Business School to try two games to see their reactions. In the first instance, the students were asked to form up in their regular study groups and take ten minutes to find the most obscure thing they had in common. “Obscure” would be judged by the number of students in the overall group that shared that thing. The “thing” could be something about them, or something they had done, or how or where they had done it. The answers the group came up with ranged from the banal (“we have all taken a shower with someone else”) to the scatological, the most obscure being that all the members of one of the groups had used Twitter to tweet while sitting on the toilet. In the debrief the students discussed their strategies for arriving at their common thing ranging from starting with polling themselves on what they had in common to going around the circle saying what the most unusual thing they had ever done to see how many in the group had too.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 141 In the second game, students were paired in groups of two. One from each group was told to be very touchy, “in-your-face,” make constant eye contact, while the other was told to behave as a shy and private person would. They were told to get to know one another. During the debrief, those that had a personality more like the role they played expressed surprise at how little they learned during the session. Those that played against type were surprised to find how difficult such behavior was to sustain, and several were led to consider than many who indeed behaved that way might not be if given the chance. In both cases it was clear that the debrief was the most important part of the game because while engaged the players spared little metacognitive effort to understand what they were going through but afterward they could reflect not only on their experience but see how it compared and contrasted with that of the others in the class.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 142 CONCLUSION All three forms of the research conducted for this review of games and learning in the US led us to caveats that should be taken seriously from others’ prior efforts, and insightful suggestions as to paths we could go down in setting down the requirements for the game to be created and deployed, and the design to be implemented. In the literature, the interviews, and the discussions it was clear that defining what, very specifically, we wanted to achieve, how that achievement was to be measured, and, of all the possible ways to accomplish it, what were the simplest activities we could find to engage users were the most important lessons we could take from this homework. For the intended game to succeed in any setting, it should allow the player to practice seeing things from others’ points of view, should provide a mechanism for mutual support, promote efficacy in real life, and exploit the behavioral mechanics of social games to be both viral and sticky.
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 143 REFERENCES: [1] McGonigal, J. (2010, February). Gaming can make a better world. TED Talks. www.ted.com/talks/jane_mcgonigal_gaming_can_make_a_better_world.html [2] Gee, J.P. (2008). Learning and games. In Salen, K., Ed., The Ecology of games: Connecting youth, games, and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pp. 21-40. http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/chapters/0262294249chap2.pdf [3] Tate, R., Haritatos, J. & Cole, S. (2009). HopeLab’s approach to re-mission. International Journal of Learning and Media, 1(1), pp. 29-35. www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/ijlm.2009.0003 [4] Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates [5] Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: An inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court [6] Scardamalia, Marlene. (2002). Collective cognitive responsibility for the advancement of knowledge. In B. Smith (Ed.). Liberal education in a knowledge society. Chicago, IL: Open Court, pp. 67-98 [7] Bransford, J., Brown, A., Cocking, R. & the National Research Council (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press [8] Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest (9)3, pp. 106-119 [9] Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice. Learning as a social system. Systems Thinker. http://www.co-i-l.com/coil/knowledge-garden/cop/lss.shtml [10] Suppes, P. (1979, August). The future of computers in education. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 6(1), pp. 5-10 [11] Suppes, P. (1990). Three current tutoring systems and future needs. C. Frasson & G. Gauthier (Eds.), Intelligent tutoring systems: at the crossroads of artificial intelligence and education. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation, pp. 251-265
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 144 [12] Koedinger, K. (1998, June 5-6). Intelligent cognitive tutors as modeling tool and instructional model. Position Paper for the NCTM Standards 2000 Technology Conference [13] Koedinger, K.R. and Anderson, J.R. (1998). Illustrating principled design: the early evolution of a cognitive tutor for algebra symbolization. Interactive Learning Environments, 5, 161-179 [14] Falmagne, J.-C., Doignon, J.-P., Koppen, M., Villano, M., & Johannesen (1990). Introduction to knowledge spaces: How to build, test, and search them. Psychological Review, 97(2), 201- 224 [15] Wenger, E. (1999). Communities of Practice. Learning, meaning and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press [16] Biswas, G., Schwartz, D., Bransford, J. and the Teachable Agents Group at Vanderbilt. (2001). Technology support for complex problem solving from SAD environments to AI. In K. Forbus & P. Feltovich (Eds.), Smart Machines in Education, Chapter Three. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press [17] Blair, K., Schwartz, D., Biswas, G. & Leelawong, K. (2006). Pedagogical agents for learning by teaching: teachable agents. Educational Technology & Society, Special Issue on Pedagogical Agents [18] Bransford, J. & Schwartz, D. (1999) Rethinking transfer: a simple proposal with multiple implications. In A. Iran-Nejad & P. Pearson (Eds.), Review of Research in Education, Chapter 3, Vol. 24, pp. 61-100. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association (AERA) [19] Shuler, C. (2007, December). D is for Digital: An Analysis of the Children's Interactive Media Environment With a Focus on Mass Marketed Products that Promote Learning. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop [20] Ito, M., Baumer, S., Bittanti, M., boyd, d., Cody, R., Herr-Stephenson, B., Horst, H., Lange, P., Mahendran, D., Martinez, K., Pascoe, C. J. , Perkel, D., Robinson, L., Sims, C., & Tripp, L.. (2009) Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out: Kids living and learning with new media. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/full_pdfs/Hanging_Out.pdf [21] Ito, M., Baumer, S., Bittanti, M., boyd, d., Cody, R., Herr-Stephenson, B., Horst, H., Lange, P., Mahendran, D., Martinez, K., Pascoe, C. J. , Perkel, D., Robinson, L., Sims, C., & Tripp, L.. (2008). Living and learning with new media. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/full_pdfs/Living_and_Learning.pdf
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 145 [22] PopCap (2011) 2010 PopCap Social Gaming Research. Seattle, WA: PopCap [23] Pew Internet & American Life Project (2012) Pew internet: Social networking. http://pewinternet.org/Commentary/2012/March/Pew-Internet-Social-Networking-full- detail.aspx [24] Jamison, J. (2012) Beyond Facebook: the rise of interest-based social networks. TechCrunch. http://techcrunch.com/2012/02/18/beyond-facebook-the-rise-of-interest-based-social- networks/ [25] Takahashi, D. (2012) Zynga accounted for $445M, or 12 percent of Facebook’s revenue, in 2011. VentureBeat. http://venturebeat.com/2012/02/01/zynga-accounted-for-12-percent- of-facebooks-revenue-in-2011/ [26] Handrahan, M. (2012) Zynga accounted for 15 per cent of Facebook’s Q1 revenue. GamesIndustry International. http://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2012-04-24-zynga- products-accounted-for-15-per-cent-of-facebooks-q1-revenue [27] Richardson, G. (2011) What Zynga taught the game industry: Consumers are in charge. VentureBeat. http://venturebeat.com/2011/12/17/what-zynga-taught-the-game-industry- consumers-are-in-charge/ [28] Salen, K. & Zimmerman, E. (2003) Rules of play: game design fundamentals. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press [29] Salen, K., Torres, R., Wolozin, L., Rufo-Tepper, R. & Shapiro (2011) Quest to Learn: Developing the School for Digital Kids. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/full_pdfs/Quest_to_Learn.pdf [30] Schell, J. (2008) The Art of game design: A Book of lenses. New York and Amsterdam: Elsevier Morgan Kauffmann Publishers [31] Schell, J. (2008) The Art of game design: A Deck of lenses. Pittsburgh, PA: Schell Games [32] Aldrich, C. (2009) Learning online with games, simulations, and virtual worlds – Strategies for online instruction (Jossey-Bass guides to online teaching and learning). New York: Jossey-Bass [33] Quinn, C. & Conner, M. (2005) Engaging learning: Designing e-learning simulation games (Pfeiffer Essential Resources for Training and HR Professionals). New York, NY: Pfeiffer [34] Wills, S., Leigh, E. & Ip, A. (2011). The power of role-based e-learning. New York: Routledge
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 146 [35] Zichermann, G. & Cunningham, C. (2011) Gamification by design: Implementing game mechanics in web and mobile apps. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly [36] Rogers, T. (2011) who killed videogames? (a ghost story). http://insertcredit.com/2011/09/22/who-killed-videogames-a-ghost-story/ [37] McGonigal, J. Why I Love Bees: A Case study in collective intelligence gaming. In Salen, K. (Ed.) The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2008. 199–228. http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/chapters/0262294249chap9.pdf [38] McGonigal, J. (2011) Reality is broken: Why games make us better and how they can change the world. New York, NY: Penguin Press [39] Diaz-Orueta, U., David Facal, D., Nap, H., & Ranga, M.- M. (2012) What is the key for older people to show interest in playing digital learning games? Initial qualitative findings from the LEAGE project on a multicultural European sample. Games for Health Journal – Research, Development, and Clinical Applications, 1(2), pp. 115-123. http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/g4h.2011.0024 [40] Malamed, C. (2012). “What’s different about mobile learning?” The Learning Circuits Blog http://learningcircuits.blogspot.com/2012/02/whats-different-about-mobile-learning.html [41] Stark, J. (2012) The 10 principles of mobile interface design. .net magazine http://www.netmagazine.com/features/10-principles-mobile-interface-design [42] The Thiagi Group. www.thiagi.com [43] Simulation Training Systems. BaFa’ BaFa’. www.stsintl.com/business/bafa.html [44] Wikipedia.org. Dollar Auction. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dollar_auction [45] Hybrid Learning Systems. PeaceMaker. http://www.peacemakergame.com/ [46] Kapp, K. (2007) Gadgets, Games and Gizmos for Learning: Tools and Techniques for Transferring Know-How from Boomers to Gamers (Pfeiffer Essential Resources for Training and HR Professionals). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer [47] Knight Foundation. (2011) Macon Money game receives international award for innovation. http://www.knightfoundation.org/press-room/press-mention/macon-money-game-receives- international-award-inno/
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” NATIONAL REPORTS: US NATIONAL REPORT 147 [48] Nutt, C. (2012, March 5) GDC 2012: The 10 key social games of the year. Gamasutra. http://www.gamasutra.com/view/news/164431/gdc_2012_the_10_key_social_games_.php? cid=GDC12_Update13 [49] University of Washington Center for Game Science, UW Department of Computer Science and Engineering, UW Baker Lab, DARPA, NSF, HHMI, Microsoft, and Adobe. Foldit: Solve puzzles for science. http://fold.it/portal/ [50] http://www.aavso.org/ [51] boyd, d. (2008). “Why youth [heart] social network sites: The Role of networked publics in teenage social life.” In D. Buckingham, Ed., Youth, identity, and Digital Media. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pp. 119-142 http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/chapters/0262294273chap6.pdf [52] Ito, et al. (2009) Opus cite [53] http://new.civiced.org/ [54] http://www.decisionproblem.com/bug/bug2.html [55] National Public Radio (NPR). Intelligence Squared. U.S. http://www.npr.org/series/6263392/intelligence-squared-u-s [56] Wikipedia.org. The Beast. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Beast_(game)
    • “Success stories – compilation of game-based learning initiatives in adults’ education” GOOD PRACTICES – SUCCESS STORIES 148 GOOD PRACTICES – SUCCESS STORIES GOOD PRACTICES – SUCCESS STORIES
    • 149 1. TITLE AIR TRAVEL, GAME DEVELOPED IN FRAME OF THE PROJECT "TEACHERS - CREATOR OF EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE"21 Game promoter/creator Adrian Frentescu and Mugurel Andrici, Romanian teachers. Target group approached Students from secondary and high school. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) http://ler.is.edu.ro/~ema/soft2011.html, downloadable. Interactions, actions and activities included Exercises, Simulation by conducted discover for planning an air travel (how to select, book a flight and by a ticket. Educational potential (competences and skills) Discover the meaning of new words in context, Use newly acquired vocabulary in context, Check again accumulated knowledge. Number of users – players 1700 Transferability – reusability Easy to transfer for other type of travel or activity that imply the same steps. Accessibility http://profesorulcreator.siveco.ro/web/guest/castigatori Impact N/A 21This good practice has been extracted from Romanian National Report findings
