Importance of nutrition on development of brain


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Many times pregnant woman neglects her health due to nausea, and changes happening to her body. We need to provide her information why she needs to eat healthy balanced food in frequent intervals. This presentation shows the impact of nutrients on the development of brain.

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Importance of nutrition on development of brain

  1. 1. Fetal and neonatal malnutrition can have global or circuit-specific effects on the developing brain Nutrients have greater effects on brain development Effect of nutrient Deficiency or Overabundance on Brain governed by principle Timing, Dose , Duration
  2. 2. Even though young brain is remarkably plastic and more amenable to repair after nutrient repletion, the brain’s vulnerability to nutritional insults likely outweighs its plasticity. That is why early nutritional insults result in brain dysfunction not only while the nutrient is in deficit, but also after repletion.
  3. 3. Hippocampus It is memory that recognizes new information and recent events. This part of brain acts like a primitive over ride switch meant to stop you from over analyzing in life threatening situations. It comes into play at times of high stress. It is designed for action not diplomacy.
  4. 4. Corpus Striatum (basal ganglia) Corpus meant a mass of tissue in the body that has a distinct structure or function. It is connection between cerebral cortex and cerebellum. It helps to regulate automatic movement. Corpus striata (pural) networks are responsible for managing memorized movement – those we undertake without forethought.
  5. 5. Visual and Auditory Cortices The auditory cortex and the areas around it are involved in processing language – both spoken and written. There is a visual cortex in each hemisphere of the brain. The left hemisphere visual cortex receives signals from the right visual field and the right visual cortex from the left visual field.
  6. 6. During late fetal and early neonatal life, regions such as the hippocampus, the visual and auditory cortices, and the striatum are undergoing rapid development characterized by the morphogenesis and synaptogenesis that make them functional.
  7. 7. Glial Cells Functions • To surround neurons and hold them in place • To supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons • To insulate one neuron from another • To destroy and remove the carcasses of dead neurons Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Microglia Schwann Cells Glial cells provide support and protection for neurons Central nervous system consists of neurons and glial cells
  8. 8. Important nutrients during late fetal and neonatal brain development Nutrient Brain requirement for the nutrient Predominant brain circuitry or process affected by deficiency Protein- energy Cell Proliferation, cell differentiation Global Synaptogenesis Cortex Growth factor synthesis Hippocampus Iron Myelin White matter Monoamine synthesis Striatal-frontal Neuronal and glial energy metabolism Hippocampal-frontal Zinc DNA synthesis Autonomic nervous system Neurotransmitter release Hippocampus, cerebellum Copper Neurotransmitter synthesis, neuronal and glial energy metabolism, antioxidant activity Cerebellum LC-PUFAs Synaptogenesis Eye Myelin Cortex Choline Neurotransmitter synthesis Global DNA methylation Hippocampus Myelin synthesis White matter LC-PUFAs = Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
  9. 9. Nutrients can affect not only Neuroanatomy, but also Neurochemistry and Neurophysiology.
  10. 10. Electroretinogram (ERG) Event Retated Potential (ERP) Computerized axial tomography (CAT) Occipitofrontal head circumference (OFC) Types of Brain Development Assessments Electro Encephalogram (EEG) Auditory Brainstem evoked response (ABR) Functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Electro Encephalogram (EEG) Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Visual Paired Comparison test (VPC) Delay Non-Match to Sample test (DNMS) Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
  11. 11. Neurodevelopmental Assessments for Infants between 36 and 44 weeks after conception and relation to specific nutritional deficits Assessment Brain region or process Risk nutrients OFC Whole brain Protein-energy Neurologic reflexes Whole brain, nervous system Protein-energy Myelination Iron Neurologic examination Whole brain, nervous system Protein-energy Copper EEG maturity Cortex Protein-energy (LC-PUFAs) Stimulated heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol responses Autonomic nervous system Zinc (Protein-energy) HPA axis ABR, ERG Myelination Iron Synaptic efficacy LC-PUFAs Auditory ERP Hippocampal function Iron (Zinc) (Choline) (Protein-energy) MRI (Structural) Global and regional volume and structure (Iron) (Zinc) (Copper) Protein-energy MR - DTI Myelin and tract integrity (Iron) (Copper) Protein-energy MR – proton spectroscopy Neurochemistry (Iron)
  12. 12. Neurobehavioral and neuroimaging Assessments Effects of neonatal nutrients on general brain development during fist 6 years if postnatal life Neurologic domain Risk nutrients for domain Behavioral assessment Age of reliability Neuroimaging technique Age of reliability Global function Protein- energy, iron, zinc, LC-PUFAs Bayley Scales 12-36 months OFC Any age WPPSI >4 years MR regional volumetrics Newborn and >6 years Myelination Iron Speed of processing 4 months ABR, VEP Any age LC-PUFAs ERP After term DTI Newborn and >6 years Motor function Protein- energy Bayley Scales (PDI) 12 – 36 months Regional MR Newborn and >6 years Iron Activity Any age Actigraph Any age Copper Coordination Any age
  13. 13. Neurobehavioral and neuroimaging Assessments Effects of neonatal nutrients on cognitive development during fist 6 years of postnatal life Cognitive domain Risk nutrients for domain Behavioral assessment Age of reliability Neuroimaging technique Age of reliability Explicit recognition memory Protein- energy, iron, zinc VPC > 4 months ERP (auditory) Newborn DNMS > 6 months ERP (visual) > 4 months Elicited imitation > 12 months MR volume (hippocampus) Newborn and > 6 years Working memory Protein- energy Elicited imitation > 12 months MR volume (prefrontal cortex) Newborn and > 6 years Iron CANTAB > 4 years fMRI >6 years Implicit procedural memory Iron Priming > 4 months MR volume (striatum) Newborn and > 6 years fMRI Newborn and > 6 years
  14. 14. Neurobehavioral and neuroimaging Assessments Effects of neonatal nutrients on affective development during fist 6 years of postnatal life Affective domain Risk nutrients for domain Behavioral assessment Age of reliability Neuroimaging technique Age of reliability Attention Iron, zinc Bayley Scales rating > 12 months MR volume (prefrontal cortex) Newborn and > 6 years CANTAB > 4 years Flanker task > 5 years Reactivity (HPA / ANS) Iron, zinc Response to: > Newborn Restraint Salivary cortisol Any age Separation HR response Any age Immunization Vagal tone Any age Social interaction Iron, zinc Spontaneous movement Any age fMRI > 6 years Bayley Scales rating > 12 months HPA (Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal) ANS (Autonomic nervous system)
  15. 15. Copper, Iron and Zinc are essential trace nutrients because they cannot be made, or synthesized in the body. We need Copper for blood vessel formation, a healthy heart, and for stabilizing the collagen, or connective tissue, which binds one part of the body to another. Copper is needed for brain development and for the effective communication between nerve cells in the brain, as well as for healthy bones and We need Zinc for biological functions. Zinc’s tasks are growth and fertility, a healthy immune system, and healthy skin, hair, nails and eyes. It plays a crucial role in more than 300 enzymes. We need Iron because it is an integral part of many proteins and enzymes that maintain good health such as oxygen transport and the regulation of cell growth. Almost 2/3 of iron in the body is found in hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to tissues.
  16. 16. Recommended Daily Intakes Copper : • 1 mg/day for adults, • 1.3 mg/day for pregnant and lactating women; Iron: • 8 mg/day for men, • 18 mg/day for women (27 mg/day in pregnancy); Zinc : • 15 mg/day for men, • 12 mg/day for women.
  17. 17. Reference: