Introduction & Manual Testing

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Introduction & Manual Testing

  1. 1. Introduction & Manual Testing <ul><li>Software Development Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Software Life Cycle Models </li></ul><ul><li>Water Fall Model </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype Model </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Application Model </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral or Iterative Model </li></ul><ul><li>Component Assembly Model </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Testing Fundamentals </li></ul><ul><li>Testing Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Testing Information Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Test Case Design </li></ul><ul><li>White Box Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Basis Path Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Flow Graph Notation </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclomatic Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Deriving Test Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Metrics </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Control Structure Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Dataflow Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Loop Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Black Box Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalence Partitioning </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary Value Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Comparision Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Verification and Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Different Kinds of tests to be considered </li></ul><ul><li>SEI, CMM, ISO, IEEE, ANSI </li></ul>
  4. 4. SDLC Model (or) Linear Sequential Model (or) Classic Life Cycle Model <ul><li>System/Information Engineering and Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Software Requirements Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>System Analysis and Design </li></ul><ul><li>Code Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quality. Quality Assurance, And Quality Control Quality is meeting the requirements expected of the software, consistently and predictably. <ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrates on the process of producing the products. </li></ul><ul><li>Defect-prevention oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually done throughout the life cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>This is usually a staff function. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : Reviews and Audits </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrates on specific products. </li></ul><ul><li>Defect-detection and correction oriented. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually done after the product is built. </li></ul><ul><li>This is usually a line function. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : Software testing at various levels. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Testing, Verification, And Validation <ul><li>Testing is the phase that follows coding and precedes deployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Verification is the process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of a given phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Validation is the process of evaluating a system or component during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfies specified requirements. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Quality Assurance = Verification Quality Control = Validation = Testing
  8. 8. Waterfall Model <ul><li>A Waterfall Model is Characterized by three attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>The project is divided into separate distinct phases. </li></ul><ul><li>Each phase communicates to the next through pre-specified outputs. </li></ul><ul><li>When an error is detected, it is traced back to one previous phase at a time, until it gets resolved at some earlier phase. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Overall business requirements. Software requirements. Planning. High-level design. Low-level design. Coding. Testing.
  10. 10. Prototyping Model <ul><li>A Prototyping model uses constant user interaction, early in the requirements gathering stage, to produce a prototype. </li></ul><ul><li>The proto-type is used to derive the system requirements specification and can be discarded after the SRS is built. </li></ul><ul><li>An appropriate life cycle model is chosen for building the actual product after the user accepts the SRS. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rapid Application Model <ul><li>The RAD is a linear sequential software development process that emphasizes an extremely short development cycle. It includes the following phases. </li></ul><ul><li>Business Modeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Data Modeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Process Modeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Application Generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and Turnover. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Spiral or Iterative Model <ul><li>Most life cycle models can be derived as special cases of this model. The Spiral uses a risk management approach to software development. Some advantages of this model are: </li></ul><ul><li>Defers elaboration of low risk software elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates prototyping as a risk reduction strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives a early focus to reusable software. </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodates life-cycle evolution, growth, and requirement changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates software quality objectives into the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on early error detection and design flaws. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses identical approaches for development and maintenance. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Component Assembly Model <ul><li>Object technologies provide the technical framework for a component-based process model for software engineering. </li></ul><ul><li>The object oriented paradigm emphasizes the creation of classes that encapsulate both data and the algorithm that are used to manipulate data. </li></ul><ul><li>If properly designed and implemented, object oriented classes are reusable across different applications and computer based system architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Component Assembly Model leads to software reusability. </li></ul><ul><li>The integration/assembly of already existing software components accelerate the development process. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Testing Fundamentals <ul><li>Testing Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors. </li></ul><ul><li>A good test is one that has a high probability of finding an as yet undiscovered error. </li></ul><ul><li>A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Test Information Flow Testing Reliability model Evaluation Debug Software Configuration Test Configuration Corrections Predicted Reliability Error Rate Data Expected results Test Results Errors
  16. 16. Test Case Design <ul><li>Can be difficult at the initial stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Can test if a component conforms to specification – Black Box testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Can test if a component conforms to design – White Box Testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing can not prove correctness as not all execution paths can be tested. </li></ul>
  17. 17. White Box Testing <ul><li>Testing control structures of a procedural design. Can derive test cases to ensure: </li></ul><ul><li>All independent paths are exercised at least once. </li></ul><ul><li>All logical decisions are exercised for both true and false paths. </li></ul><ul><li>All loops are executed at their boundaries and within operational bounds. </li></ul><ul><li>All internal data structures are exercised to ensure validity. </li></ul>

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