    • 150 2. TITLE ALTERNATIVA 1322 Game promoter/creator Anesvad Foundation, within the framework of Conexiones improbables initatiave, in collaboration with Campus por la Paz de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Target group approached University public, youth etc. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) All the interactions take place in the following blog: http://www.alternativa13.com/ Interactions, actions and activities included The future where access to health services is becoming increasingly complicated – this is the scenario of Alternativa 13 online game where players have to investigate possible alternatives. Europe approves the Health card by points, or a neighbour of Cuenca wins the Health Bono – are the titles that may appear in the media in a hypothetical future where health services are increasingly difficult to access. The Alternativa 13 game presents those news as an introduction to the game. Within this context, the participants are offered challenges to overcome, using own initiative and research capacity. The game uses social networking, as well as real resources in Internet. The players are encouraged to collaborate in order to be able to advance. Educational potential (competences and skills) Alternativa 13 is a pilot project of social innovation that stands for a new communication media – a virtual vehicle of alternative reality game which aims at raising awareness about the right to the health. Alternativa 13 aims at exploring new ways to promote awareness and knowledge about the right to health. Using minimum media and taking advantage of the expertise of participants, the game aims at testing the strategies that allow to generate awareness through a medium rich in materials, documents, however, in an interesting, attractive and engaging way. Number of users – players Not defined. Transferability – reusability Not defined. Accessibility All the interactions take place in the following blog: http://www.alternativa13.com/ Impact Alternativa 13 game initiative has been launched between 25th of April to 16th of May, 2012. 22 This good practice has been extracted from Spanish National Report findings
    • 151 3. TITLE AMNESTY THE GAME23 Game promoter/creator HGDA – Hellenic Game Developers Association. Target group approached Adults around the world. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Facebook online game. Interactions, actions and activities included 1. Click and share comments about the death penalty on your Facebook account, 2. Publish on Facebook and receive points for saving prisoners, 3. Follow a scenario helping prisoners and influencing government policies about the death penalty. Educational potential (competences and skills) Basic ICT skills, knowledge about the value system, develop negotiation skills, learn about human rights. Number of users – players Individual but with social aspects. Transferability – reusability To adult training. Accessibility Web browser needed, PC/laptop, speakers. Impact The game is about informing adults on the death penalty around the world and how one can help. People learn about actions and procedures needed in order to raise awareness. People are enticed to take action. URL http://amnestygame.com/ Notes We were asked to locate Greek social games with an educative perspective and this game was selected by the company. It is available through Facebook and knowledge gained and information provided can be shared with friends online. The information and the scenario selected is very powerful since the player can directly influence the game path and at the same time, inform friends online of real facts related to the death penalty. User friendly game, with many new information on diverse countries in the world where the death penalty is still legal. 23 This good practice has been extracted from Greek National Report findings
    • 152 4. TITLE ARABIAN WORLD24 Game promoter/creator Bunduc Madalina, Romanian teacher. Target group approached Students from secondary and high school All persons interested in discovering various aspects of the culture and Arab civilization. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) http://ler.is.edu.ro/~ema/proiecte/soft/2011/lumea_arab a/index.html Interactions, actions and activities included - To report the Arab world to the external context of different historical periods -adequately use historical terms and concepts related to Islam -to mark the Arab caliphate map expansion -to use in different contexts, terms and concepts specific to Arab culture and civilization -make connections between Arab culture and other cultures and civilizations of the world. Educational potential (competences and skills) Correct use of terms specific theme Recognition of Arabian features. Establishing links between the geographical and socio- economic development Appropriate use of temporal and spatial coordinates relative to the given topic Comparison of Arab civilization to other civilizations of the world. Number of users – players 54 Transferability – reusability Easy to transfer for other contents. Accessibility http://ler.is.edu.ro/~ema/proiecte/soft/2011/lumea_arab a/index.html Impact Development of competences intercultural by discovering new cultures. 24 This good practice has been extracted from Romanian National Report findings
    • 153 5. TITLE BUYING A COMPUTER25 Game promoter/creator Centre of Assesment ECDL Credis. Target group approached Students enrolled in the certification program of computer skills Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) ECDL’s Centres. Interactions, actions and activities included User must recognize the hardware necessary to assemble their own computer. Educational potential (competences and skills) N/A Number of users – players 20 students, adults over 35 years. Transferability – reusability N/A Accessibility Easy to access. Impact The impact was positive for a course that usually is the transmission of information theory by the instructor. By including this activity increased the level of interactivity and students were motivated to continue their study at home. Student testimony: "I never thought that at my age I'll play Thursday learn at the same time". 25 This good practice has been extracted from Romanian National Report findings
    • 154 6. TITLE DARFUR IS DYING26 Game promoter/creator Reebok Human Rights Foundation & the International Crisis Group. Target group approached Adults. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Online. Interactions, actions and activities included Navigation through keyboard arrows, Activities include: fetch water : hide from militia, navigate within a camp (pump water, build garden etc). Social elements: send tweets, notifications, share results. Educational potential (competences and skills) Basic ICT skills, Economic crisis repercussions (new knowledge) Values of society – new knowledge Geography Number of users – players 1 Transferability – reusability Can be played as part of school experiment / group activity led by a teacher. Accessibility Easy accessibility although the navigation through the keyboard is not easy. Accessible through the internet. Impact The game is about how helping adults realise, through the game, the situation in Darfur and to make active efforts to inform policy makers about the crisis in this country (Sudan). URL http://www.darfurisdying.com/ Notes The game has a social aspect to it although is mostly played individually. The game was selected because it uses a very powerful scenario where the player is responsible for several people. The way the information is used is crucial for the avatars in the game. This evokes in the player strong feelings and a sense of learning more to complete it more successfully. 26 This good practice has been extracted from Greek National Report findings
