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Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
Project Management Managing Teams
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Project Management Managing Teams

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  • 1. Project Management7. Managing Teams
  • 2. Week 7
  • 3. Our goal today is to develop and facilitate leadership, team building, performance management, and conflict management skills in the context of an IT environment
  • 4. Main reference: Gray & Larson, 2006, Ch 11.
  • 5. Effective Team Characteristics
    Why Join Teams?
    Team Development
    Keys to Managing People
    Managing Project Teams
    Project Team Conflict
    Project Team Pitfalls
  • 6. Effective Team Characteristics
  • 7. What is a Team?
  • 8. A team
    is a group of individuals who cooperate and work together to achieve a given set of objectives or goals (Horodyski, 1995).
  • 9. Teamwork
    is close cooperation between cross-trained employees who are familiar with a wide range of jobs in their organization
  • 10. Team-building
    is high interaction among group members to increase trust and openness
  • 11. Effective Team Characteristics
    1
    Project Team Size
    2
    Common Characteristics
  • 12. Project Team Size
    Performance is based on balance of members carrying out roles and meeting social and emotional needs
  • 13. Project teams of 5 to 12 members work best
  • 14. There are problems you encounter as size increases
  • 15. It gets more difficult to interact with and influence the group
    Individuals get less satisfaction from their involvement in the team
    People end up with less commitment to the team goals
    It requires more centralized decision making
    There is lesser feeling as being part of team
  • 16. Project Team Size
    The Mythical Man-Month
  • 17. Assigning more programmers to a project running behind schedule will make it even later, due to the time required for the new programmers to learn about the project, as well as the increased communication overhead.
    - Fred Brooks
  • 18. Group Intercommunication Formula
    n(n − 1) / 2
    Fred Brooks
    The Mythical Man-Month
  • 19. Group Intercommunication Formula
    n(n − 1) / 2
    Examples
    Fred Brooks
    The Mythical Man-Month
  • 20. Group Intercommunication Formula
    n(n − 1) / 2
    Examples
    5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication
    Fred Brooks
    The Mythical Man-Month
  • 21. Group Intercommunication Formula
    n(n − 1) / 2
    Examples
    5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication
    10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication
    Fred Brooks
    The Mythical Man-Month
  • 22. Group Intercommunication Formula
    n(n − 1) / 2
    Examples
    5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication
    10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication
    50 developers -> 50(50 − 1) / 2 = 1225 channels of communication
    Fred Brooks
    The Mythical Man-Month
  • 23. Common Characteristics of High Performing Teams
  • 24. Goals are clearly defined and matched with measurable outcomes
  • 25. Accurate effective 2-way communication
  • 26. Leadership is shared and participation encouraged
  • 27. Effective decision making and problem solving
  • 28. Team identity and cohesiveness
  • 29. Diverse backgrounds and experience
  • 30. Cooperation and collaboration
  • 31. They share a common identity
  • 32. Figure 1 Characteristics or needs of effective teams(Horodyski, 1995, p12)
  • 33. Why Join Teams?
  • 34. Why do people want to join teams?
  • 35. Individual reasons
    Security
    Status
    Self-esteem
    Affiliation
    Power
    Goal achievement
  • 36. Why do teams work well for organizations?
  • 37. Team Development
  • 38. Project team
    Project teams usually come together for a project and then disband. What challenges does this create?
  • 39. Tuckman (1960s) published five stage model of team development
  • 40. Figure 9.1 Stages of Team Development(Robbins et al, 1998, p309)
  • 41. Figure 11.1 The Five-Stage Team Development Model(Gray & Larson, 2006, p345)
  • 42. Implications for teams:
    A project manager needs to devote initial attention to helping the group evolve quickly to the (performing phase).
    This model provides a framework for the group to understand its own development.
    It stresses the importance of the norming phase which contributes to the level of productivity.
  • 43. Recent studies suggest that there is no standardized pattern of group development. What do you think about Tuckman’s model?
    Does it feel right to you?
  • 44. Punctuated Equilibrium Model
    (1988) Gersick found that there are natural transition points during the life of teams in which the group is receptive to change and that such a moment naturally occurs at the scheduled midpoint of a project
    By imposing a series of deadlines, with milestones, it is possible to create multiple transition points for natural group development
  • 45. Figure 11.2 The Punctuated Equilibrium Model of Group Development(Gray & Larson, 2006, p346)
  • 46. Training
    The main goal of team development is to help people work together more effectively to improve project performance.
    Training can help people understand themselves and each other, and understand how to work better in teams.
  • 47. Team building activities include physical challengesand psychological preference indicator tools
  • 48. MBTI
    What are you?
