There are problems you encounter as size increases
It gets more difficult to interact with and influence the group Individuals get less satisfaction from their involvement in the team People end up with less commitment to the team goals It requires more centralized decision making There is lesser feeling as being part of team
Assigning more programmers to a project running behind schedule will make it even later, due to the time required for the new programmers to learn about the project, as well as the increased communication overhead. - Fred Brooks
Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples 5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples 5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication 10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples 5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication 10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication 50 developers -> 50(50 − 1) / 2 = 1225 channels of communication Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
Common Characteristics of High Performing Teams
Goals are clearly defined and matched with measurable outcomes
Project team Project teams usually come together for a project and then disband. What challenges does this create?
Tuckman (1960s) published five stage model of team development
Figure 9.1 Stages of Team Development(Robbins et al, 1998, p309)
Figure 11.1 The Five-Stage Team Development Model(Gray & Larson, 2006, p345)
Implications for teams: A project manager needs to devote initial attention to helping the group evolve quickly to the (performing phase). This model provides a framework for the group to understand its own development. It stresses the importance of the norming phase which contributes to the level of productivity.
Recent studies suggest that there is no standardized pattern of group development. What do you think about Tuckman’s model? Does it feel right to you?
Punctuated Equilibrium Model (1988) Gersick found that there are natural transition points during the life of teams in which the group is receptive to change and that such a moment naturally occurs at the scheduled midpoint of a project By imposing a series of deadlines, with milestones, it is possible to create multiple transition points for natural group development
Figure 11.2 The Punctuated Equilibrium Model of Group Development(Gray & Larson, 2006, p346)
Training The main goal of team development is to help people work together more effectively to improve project performance. Training can help people understand themselves and each other, and understand how to work better in teams.
Team building activities include physical challengesand psychological preference indicator tools
extrovert introvert e i sensation intuition s n thinking feeling t f judgement perception j p
extrovert introvert e e i sensation intuition s n n thinking feeling t f t judgement perception j j p me
extrovert introvert e i i sensation intuition s n n thinking feeling t f judgement perception j p NTs are attracted to technology fields There is a belief that IT people differ from population in a tendency to not be extroverted or sensing.
The Max Wideman MTBI article “Do we have enough of the right kind of people?” R. Max Wideman, (1998) Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large: Do we have enough of the right kind of people? FPMI, AEW Services, Vancouver, BC, Canada. http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/profiles/profiles.pdf
What is your suitability to Project Work? * Wideman, R. Max. “Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large: Do we have enough of the right kind of people?” (http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/profiles/profiles.pdf ).
Another model Social Styles Profile People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of four zones, based on their assertiveness and responsiveness Assertiveness Responsiveness
Another model Analytical Driver Task Responsiveness Amiable Expressive People Assertiveness Ask Tell
Reward and Recognition Systems Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamwork Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals Allow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meet project goals and develop human resources
Reward and Recognition Systems cont’d… Recognize individual performance? letters of commendation public recognition for outstanding work desirable job assignments increased personal flexibility Team Developmentcont’d…
Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research and thought to the field of managing people at work. Important areas related to project management include (1)Motivation, (2)Influence and power, and (3) Effectiveness
Motivation Intrinsic motivation causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment eg. read, gardening… Extrinsic motivation causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty eg. homework
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1960s) Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy of needs to illustrate his theory that people’s behaviors are guided by a sequence of needs Maslow argued that humans possess unique qualities that enable them to make independent choices, thus giving them control of their destiny
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needshttp://talkingtails.wordpress.com/2007/07/23/maslow-greek-philosophy-indian-mysticism/
Hertzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory In the late 1960s Frederick Herzberg wrote about worker motivation. He distinguished between motivation factors and hygiene factors. hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction if absent but do not motivate, eg. Money, working conditions, motivation factors Help motivate workers directly eg. achievement, recognition, work, responsibility
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y In the 1960’s Douglas McGregor popularized the human relations approach Theory X: workers dislike and avoid work Theory Y: work is as natural as play or rest Theory Z: emphasizing trust, quality, collective decision making, and cultural values
Thamhain and Wilemon’s influence bases (1970’s) HJ Thamhain and DL Wilemon identified nine influence bases available to project managers authority assignment budget promotion money penalty work challenge expertise friendship
Steven Covey’s 7 habits Ca be applied to improve effectiveness on projects Be proactive Begin with the end in mind Put first things first Think win/win Seek first to understand, then to be understood Synergize Sharpen the saw
Covey’s Habit 5: Seek first to understand, then to be understood
Develop your team Be patient and kind with your team Fix the problem instead of blaming people Establish regular, effective meetings Allow time for teams to go through the basic team-building stages Limit the size of work teams to five to twelve members Plan some social activities to help project team members and other stakeholders Stress team identity Nurture team members and encourage them to help each other Take additional actions to work with virtual team members
Voluntary team membership Continuous service on the team Full-time assignment to the team An organization culture of cooperation and trust Members report only to the project manager Functional areas are represented on the team The project has a compelling objective Members are in speaking distance of each other Know the conditions favorable for development of high performing teams
team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify ownership issues affecting performance
engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common experience to promote social development of the team
Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams
Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams Developing trust exchange of social information set clear roles for each team member
Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams Developing effective patterns of communication include face-to-face if at all possible keep team members informed on how the overall project is going don’t let team members vanish establish a code of conduct to avoid delays establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts
Figure 11.6 24-Hour Global Clock(Gray & Larson, 2006, p369)
Figure 11.5 Conflict Intensity over the Project Life Cycle(Gray & Larson, 2006, p363)
Project Team Pitfalls Groupthink Bureaucratic Bypass Syndrome Team Spirit Becomes Team Infatuation Going Native
Review Effective teams have common characteristics such as; size range, purpose, communication, leadership, cohesiveness, identity, diversity, and cooperation. Traditional research suggests teams develop in 5-stage process; forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Modern approach indicates growth occurs at project transition points. Team development can be facilitated through training, personality indicators, social styles profiles, and reward systems. PM’s can utilize people handling strategies from motivation theorists and other theorists such as; Maslow, Hertzberg, McClelland, McGregor and Covey … Other areas of importance include; recruitment, maintenance, and conflict management of project teams.
References Horodyski, K. (1995). Managing and developing teams. Footscray, Vic.: Open Training Services. Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. (1993). Behavior in organizations (4th ed.). Syd., NSW: Allyn and Bacon. Robbins, S., et al. (1998). Organisational behaviour (2nd ed.). Sydney: Prentice-Hall
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