    • 155 7. TITLE DEUTSCHE WELLE GERMAN COURSES27 Game promoter/creator Deutsche Welle. Target group approached German language learners globally. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Social networking tools, including a Facebook site, a Twitter account with over 3,000 followers, podcasts and videos, that allow German learners all around the world to connect with each other. Interactions, actions and activities included Users can generate and share text, audio, videos and photos. They can publish personal profiles listing their interest and language skills. A targeted search helps locate study partners and teachers. There are interactive classrooms, study groups catering to individual needs, audio and video chat, regular news posts, vocabulary and grammar exercises, and more. Community has attracted 50,000 users in under two years, with 15,000 learners visiting the site every day. Educational potential (competences and skills) Language skills Number of users – players 50,000 users in under two years, with 15,000 learners visiting the site every day. Transferability – reusability E-Learning Age Award – Best use of social media for learning. Accessibility N/A Impact N/A 27 This good practice has been extracted from UK National Report findings
    • 156 8. TITLE INERCITIES28 Game promoter/creator Product of the European funded project Enercities.eu ( 2 Greek partners). Target group approached Adults Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Online through web browsers. Not downloadable Interactions, actions and activities included Build your own city (selections, drag / drop, results based on your action, sharing with friends, invite friends to get more points to do things on your city). Each action has a reaction i.e. you cannot achieve the total population living in your city. Educational potential (competences and skills) 1. Basic ICT skills, 2. Learn about connection between energy / people, 3. Learn about how the environment is influenced by your choices (green choices are recommended) 4. Civic competencies (you interact with environment, with other people) Number of users – players 1 Transferability – reusability Can be played as part of school experiment / group activity led by a teacher. Accessibility Web based on Facebook or playable via a web browser. Impact The game is about energy sources and the balance between people, planet and profit. URL http://www.enercities.eu/project/ Notes This social game was selected because 2 Greek partners were involved and hence, is partly Greek but also because it allows the user to structure his/her environment as they see fit. This provides information on the environment based on the player’s information and knowledge but also experiences. The game can be shared online. The game environment is user friendly and can be structured and delivered as part of a training activity moderated by a trainer. 28 This good practice has been extracted from Greek National Report findings
    • 157 9. TITLE EVOKE29 Game promoter/creator Publisher: The Council of Europe and the European Commission, Developer: Mr. Alberto Cottica. Target group approached Young people and “new adults”. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Access on Internet (website) Edgeryders is a social game aimed at building a nurturing environment where we get help, inspire one another and make sense of it all. Interactions, actions and activities included Edgeryders is diverse, constructive interaction channel between European young people and our democratic institutions, and designed along the principle of Internet- enabled massive open collaboration. The game is aimed at building a nurturing environment where we get help, inspire one another and make sense of it all. You get Rep when you participate, you play Missions, you share what you do with your friends on facebook and twitter, you talk to other edgeryders and comment their posts. Everything that keeps the community healthy should give Rep. An automatic system cannot understand all the nuances of our behaviour, so the Mentors and Moderators can assign Style points and Badges to people when they do something awesome that cannot be tracked by the system. If you think that an Edgeryder has done something great for the community, tell your friendly neighbour moderator that the person should get some Rep! When a member participates in a mission, s/he gains also reputation points and badges. But there are no prizes: the reputation of the "players“ helps the newcomers to connect with people willing to help them. A game that makes everybody win. Educational potential (competences and skills) The goal is to produce a shared vision of how Europe’s young citizens could claim a stronger influence on our common future – and a larger share of the social responsibility that goes with it. Number of users – players Not avaible. Transferability – reusability Edgeryders is the game that can inspire the institutional decision makers. Accessibility The game is in English language but the Rep can write in their own language. Impact The results of the project will be presented to the European Commission and the Council of Europe’s member states in a conference to take place in May 2012. 29 This good practice has been extracted from UK National Report findings
    • 158 10. TITLE FARMVILLE30 Game promoter/creator Zynga Target group approached Middle-aged women Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Facebook Interactions, actions and activities included Plan, cultivate, harvest, exchange, recruit. Educational potential (competences and skills) Behaviour motivation and modification techniques. Number of users – players 63+ million once, 24.9 million currently. Transferability – reusability N/A Accessibility N/A Impact N/A 30 This good practice has been extracted from US National Report findings
    • 152 11. TITLE FOURSQUARE11 Game promoter/creator Dennis Crowley e Naveen Selvadurai (indipendent ITC developers). Target group approached Travellers and citizens with a high inclination to mobility and socializing, equipped with smart phone. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Application that can be downloaded on the phone, you can access the game checking in from the place where you are. Interactions, actions and activities included When you check in, Foursquare sends the notifications real time to your friends, so that they can find you if they are free and nearby. The competition in the fame is called “The Mayor” that means if you made more check ins than the other members from the same public place you’ll be named “mayor” of that place. Foursquare will send messages of congratulations to all your friends. The challenge is to steal the title of mayor to the other participants to receive personal goals such as badges or virtual trophies. Educational potential (competences and skills) - Stimulates the participants to attend the places where they feel happier - Stimulates the participants to have a very active and dynamic social life - Invites the participants to experiment unknown places and widen their social horizons - Reinforces the social connections Number of users – players In 2012 Foursquare registers 20 million users. Transferability – reusability Foursquare takes as a model a classical ball game that it is usually played on a basket court. The application could implement already existing games, having the peculiar aspect to make people interact on a real and social level, so it has the potential to create aggregation in a short time in different places within the same urban space. Accessibility The game is easy, intuitive, multi-language and accessible to all. The only requirement is to have a smartphone. Impact A T-shirt is popular among the Foursquare players that show a door badge with these words: “Achievement unlocked. Left the house”. The challenge of this game is in fact to lead a significant and balanced life in a non-virtual world. 11 This good practice has been extracted from Italian National Report findings
    • 153 12. TITLE GAME4MANAGER12 Game promoter/creator CITEVE, the Portuguese Technological Centre for the Textile and Clothing Industries. Target group approached Middle and senior business managers. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Website: http://www.game4manager.com/G4M/site/index Interactions, actions and activities included The game simulates a business environment that places several challenges to the player, operating as the business manager. The decision making process is assisted with a tutorial interface that facilitates the learner acquisition of the necessary knowledge and best practices regarding any area of the corporate environment. Educational potential (competences and skills) Across the board, but special significance in business related skills. Number of users – players Several but undefined (can be immersed in Second Life environment). Transferability – reusability High. May be easily applied to cultural and other human interaction issues Accessibility Via browser and website. Impact High (in target group). Notes Game4manager is a collective effort to developing a game to implement an Integrated Management System in a virtual company. The game has a double capacity: - It can contribute to diminish white collar resistance to game playing (the “serious” tag) - It is a powerful tool to increase management related knowledge. It also is a Leonardo da Vinci product, so common ground is very likely and direct communication with project managers can result in valuable input to P4i’s game. 12 This good practice has been extracted from Portuguese National Report findings
    • 154 13. TITLE GAMESTAR MECHANIC13 Game promoter/creator Institute of Play. Target group approached 8-14 year olds. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Gamestarmechanic.com Interactions, actions and activities included Design games, share them, play them, rate them. Educational potential (competences and skills) Designing, making and sharing things Number of users – players 120,000 Transferability – reusability N/A Accessibility N/A Impact N/A 13 This good practice has been extracted from US National Report findings
    • 155 14. TITLE GARDENS OF TIME14 Game promoter/creator Playdom Target group approached Middle-aged women. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Facebook Interactions, actions and activities included Find hidden objects, exchange. Educational potential (competences and skills) Back story, ties scenes together, promotes virality. Number of users – players 5.2 million Transferability – reusability N/A Accessibility N/A Impact N/A 14 Ibid.
    • 156 15. TITLE GLOBAL CONFLICTS – PALESTINE15 Game promoter/creator Serious Games Interactive http://www.seriousgames.dk Target group approached Students in Secondary and Further Education. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) 3D online. Interactions, actions and activities included The series allows students to explore and learn about different conflicts throughout the world and the underlying themes of democracy, human rights, globalization, terrorism, climate and poverty. The player assumes the role of a freelance journalist who has just arrived in Jerusalem facing challenges. Educational potential (competences and skills) Citizenship Geography Media skills Number of users – players Single Player. Transferability – reusability British Education and Training Technology Award Winner 2010 Secondary, Further Education & Skills, Digital Content. Accessibility N/A Impact N/A 15 This good practice has been extracted from UK National Report findings
    • 157 16. TITLE KNOWLEDGE GAME16 Game promoter/creator WOW Group (Greece) for the client Multirama (IT Retail chain). Target group approached Adults (any age). Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Facebook game, general quiz game. Interactions, actions and activities included 5 level game, one needs to collect as many points as possible (general quiz questions) and win competitions and products. The products are donated by companies. The levels get more difficult as you move along the levels. The questions are timed. Educational potential (competences and skills) This „Knowledge Game” (Παιχνίδι Γνώσης) is an engaging trivia game with different levels and a bonus scheme based on credits and in-game boosters. Number of users – players 1 player and invitations for your friends can be done. Transferability – reusability This can be used in a general exam where students/trainees can be asked to answer general questions (from a multiple pool coming random) in diverse areas such as art, ICT, geography, history, management, etc. Accessibility Easy to access through a web browser and a Facebook personal account. Facebook asks for access to your personal information (profile) in order to give you access to the game. Impact This game was rated the most popular Greek Facebook App game during one month in 2011 (month not specified). 16 This good practice has been extracted from Greek National Report findings
    • 158 17. TITLE LEARN TO LEAD (L2L)17 Game promoter/creator Developer(s): Orazio Miglino, Andrea Di Ferdinando, Massimiliano Schembri, Alberto Venditti, Maria Luisa Nigrelli Promoter(s): University Federico II of Naples, Institute of Cognitive and Technologies Sciences (NRC) Funded by: European Agency for Education, Culture and Audiovisual (EAECA) Partner Countries: Italy, France, Spain Target group approached SMEs, small government offices, NGOs. