Teaching Pathology to Medical Students in 21 st Century Vinod B. Shidham , MD, FRCPath, FIAC Professor Co-editor-in-chief & Executive editor, CytoJournal ( www.cytojournal.com ) Dept of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin Milwaukee, WI [email_address]
Outline Philosophy Goal My previous experience Traditional course Future
Philosophy Pathology a traditionally descriptive discipline Covering morphological aspects of disease in organs, tissues and cells. Diagnostic skills are crucial for diagnostic anatomic pathologist Not a major concern for medical students. However, pathology is basic core of modern medicine. It is conduit between basic biological science and clinical medicine. Modern pathology curriculum should address this basic philosophy. To understand and develop critical thinking for life long learning.
Understanding causes and mechanisms of disease. Application of current diagnostic pathology tools in clinical setting- Including conventional tests such as- surgical pathology, cytopathology, chemical pathology, microbiology, cytogentics etc. Application of future evolving modalities such as molecular techniques. Appropriate utilization of tests in management algorithm Understanding limitations and strengths of pathology tests/approaches Goal of Pathology teaching in 21 st century
Past- Organized and participated in conventional pathology course since 1977 (with teachers award by the Students Association of GMC in 1979)- Lectures, tutorials, demonstrations, small group teaching with specimens, autopsy, pathology quiz, Case base learning facilitator. Introduced FNAB performance - on cattle liver stuffed in latex glove with video demonstration to all M2 students before practicing individually in small groups . Future- a. Web based lectures followed by Quiz b. Online interactive sessions with virtual microscopy (a & b ?Mandatory qualifier)- with IT based tracking of data. Small group teaching, tutorials, and pathology quiz Case base learning and on hand demos of some pathology procedures E. g.- Practicing FNAB procedure using FNAB phantom (Published as video article http://www.jove.com/index/Details.stp?ID=1404 ) . Previous experience
Additional past academic leadership experiences applicable to future projects in teaching pathology to medical students
Shidham VB and Atkinson BF . Cytopathologic Diagnosis of Serous Fluids Elsevier (W. B. Saunders Company) First edition, 2007.
Integration of other resources on web Many other resources on web Maturen K , Interactive Computer Teaching Module for Radiologic-Pathologic Correlations in Breast Imaging. MedEdPORTAL; 2006. Available from: http://services.aamc.org/30/mededportal/servlet/s/segment/mededportal/?subid=257 Title: Interactive Computer Teaching Module for Radiologic-Pathologic Correlations in Breast Imaging MedEdPORTAL ID#: 257 Version: 1 Resource Type: Tutorial Description: This is a web-based tutorial designed for senior level medical students, radiology or surgery residents or fellows. It begins with an introduction to the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) nomenclature and categories for description in breast imaging. This introduction is followed by 12 ----- firstname.lastname@example.org http://services.aamc.org/30/mededportal/servlet/segment/mededportal/information/
Pathology is critical conduit between basic and the clinical sciences. Without such understanding clinical medicine would be nothing more than memorized clinical syndromes treated empirically. The primary goal of the pathology course should be- To initiate clear understanding of the etiology (cause), pathogenesis (development), pathological anatomy, and pathophysiology of disease.
<ul><li>Electives in anatomic pathology and clinical pathology - </li></ul><ul><li>for M4 students considering careers in </li></ul><ul><li>- pathology </li></ul><ul><li>- surgical and general medical specialties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The elective may encompass- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- anatomic pathology (autopsy pathology, surgical pathology, forensic pathology, and cytopathology) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- clinical pathology (hematopathology/coagulation, microbiology, chemistry, immunopathology, and transfusion medicine/blood banking). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-May participate in basic or clinical research with individual faculty members. </li></ul></ul>Current predominant trend General pathology & systems-based pathology (M1 & M2 or M2) with didactic lectures and laboratories
Basic goals may include - integration of the basic and clinical science - preparation of the students for the step 1 examination of the USMLE, - preparation of the students for the transition to the clinical years. The cases with common chief complaint are presented to construct appropriate differential diagnosis with information about the physical and laboratory findings. The students are quizzed to correlate pathophysiology and relevant basic science to reach the diagnosis and formulate a treatment plan. Integrated Case Section / Case base learning- Individual instructors/facilitators (pathology faculty, residents, fellows) meet prior to session with the presenter of lecture on same topic preceding the laboratory to review the content for continuity between lecture and laboratory.
<ul><ul><li>Integration of current technological advances including powerful computers, web based technologies, and many software is highly promising. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend is to enhance these approaches further by informal, interactive sessions in which gross specimens, kodachromes, virtual microscopic images, and case discussions. </li></ul></ul>
Utilization of computer-based learning. Enhance small group learning experiences- through the creative computer applications to demonstrate- gross, microscopic, and molecular material Significance of case-oriented learning. De-emphasize large group lecturing Involve allied health professional as needed. Long term progress with excellent faculty building by- Rewarding the faculty demonstrating teaching excellence and a Fostering faculty development as medical educators. Future possibilities
PowerPoint with voice Capture and share PowerPoint on web. For lectures and tutorials at individual pace.
May use existing resources on web such as on slideshare http://www.slideshare.net/msincome/adding-audio-to-slideshare Synchronize by following instructions for ‘ adding audio to slideshare presentation ’ at
Preferably produced and hosted on dedicated server with appropriate password protected components and encryption to conduct pre- and post tutorial quizzes , to monitor and document progress matrices , real time updating , and more------
Password monitored, web based , didactic lectures with interactive , audiovisual component Benefits- Consistency Convenience Accountability Documentability Flexibility Online quiz (USMLE style) after completing individual didactic lecture (any time within a stipulated period) Students have to demonstrate completion of all lectures with predetermined minimum score on Quiz on related topic Encouraging the students to opt for elective in pathology during M3 / M4- -To understand diagnostic pathology -Conduct basic science/clinical research in pathology -Learn educational contribution of autopsy. -Introduce to national pathology associations/societies Case base learning (CBL) topic(s) (related to the didactic lectures) on web . CBL session for a small group (6 to 8) with human component as facilitator- pathologists (faculty & volunteers), residents fellows) - -To monitor the discussion among students, -To explain related virtual slides (also available on web), -To reply any related questions by the students.
Thank you Milwaukee Art Museum [email_address] The end