  • 49. extrovert
    introvert
    e
    i
    sensation
    intuition
    s
    n
    thinking
    feeling
    t
    f
    judgement
    perception
    j
    p
  • 50. extrovert
    introvert
    e
    e
    i
    sensation
    intuition
    s
    n
    n
    thinking
    feeling
    t
    f
    t
    judgement
    perception
    j
    j
    p
    me
  • 51. extrovert
    introvert
    e
    i
    i
    sensation
    intuition
    s
    n
    n
    thinking
    feeling
    t
    f
    judgement
    perception
    j
    p
    NTs are attracted to technology fields
    There is a belief that IT people differ from population in a tendency to not be extroverted or sensing.
  • 52. The Max Wideman MTBI article “Do we have enough of the right kind of people?”
    R. Max Wideman, (1998) Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large: Do we have enough of the right kind of people? FPMI, AEW Services, Vancouver, BC, Canada. http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/profiles/profiles.pdf
  • 53. What is your suitability to Project Work?
    * Wideman, R. Max. “Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large: Do we have enough of the right kind of people?” (http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/profiles/profiles.pdf ).
  • 54. Another model
    Social Styles Profile
    People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of four zones, based on their assertiveness and responsiveness
    Assertiveness
    Responsiveness
  • 55. Another model
    Analytical
    Driver
    Task
    Responsiveness
    Amiable
    Expressive
    People
    Assertiveness
    Ask
    Tell
  • 56. Reward and Recognition Systems
    Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamwork
    Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals
    Allow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meet project goals and develop human resources
  • 57. http://www.flickr.com/photos/hi-phi/1100036300/
  • 58. Reward and Recognition Systems cont’d…
    Recognize individual performance?
    letters of commendation
    public recognition for outstanding work
    desirable job assignments
    increased personal flexibility
    Team Developmentcont’d…
  • 59. Keys to Managing People
  • 60. Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research and thought to the field of managing people at work. Important areas related to project management include (1)Motivation, (2)Influence and power, and (3) Effectiveness
  • 61. Motivation
    Intrinsic motivation causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment
    eg. read, gardening…
    Extrinsic motivation causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty
    eg. homework
  • 62. Motivation Theorists
    • Maslow’s hierarch of needs
    • 63. Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene
    • 64. McClelland’s acquired-needs
    • 65. McGregor’s X and Y
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    (1960s) Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy of needs to illustrate his theory that people’s behaviors are guided by a sequence of needs
    Maslow argued that humans possess unique qualities that enable them to make independent choices, thus giving them control of their destiny
  • 66. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needshttp://talkingtails.wordpress.com/2007/07/23/maslow-greek-philosophy-indian-mysticism/
  • 67. Hertzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    In the late 1960s Frederick Herzberg wrote about worker motivation.
    He distinguished between motivation factors and hygiene factors.
    hygiene factors
    cause dissatisfaction if absent but do not motivate,
    eg. Money, working conditions,
    motivation factors
    Help motivate workers directly
    eg. achievement, recognition, work, responsibility
  • 68. http://www.provenmodels.com/21/motivation-hygiene-theory/herzberg-mausner-snyderman
  • 69. (Robbins et al, 1998, p221)
  • 70. McClelland’s Acquired-Needs Theory
    (1961) David McClelland proposed an individual’s specific needs are acquired or learned over time and shaped by life experiences.
    Categories:
  • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
    In the 1960’s Douglas McGregor popularized the human relations approach
    Theory X: workers dislike and avoid work
    Theory Y: work is as natural as play or rest
    Theory Z: emphasizing trust, quality, collective decision making, and cultural values
  • 73. http://www.provenmodels.com/20/theory-x-&-y/mcgregor
  • 74. Thamhain and Wilemon’s influence bases
    (1970’s) HJ Thamhain and DL Wilemon identified nine influence bases available to project managers
    authority
    assignment
    budget
    promotion
    money
    penalty
    work challenge
    expertise
    friendship
  • 75. Steven Covey’s 7 habits
    Ca be applied to improve effectiveness on projects
    Be proactive
    Begin with the end in mind
    Put first things first
    Think win/win
    Seek first to understand, then to be understood
    Synergize
    Sharpen the saw
  • 76. Covey’s Habit 5: Seek first to understand, then to be understood
  • 77. Managing Project Teams
  • 78. Project managers must lead their teams in performing various project activities
  • 79. After assessing team performance and related information, the project manager must decide:
    • if changes should be requested to the project
    • 80. if corrective or preventive actions should be recommended
    • 81. if updates are needed to the project management plan or organizational process assets
  • Tools and techniques available to assist in managing project teams include:
    • observation and conversation
    • 82. project performance appraisals
    • 83. conflict management
    • 84. issue logs
  • Develop your team
  • 85. Develop your team
    Be patient and kind with your team
    Fix the problem instead of blaming people
    Establish regular, effective meetings
    Allow time for teams to go through the basic team-building stages
    Limit the size of work teams to five to twelve members
    Plan some social activities to help project team members and other stakeholders
    Stress team identity
    Nurture team members and encourage them to help each other
    Take additional actions to work with virtual team members
  • 86. Voluntary team membership
    Continuous service on the team
    Full-time assignment to the team
    An organization culture of cooperation and trust
    Members report only to the project manager
    Functional areas are represented on the team
    The project has a compelling objective
    Members are in speaking distance of each other
    Know the conditions favorable for development of high performing teams
  • 87. Meetings?