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Online game - Downloadable. Learn2Lead is created to design, implement, and test a novel, online approach to training in team leadership Interactions, actions and activities included In the game, each learner manages a simulated team of employees (e.g. a team of workers in a bank agency, a post-office or a local government office) which competes against other teams to maximize its objectives (e.g. profit, volume of services delivered, customer satisfaction). An underlying computer model shows the (sometimes unexpected) effects of player’s decisions (e.g. recruitment, training, incentives and disciplinary measures, organizational measures) on the dynamics and efficiency of the team. The system allows the user to experiment with different approaches before competing with other players. Play is asynchronous (players will not be required to be online at the same time). A script- based design facilitates adaptation for use in different professional settings. The game is suitable for use, both for self-learning and for learning in a blended learning environment with the support of a tutor. Educational potential (competences and skills) - Competition and cooperation; - leadership skills and team working; - effectiveness and efficiency; - competencies in “people management”, resource management and organization. Number of users – players 10 users for each country. Transferability – reusability Two training companies belonging to the partnership use the game to offer tutor-supported training to their commercial customers. In parallel with this effort, the partnership provides free access to the standalone (non- tutored) version of the game, through servers maintained by one of the partners. These servers is been maintained in operation for at least 1 year. Accessibility The game is playable for free and in 4 different languages: Italian, French, Spanish and English. The graphic environment is nice and the following instructions are very easy. Impact L2L has concluded last December with Large-scale use of the system will be encouraged using online and traditional media. 17 This good practice has been extracted from Italian National Report findings
    • 159 18. TITLE MY VILLAGE18 Game promoter/creator Jacques Delors European Information Centre. Target group approached European citizens. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Facebook interactive game Further information: http://www.eurocid.pt/pls/wsd/docs/F6598/myvillage.pdf Interactions, actions and activities included Manage a small village, by playing the role of a Mayor having to handle a series of financial and economic events and difficulties. The decision making process involves reflecting in a number of relatable issues: how can I save money? How can I have funding for innovative ideas? How can I save natural resources? Why crisis happen? Educational potential (competences and skills) Promote increased awareness around economic recovery and social cohesion. Number of users – players 1 Transferability – reusability High Accessibility Project closed since middle 2011, albeit all information is available in the EUROCID page. Impact Low, but several teacher guides were developed to assist in pedagogical exploration of the game, as it allows the discussion of national curricula subjects in an approachable manner. 18 This good practice has been extracted from Portuguese National Report findings
    • 160 19. TITLE MUSIC HERO – APRENDE TU RETO19 Game promoter/creator Junta de Andalucia (more information about the game initiative, in Spanish: http://www.andaluciaemprende.es/es/2006-06-28- 20.22.28.188/2010-01-19-10.31.31.839/2011-02-24-10.00.33.776) Target group approached Teenagers, up to 15 years old. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Facebook platform, information about the game: http://www.music-hero.com/index.php Interactions, actions and activities included Strategic simulation: creation of the music group and online competition, where the players have to manage the group, increase a number of fans, as well as manage their time and money. 5 activities to be concluded in the centre of group session. Educational potential (competences and skills) The game aims at fostering entrepreneurial skills, cooperation and competitiveness above all. Specific objectives are: to know and identify the skills of an entrepreneur, Improve own skills through similar, develop auto- reflection and self-knowledge, encourage the development of own projects. Number of users – players Unlimited, simultaneous/multiple playing 2 modalities are available: 1. A game available for 2 months, with a capacity to accommodate 10.000 players simultaneously. It allows playing between 10 and 20 minutes for two months. 2. Fast (express) game, with a capacity up to 50 players, allows performing up to four different games simultaneously. The playing time is of 90 minutes and can be integrated in a workshop of 3 hours. Participants play in pairs and the game is complemented by introduction and assessment activities that allow linking the game with education value regarding the entrepreneurial skills. Transferability – reusability The game can be implemented in non-formal education centres with groups between 10-15 years old range. The concept of the game can be easily transferred to other target groups and be applicable to other training topics Accessibility The game is accessible through the website: http://www.music- hero.com. http://www.music-hero.com/index.php/guia- educativa/aplicacion.html Impact Since 2007 till March 2011, 5.135 players have tested in the game. 19 This good practice has been extracted from Spanish National Report findings
    • 161 20. TITLE NEW IN TOWN (SOCIAL GAME – LIFE SIMULATION)20 Game promoter/creator Digital Chocolate. Target group approached Youth, not defined. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Digital chocolate browser: http://games.digitalchocolate.com/canvas/new-in- town?src=dcw_web_portalhome Interactions, actions and activities included Casting players in the role of a recent college graduate out to make it big in the city, the game tasks players with the management of several precious resources essential to survival even in the real world — time, money and happiness. After customizing their avatar’s appearance, gender and name, the player is introduced to a number of fellow graduates who will later become the source of the game’s quests. Through some initial tasks, the player is shown how to get a job, how to perform the job to earn money, how to get food and how to buy new clothes. Following these introductory missions, future quests are presented as “challenges” against the other characters to see who can complete them first, with greater rewards on offer for quick completion. These quests must be juggled around the player’s other needs, however, lending an unusually deep degree of time management to the game. Educational potential (competences and skills) Key competences, Time management. Number of users – players N/A Transferability – reusability The concept of the game can be easily transferred to other target groups and be applicable to other training topics. Accessibility The game is available on Digital Chocolate platform that allows to play and interact with “strangers”. Impact A solid suite of social features, a wide range of premium vanity items and the ability to use premium currency to eliminate “grinding” to a certain degree mean that the game has the potential to be both popular and profitable in the long run. Its original gameplay and high degree of technical polish may attract a wider demographic of players than many similar titles, and Digital Chocolate has plenty of plans in place for the future of the game, including ways for players to directly interact with one another’s avatars rather than simply visiting their apartments. 20 Ibid.
