Web 2.0 is commonly associated with web applications that facilitate interactive information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design,and collaboration on the World Wide Web.
RIA: Rich Internet applications are Web applications that have the features and functionality of traditional desktop applications.
RIAs typically transfer the processing necessary for the user interface to the Web client but keep the bulk of the data back on the application server.
Features of RIA
run in a Web browser, or do not require software installation
run locally in a secure environment called a sandbox
can be "occasionally connected" wandering in and out of hot-spots or from office to office."
The takeaway is that RIA is defined as a mix of three things:
1. desktop-like UI online,
2. offline apps that look like online apps, and
3. online applications that can go offline.
USES OF RIA
Rich internet applications use a distributed-function model rather than the simple thin-client server model.
Flash, Ajax and Java with the web protocols have been able to enrich user experiences.
Since 80% of the time is spent to download all the components of the page, simplifying a page's design is also a way to reduce response time.
Another way to tackle this is to reduce HTTP requests by combining all HTTP requests and CSS style sheets.
XHTML (or HTML) is used for marking up content and displaying text and images in a web browser (such as Firefox, Opera, or Internet Explorer). XML, preformatted HTML, plain text, JSON and even EBML can also work with AJAX
CSS and styling information. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets and is used to "style" a webpage. CSS can be code on a page, or an external file that contains instructions (code) that tells a browser how to display HTML. CSS can be used to set colors borders, text properties such as font, text size, text color, styling and much mor
The XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data asynchronously with the web server. In some Ajax frameworks and in some situations, an IFrame object is used instead of the XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data with the web server.
Ajax is not a technology in itself, but a term that refers to the use of a group of technologies together.
Ajax applications, can send requests to the web server to retrieve only the data that is needed, and may use SOAP or some other XML-based web services dialect.
The result is a more responsive application, since the amount of data interchanged between the web browser and web server is vastly reduced.
Web server processing time is also saved, since much of it is done on the client.
Web services are typically application programming interfaces (API) or web APIs that can be accessed over a network, such as the Internet, and executed on a remote system hosting the requested services.
In common usage the term refers to clients and servers that communicate over the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) protocol used on the web.
Such services tend to fall into one of two camps: Big Web Services and RESTful Web Services.
ARCHITECTURE OF WEBSERVICES
Additional specifications, WS
Some specifications have been developed or are currently being developed to extend web services capabilities. These specifications are generally referred to as WS-*. Here is a non-exhaustive list of these WS-* specifications.
Defines how to use XML Encryption and XML Signature in SOAP to secure message exchanges, as an alternative or extension to using HTTPS to secure the channel.
An OASIS standard protocol for reliable messaging between two web services.
A way of handling transactions.
Is a standard way to insert address in the SOAP header.
USES OF WEBSERVICES
Web services are a set of tools that can be used in a number of ways. The three most common styles of use are RPC, SOA and REST.
Remote procedure calls
Architectural elements involved in the XML-RPC.
service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a flexible set of design principles used during the phases of systems development and integration.
A paradigm for organizing and utilizing distributed capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains.
SOA provides a uniform means to offer, discover, interact with and use capabilities to produce desired effects consistent with measurable preconditions and expectations.
chitectures can operate independently of specific technologies. Designers can implement SOA using a wide range of technologies, including:
* SOAP, RPC
* Web Services
* WCF (Microsoft's implementation of Webservice forms a part of WCF)
web development, a mashup is a web page or application that uses or combines data or functionality from two or many more external sources to create a new service.
Types of mashups
* Data mashups combine similar types of media and information from multiple sources into a single representation. The combination of all these resources create a new and distinct web service that was not originally provided by either source.
Consumer mashups, opposite to the data mashup, combines different data types. Generally visual elements and data from multiple sources. (eg.: Wikipediavision combines Google Map and a Wikipedia API)
Business mashups generally define applications that combine their own resources, application and data, with other external web services. They focus data into a single presentation and allow for collaborative action among businesses and developers.
What is RSS
RSS (Rich Site Summary) is a format for delivering regularly changing web content. Many news-related sites, weblogs and other online publishers syndicate their content as an RSS Feed to whoever wants it.
USES OF RSS
RSS solves a problem for people who regularly use the web. It allows you to easily stay informed by retrieving the latest content from the sites you are interested in.
USERS save time by not needing to visit each site individually. You ensure your privacy, by not needing to join each site's email newsletter.
A wiki ( /ˈwɪki/ WIK-ee) is a website that allows the easy creation and editing of any number of interlinked web pages via a web browser using a simplified markup language or a WYSIWYG text editor.
Wikis are typically powered by wiki software and are often used to create collaborative websites, to power community websites, for personal note taking, in corporate intranets, and in knowledge management systems.
A wiki invites all users to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a plain-vanilla Web browser without any extra add-ons.
Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation almost intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a carefully crafted site for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape.
USES OF WIKI
There are many different ways in which wikis have users edit the content.
Ordinarily, the structure and formatting of wiki pages are specified with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as "wikitext".
For example, starting a line of text with an asterisk ("*") is often used to enter it in a bulleted list.
The style and syntax of wikitexts can vary greatly among wiki implementations, some of which also allow HTML tags.
Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform that is popular for adding animation and interactivity to web pages.
Flash is commonly used to create animation, advertisements, and various web page Flash components, to integrate video into web pages, and more recently, to develop rich Internet applications.
Flash can manipulate vector and raster graphics, and supports bidirectional streaming of audio and video. It contains a scripting language called ActionScript.
Several software products, systems, and devices are able to create or display Flash content, including Adobe Flash Player, which is available free for most common web browsers, some mobile phones and for other electronic devices (using Flash Lite).
USAGE OF FLASH
Compared to other plug-ins such as Java, Acrobat Reader, QuickTime, or Windows Media Player, the Flash Player has a small install size, quick download time, and fast initialization time. However, care must be taken to detect and embed the Flash Player in (X)HTML in a W3C-compliant way. A simple, widely-used workaround is provided below:
A blog (a contraction of the term "web log") is a type of website, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video.
Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. "Blog" can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.
Blog" is an abbreviated version of "weblog," which is a term used to describe web sites that maintain an ongoing chronicle of information.
A blog is a frequently updated, personal website featuring diary-type commentary and links to articles on other Web sites. Blogs range from the personal to the political, and can focus on one narrow subject or a whole range of subjects.
Uses of blogging
the first edited collection of scholarly articles on blogging by experts and practitioners in a wide range of fields.
Uses of Blogs offers a broad spectrum of perspectives on current and emerging uses of blogs.
While blogging is rapidly developing into a mainstream activity for Internet users, the actual application of blogs in specific contexts has so far been under-explored.
Because there are a variety of styles of blogging - from de facto news sites to marketing blogs,
A podcast is a series of digital media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically and often downloaded through web syndication.
The mode of delivery differentiates podcasting from other means of accessing media files over the Internet, such as direct download, or streamed webcasting.
logo used by Apple to represent Podcasting
SOAP, originally defined as Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks.
It relies on eXtensible Markup Language (XML) as its message format, and usually relies on other Application Layer protocols (most notably Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and HTTP) for message negotiation and transmission.
SOAP can form the foundation layer of a web services protocol stack,
he SOAP processing model defining the rules for processing a SOAP message
The SOAP extensibility model defining the concepts of SOAP features and SOAP modules
The SOAP underlying protocol binding framework describing the rules for defining a binding to an underlying protocol that can be used for exchanging SOAP messages between SOAP nodes
The SOAP message construct defining the structure of a SOAP message
The Social Web is currently used to describe how people socialize or interact with each other throughout the World Wide Web.
Such people are brought together through a variety of shared interests.
There are different ways in which people want to socialize on the Web today.
The first kind of socializing is typified by "people focus" websites such as Bebo, Facebook, and Myspace. Such sites promote the person as focus of social interaction. To do this an online identity (and a profile) is constructed by each user. In many ways the profile is similar to a passport.
You may have recently heard the term "tagging" in the context of organizing digital photos.
Tagging has been around for a few years. On the Web it is being used to categorize Web pages through social bookmarking sites such as del.icio.us, Technorati, and others.
Adobe's Photoshop Album digital photo organizer software brought the tagging concept to the mainstream for digital photography, and the popular online photo sharing service Flickr also helped to spur the trend.
A web feed (or news feed) is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content.
Content distributors syndicate a web feed, thereby allowing users to subscribe to it.
Making a collection of web feeds accessible in one spot is known as aggregation, which is performed by an aggregator.
A web feed is also sometimes referred to as a syndicated feed.
Users do not disclose their email address when subscribing to a feed and so are not increasing their exposure to threats associated with email: spam, viruses, phishing, and identity theft.
Users do not have to send an unsubscribe request to stop receiving news. They simply remove the feed from their aggregator.
The feed items are automatically sorted in that each feed URL has its own sets of entries (unlike an email box where messages must be sorted by user-defined rules and pattern matching).