Energy megalokonomos makrisPresentation Transcript
In physics , energy (from Greek ἐνέργεια - energeia , "activity, operation", from ἐνεργός - energos , "active, working") is a quantity that is often understood as the ability a physical system has to produce changes on another physical system . Μεγαλοκονόμος Χαράλαμπος Μακρής Βασίλειος
Non Renewable Resources
Sufficient, reliable sources of energy are a necessity for industrialized nations. Energy is used for heating, cooking, transportation and manufacturing. Energy can be generally classified as non-renewable and renewable. Over 85% of the energy used in the world is from non-renewable supplies. Most developed nations are dependent on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels (coal and oil) and nuclear power. These sources are called non-renewable because they cannot be renewed or regenerated quickly enough to keep pace with their use. Some sources of energy are renewable or potentially renewable. Examples of renewable energy sources are: solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and wind. Renewable energy sources are more commonly by used in developing nations
Coal Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the world with an estimated reserve of one trillion metric tons. Most of the world's coal reserves exist in Eastern Europe and Asia, but the United States also has considerable reserves. Coal formed slowly over millions of years from the buried remains of ancient swamp plants. During the formation of coal, carbonaceous matter was first compressed into a spongy material called "peat," which is about 90% water. As the peat became more deeply buried, the increased pressure and temperature turned it into coal.
Oil Crude oil or liquid petroleum, is a fossil fuel that is refined into many different energy products (e.g., gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, heating oil). Oil forms underground in rock such as shale , which is rich in organic materials. After the oil forms, it migrates upward into porous reservoir rock such as sandstone or limestone, where it can become trapped by an overlying impermeable cap rock. Wells are drilled into these oil reservoirs to remove the gas and oil. Over 70 percent of oil fields are found near tectonic plate boundaries, because the conditions there are conducive to oil formation.
Natural Gas Natural gas production is often a by-product of oil recovery, as the two commonly share underground reservoirs. Natural gas is a mixture of gases, the most common being methane (CH4). It also contains some ethane (C2H5), propane (C3H8), and butane (C4H10). Natural gas is usually not contaminated with sulfur and is therefore the cleanest burning fossil fuel. After recovery, propane and butane are removed from the natural gas and made into liquefied petroleum gas ( LPG ). LPG is shipped in special pressurized tanks as a fuel source for areas not directly served by natural gas pipelines (e.g., rural communities). The remaining natural gas is further refined to remove impurities and water vapor, and then transported in pressurized pipelines. The United States has over 300,000 miles of natural gas pipelines. Natural gas is highly flammable and is odorless. The characteristic smell associated with natural gas is actually that of minute quantities of a smelly sulfur compound ( ethyl mercaptan ) which is added during refining to warn consumers of gas leaks.
Nuclear Power In most electric power plants, water is heated and converted into steam, which drives a turbine-generator to produce electricity. Fossil-fueled power plants produce heat by burning coal, oil, or natural gas. In a nuclear power plant , the fission of uranium atoms in the reactor provides the heat to produce steam for generating electricity.
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight , wind , rain , tides , and geothermal heat , which are renewable (naturally replenished).
Wind Power Airflows can be used to run wind turbines . Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically.  Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favourable sites
Hydropower Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than air , even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell , can yield considerable amounts of energy.
Solar energy Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation . Solar powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaics and heat engines . A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture , daylighting , solar hot water , solar cooking , and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.
Biomass Biomass (plant material) is a renewable energy source because the energy it contains comes from the sun. Through the process of photosynthesis , plants capture the sun's energy. When the plants are burned, they release the sun's energy they contain. In this way, biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for storing solar energy. As long as biomass is produced sustainably, with only as much used as is grown, the battery will last indefinitely .
Biofuel Liquid biofuel is usually either bioalcohol such as bioethanol or an oil such as biodiesel. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil .
Geothermal energy Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in volcanically active locations of the globe or from shallow depths, as in geothermal heat pumps in most locations of the planet. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth 's core.