    • 162 21. TITLE PEACEMAKER21 Game promoter/creator Developer: ImpactGames Designers: Tim Sweeney, Eric Brown, Asi Burak Target group approached Israeli and Palestinian people (youth and adults). Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) PeaceMaker is sold for 20 dollars (Download + Package on Amazon) for all operative system. The game is a government simulation game that incorporates elements of turn-based strategy in 3D. Interactions, actions and activities included The player choose to be either the Prime Minister of Israel or the President of the Palestinian National Authority, and must resolve the conflict peacefully. The game interface includes a map, showing the Gaza Strip, the Galilee, the West Bank and the north of the Negev. After each turn, the events of the week are pointed on the map. By clicking on it, the player views a news report, with real-world pictures and footage, of a demonstration or a bomb attack. Each week, the player makes a decision regarding security, construction or politics. The player performs one actions at each turn, such as giving his people a political speech. A key- point of the game is that the actions of the players do not always have the expected outcome. The player actions provoke immediate reactions, such as public protest or political critics. They also influence several long-term variables, classified into two categories. The first is the approval of the policy of the player by different groups and leaders. The second covers economic, social or political indicators. Their values are displayed on the screen as thermometers. Each leader must take into account the approval of his counterpart, of both people, of the United Nations, the United States and the Arab world. The Palestinian President also has to deal with the Fatah and Hamas; and the Israeli Prime Minister with the Yesha Council and all the Palestinian militant organizations. The player has access to polls, which represent the different indicators. Each leader is informed of his leadership and the quality of his relations with the other party. On the Palestinian side, the polls cover the authority of the President, the opinion of the man of the street towards Israel, economic health and national independence. On the Israeli side, they reflect the insecurity, the suppression, and the Israeli compassion towards the Palestinians. Educational potential (competences and skills) - Promoting peace among real conflicts; - promoting non-violence communication; - keeping in touch with many point of views and getting inside a decision making process; - better understanding of the Israeli - Palestinian conflict. Number of users – players Almost 150.000 users. 21 This good practice has been extracted from Italian National Report findings
    • 163 Transferability – reusability The outcomes from decision making process can give a support to the political establishment. The real governments may be inspired by the players. Accessibility The game is playable in English, Hebrew and Arab, to strengthen the multiple point-of-views. PeaceMaker is sold for 20 dollars. Impact PeaceMaker has become a flagship of the serious game, and a major step for the acknowledgement of the genre. In 2006, it took the award in a competition organized by the University of Southern California, entitled “Reinventing public diplomacy through games”. It won the Best Transformation Game award in 2007. This prize rewards the best game which engages players on a deep and meaningful level around an important social issue, whose aims and outcomes are no less than to foster a powerful intellectual or behavioural transformation in it users. It is awarded by the association Games for Change, whose mission is to promote games that engage contemporary social issues in meaningful ways to foster a more just, equitable and tolerant society. Suzanne Seggerman, co- founder of the association, stated in 2009 that just like Darfur is Dying, Food Force and Ayiti: The Cost of Life, PeaceMaker was just such a game, having had an impact.
    • 164 22. TITLE PORTUGAL 1111: THE CONQUEST OF SOURE22 Game promoter/creator Licínio Roque, Filipe Penicheiro and Ramos de Carvalho. Target group approached Children Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Retail. Age of Empires like game. Interactions, actions and activities included Turn-based game on the Reconquista of Moorish lands by Christians in XII century Portugal. Educational potential (competences and skills) History. Number of users – players Multiplayer. Transferability – reusability Narrow possibilities to teach intercultural competences but very effective. Accessibility Retail. Impact Very high. 22 This good practice has been extracted from Portuguese National Report findings
    • 165 23. TITLE RE:MISSION23 Game promoter/creator HopeLabs, Inc. Target group approached Young cancer patients. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Re-mission.net Windows Interactions, actions and activities included Fight cancer through game character inside body. Educational potential (competences and skills) Self-efficiency, healthy competition. Number of users – players 126,000+ Transferability – reusability N/A Accessibility N/A Impact N/A 23 This good practice has been extracted from US National Report findings
    • 166 24. TITLE SIM COMPANY24 Game promoter/creator Pedro Campos Ana Campos (WOW Systems). Target group approached 9-14 children Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) SIMS franchise like. Interactions, actions and activities included The player assumes the role of a businessman in day-to-day work, having to take decisions related to business management and operation. Educational potential (competences and skills) Very high potential in conveying complex competences in areas such as entrepreneurship and decision making. Number of users – players Several but undefined. Transferability – reusability High. Can clearly be used to teach intercultural competences. Some doubts on transferability to adults. Accessibility Unknown. Impact High in target group. 24 This good practice has been extracted from Portuguese National Report findings
    • 167 25. TITLE SQA GAMESSPACE25 Game promoter/creator Learn TPM Ltd. Target group approached Vocational students post 14. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) 3D Online. Interactions, actions and activities included This assessment allows candidates to enter a simulated workplace environment and perform simulated tasks to demonstrate key competencies required. Educational potential (competences and skills) Assessment of vocational skills including: Risk assessment in a health sector environment Customer Interaction in a retail environment Inclusion awareness in uniformed services personnel. Number of users – players Single Player. Transferability – reusability British Education and Training Technology Awards Winner 2011 – ICT Education Partnership. Accessibility Learn TPM Ltd. Impact Vocational students post 14. 25 This good practice has been extracted from UK National Report findings
    • 168 26. TITLE SUPER BETTER26 Game promoter/creator Super Better. Target group approached Adults. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Superbetter.com Interactions, actions and activities included Set goals, enlist friends, take challenges. Educational potential (competences and skills) Goal-setting, networking, behaviour change. Number of users – players 6,000 Transferability – reusability N/A Accessibility N/A Impact N/A 26 This good practice has been extracted from US National Report findings