  • 88. A brief diversion into Management and Meetings
  • 89.
  • 90.
  • 91.
  • 92.
  • 93. Don’t waste my time
  • 94. Conducting Project Meetings
    Establishing Ground Rules
    Managing Subsequent Meetings
    Conducting Project Meetings
    Relationship Decisions
    Planning Decisions
    Tracking Decisions
    Managing Change Decisions
  • 95. Time
    Date
    Place
    Who must be there
    Meeting goals
    Agenda
    Expected outcome
    Preparation required
  • 96. Recruiting Project Members
    Factors affecting recruiting
    • importance of the project
    • 97. management structure used to complete the project
    How to recruit?
    • ask for volunteers
    Who to recruit?
    • problem-solving ability
    • 98. availability
    • 99. technological expertise
    • 100. credibility
    • 101. political connections
    • 102. ambition, initiative, and energy
  • Figure 11.32 Creating a High-Performance Project Team(Gray & Larson, 2006, p348)
  • 103. Effective Use of Meetings
    Co-location of team members
    Creation of project team name
    Team rituals
    Establishing a Team Identity
  • 104. Figure 11.4 Requirements for an Effective Project Vision(Gray & Larson, 2006, p357)
  • 105. Problem Identification
    Generating Alternatives
    Reaching a Decision
    Follow-up
    Orchestrating the Decision-Making Process
  • 106. Rejuvenating the Project Team
    Informal Techniques
    • institute new rituals
    • 107. take an off-site break as a team from the project
    • 108. view an inspiration message or movie
    • 109. have the project sponsor give a pep talk
  • Rejuvenating the Project Team
    Formal Techniques
    • team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify ownership issues affecting performance
    • 110. engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common experience to promote social development of the team
  • Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams
  • 111. Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams
    Developing trust
    exchange of social information
    set clear roles for each team member
  • 112. Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams
    Developing effective patterns of communication
    include face-to-face if at all possible
    keep team members informed on how the overall project is going
    don’t let team members vanish
    establish a code of conduct to avoid delays
    establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts
  • 113. Figure 11.6 24-Hour Global Clock(Gray & Larson, 2006, p369)
  • 114. Project Team Conflict
  • 115. Managing Conflict in the Project Team
  • 116. Managing Conflict in the Project Team
    Encouraging Functional Conflict
    • encourage dissent by asking tough questions
    • 117. bring in people with different points of view
    • 118. designate someone to be a devil’s advocate
    • 119. ask the team to consider an alternative
  • Managing Conflict in the Project Team
    Encouraging Functional Conflict
    • encourage dissent by asking tough questions
    • 120. bring in people with different points of view
    • 121. designate someone to be a devil’s advocate
    • 122. ask the team to consider an alternative
    Managing Dysfunctional Conflict
    • mediate the conflict
    • 123. arbitrate the conflict
    • 124. control the conflict
    • 125. accept the conflict
    • 126. eliminate the conflict
  • Project Team Pitfalls
  • 127. Figure 11.5 Conflict Intensity over the Project Life Cycle(Gray & Larson, 2006, p363)
  • 128. Project Team Pitfalls
    Groupthink
    Bureaucratic Bypass Syndrome
    Team Spirit Becomes Team Infatuation
    Going Native
  • 129. Review
    Effective teams have common characteristics such as; size range, purpose, communication, leadership, cohesiveness, identity, diversity, and cooperation.
    Traditional research suggests teams develop in 5-stage process; forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Modern approach indicates growth occurs at project transition points.
    Team development can be facilitated through training, personality indicators, social styles profiles, and reward systems.
    PM’s can utilize people handling strategies from motivation theorists and other theorists such as; Maslow, Hertzberg, McClelland, McGregor and Covey …
    Other areas of importance include; recruitment, maintenance, and conflict management of project teams.
  • 130. References
    Horodyski, K. (1995). Managing and developing teams. Footscray, Vic.: Open Training Services.
    Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. (1993). Behavior in organizations (4th ed.). Syd., NSW: Allyn and Bacon.
    Robbins, S., et al. (1998). Organisational behaviour (2nd ed.). Sydney: Prentice-Hall
  • 131. BetterProjects.net
    Title page pic care of atomicShed & CC @ Flickr
  • 132. keylosa
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