    • 169 27. TITLE TEACHERS - CREATOR OF EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE27 Game promoter/creator Romanian Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports, in partnership with SIVECO Romania. Target group approached Romanian Teachers. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) http://profesorulcreator.siveco.ro/web/guest/home;jsessionid= 7343AEA93A79E16ACADDB852BC3CD668 Interactions, actions and activities included Teachers were instructed to create their own digital content for innovating in the educational process; In the frame of project a national competition for educational software was organized. Educational potential (competences and skills) They have improved their skills on the development of educational software applications and ability to use interactive teaching and learning. Number of users – players 1,700 Romanian teachers trained and each of them made his own educational software 18 games selected for national competition, 6 winners. Transferability – reusability Continuously and for all content type. Accessibility http://profesorulcreator.siveco.ro/web/guest/castigatori Impact At national level covering all 41 Romanian counties, 1700 teachers received professional certificates bearing transferable credits. The project results are well received in educational communities of the participants, such as external teachers or training centres. 27 This good practice has been extracted from Romanian National Report findings
    • 170 28. TITLE THE SIMS SOCIAL28 Game promoter/creator Developer: Playfish Publisher: EA Games Target group approached Facebook community and smartphone generation. Access (where) and what type of game (3D, etc.) Access on Facebook platform or smartphone. Browser game. Interactions, actions and activities included The Sims Social lets the user create their own customizable character. However, the player uses their character to interact with those of their Facebook friends. The characters can develop likes or dislikes for other Sims, creating relationships that can be publicized on the user's Facebook page. The Sims Social uses the socializing features of Facebook to allow players to send and receive gifts in order to finish certain quests or objects. When the player cannot obtain objects from friends, the only other option is to skip the task using SimCash. Furthermore, certain items, such as double beds and couches, will have a hammer icon in the right corner, denoting that some assembly is required. To assemble these items, a player will need certain items that usually can only be obtained by sending requests to friends. Players can pursue three different relationships with their neighbours. They can become friends, rivals, or enter into a romance. There are various relationship levels to be unlocked. Each relationship path gives the player different social interactions, as well as different tasks that can be performed at friend's homes. Once the player reaches a new relationship level. Certain relationship levels require the other party to first approve the relationship status before they are reflected in the game. Players can use items found by performing tasks to craft special potions and complete collections. Players can craft numerous potions that can provide benefits to Sims. There are currently five skills: art, cooking, music, writing, athletic, and various project skill items which are tied with specific themed collections. Developing higher level skill levels allow Sims to obtain new objects. Sims develops skills when the player interacts with an art object, a music object, a cooking object or a writing object. At times, skills are a part of quests given to the player for their Sim to achieve. Sims can aspire to three different career paths: Rocker, Chef, and Artist. Each career consists of 5 levels each with three sub- levels. To advance in their given career players are required to submit appointments for various jobs. After the given appointment time the player can send their Sim to work and earn Simoleons and Career Points. Career Points help further careers leading to promotions. After each promotion players receive a special object only acquirable through a career. 28 This good practice has been extracted from Italian National Report findings
    • 171 Upon completion of an entire career track, players can select a new career track at the cost of forgoing all past career history. There are currently nine traits for Sims in The Sims Social and only can be purchased with Lifetime Points. All traits except the insane one feature 5 levels; each needing to be bought at a higher price of Lifetime Points than the last one. The traits are slob, steel bladder, neat, super mechanic, insane, ogre, ninja, great kisser, and night owl. When the player upgrades the level of a trait, the trait becomes more prominent in the Sim's lifestyle. In The Sims Social Sims have needs. There are six needs: social, fun, hunger, hygiene, bladder, and sleep. When all of the needs are fulfilled, the player's Sim will become inspired. The Sims Social has four currencies: Simoleons, SimCash, Social Points, and Lifetime Points. These currencies are used to purchase items in the game. Simoleons are the most basic currency and can be most readily earned by performing almost any non-autonomous task. SimCash can most readily be obtained by purchasing them with real-world currencies; however, a recent update to the game permits users to earn up to 10 SimCash as a reward for playing the game on 5 consecutive days. SimCash allows the player to purchase special and limited edition objects. When the player begins the game, they will receive 20 free SimCash.[8] Social Points are obtained by performing social interactions with other Sims. These can be used to purchase objects that are not available using Simoleons. You can exchange the Social Points for Simoleons by buying a Social Point item and selling them. Educational potential (competences and skills) - Interaction with your Facebook friend through social and individual skills; - good competition; - connecting people in virtual environment; - learning job competences; - respecting the citizens. Number of users – players Since its release to the public, the game has accumulated over 30 million players (over 16 million added in the first week). On September 2011, The Sims Social surpassed FarmVille to become the second-most popular Facebook game. Transferability – reusability The Sims Social is a Facebook addition to the Sims series of videogames. Accessibility The game is playable for free and in English language. The graphic environment is nice and the following instructions are very easy. Impact After The Sims Social has been launched, Playfish had given The Sims Social Stadium for EA Sports FIFA Superstars. The promotion had started at mid-September 2011 that player need to reach level 10 in The Sims Social to claim them, before it is removed. The promotional stadium has been added on September 23, 201. On February 9th, 2012 The Sims Social won the Social Networking Game of the Year award at the 15th Annual Interactive Achievement Awards. On February 15th, 2012 The Sims Social was nominated for best online browser game by the British Academy Video Game Awards - a subsidiary of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.
    • This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. P4I - PLAYING FOR INTERCULTURALITY. Ref. 518475-LLP-1-2011-1-ES- GRUNDTVIG-GMP Coordinator: Inveslan Spain Web: www.inveslan.com Partner 6: INCSMPS Romania Web: www.incsmps.ro Partner 2: EIMD Spain Web: www.iegd.org Partner 3: SQLearn Greece Web: www.sqlearn.eu Partner 4: CNIPA Italy Web: www.cnipapuglia.it Partner 5: SPI Portugal Web: www.spi.pt Partner 7: Learnit3D United Kingdom Web: www.learnit3d.com Third Country partner Twin Learning LLC USA Web: www.linkedin.com/in/michaelpcarterphd www.p4i-project.eu p4i@inveslan.com