Service-Learning in Preceptorships Kim T. Isringhausen, BSDH, RDH, MPH Director, Division of Dental Hygiene & Preceptorshi...
“ What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing.” Aristotle
Elements of the Learning Experience <ul><li>Learner must be willing to be actively involved in the experience </li></ul><u...
Community Service <ul><li>An act by a person that benefits the local community </li></ul>
Service-Learning <ul><li>A method of teaching, learning and reflecting that combines academic classroom curriculum with me...
Service-Learning <ul><li>“ a method under which students or participants learn and develop through active participation in...
Service-Learning <ul><li>Experiential educational approach based on reciprocal learning </li></ul><ul><li>Structured learn...
 
Comparison <ul><li>Service-Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates academic study with community </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Comparison <ul><li>Service-Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposes the “service” in terms of social, economic or education...
Key Components to SL <ul><li>Curricular Connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be an academic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Key Components to SL <ul><li>Guided Reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central characteristic of service-learning </li></ul>...
Key Components to SL <ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-structured assessment instruments with constructive fee...
Community Partnerships <ul><li>American Red Cross Clinic, Norfolk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 dental students, 2-week rotation...
Community Partnerships <ul><li>Federal Correctional Complex, Petersburg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 dental hygiene student, fo...
Community Partnerships <ul><li>Northern Neck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 dental students, 2 dental hygiene; 2-week rotation </...
Clinical Component
Reflective Component
Guided Reflection <ul><li>Journal writing is used to facilitate reflection, critical thought, and expression of feelings r...
Guided Reflection <ul><li>In addition, reflective journals are used to emphasize connecting clinical content with thought ...
Guided Reflection <ul><li>Free-form style journal writing is included in the assignment as an expression of personal goals...
Focus Groups
Focus Groups <ul><li>Used to generate open interactive discussions about community-based learning among students </li></ul...
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Service Learning in Dental and Dental Hygiene Education

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-learning is known by many, widely varying definitions which take into consideration the reciprocal needs of the student and community, bridging academic theory with community service and instilling civic responsibility. Service combined with learning adds value to each and transforms both. Service-learning must be an academic activity: it can be course-based, competency-based, or a structured volunteer experience. In dental education the most obvious community locations are community health center dental clinics, hospital dental clinics, and private offices in areas designated as dental health professions shortage areas (DHPSA). Most importantly, service-learning occurs only when both the providers and the recipients of the service benefit from the activities.

Although service-learning is now a major national movement, it is still catching on as a new approach in education. Kim Isringhausen will provide a framework for service-learning in dental and dental hygiene education in which planning, implementation and evaluation can be built.

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  • Experiential education is a basic feature of preparing dental professionals. Dental and dental hygiene students master clinical skills through the experience of providing services for patients in dental school clinics with direct supervision in combination with didactic instruction. Experiential learning is the process of making meaning from direct experience. Aristotle once said&lt;
  • “ For things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them.” So, what is so bad about experiential learning? Experiential learning focuses on the learning process for the individual. Experiential education, on the other hand, focuses on the transactive process between teacher and learner. However, it is not that simple:
  • For the adult learner especially, experience becomes a “living textbook” to which they can refer. However, experiential learning can often lead to mis-educative experiences. In other words, experiences do not automatically equate learning. The classic example of this is the lecture experience many students have in formal educational settings. While the content of the course might be Dental Materials the experiential learning becomes “I hate dental materials.” Preferably, the student should have learned, “I hate lectures.” Experiential learning therefore can be problematic as generalizations or meanings may be misapplied. In order to gain genuine knowledge from an experience, certain abilities are required:
  • That is not to say that experiential learning can’t be a highly effective educational method. It must be used in the right context; as mentioned previously and employ the whole learning wheel (which we will talk about shortly). One approach to experiential learning is a service-oriented education program like the preceptorship programs as they were first organized. By definition community service is an act by a person that benefits the local community. People become involved in community service for many reasons: for some, serving community is an altruistic act, for others it is a punishment. Community service is a tool that is intended both to strengthen peoples’ senses of civic engagement and nationalism and to help them achieve their educational, developmental and social goals. Community service is often a requirement for advancement (Boy/Girl Scouts, High School Graduation), a condition of participation (enrollment in school or sports team) or a requirement for entry into college. Community service is also used as an alternative sentencing for those convicted of crimes With community service, the primary focus is in meeting agency/community needs.
  • As a teaching methodology, service learning falls under the philosophy of experiential education. For experiential learning to be truly effective, it should employ the whole learning wheel from goal setting, to experimenting and observing to reviewing and finally action planning. Service learning integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, encourage lifelong civic engagement, and strengthen communities for the common good. Service learning is known by many, widely varying definitions.
  • The National and Community service Act of 1990, which authorized the Learn and Serve America grant
  • Several definitions of service learning have emerged, which take into consideration the reciprocal needs of the student and community, bridging academic theory with community service, and instilling civic responsibility through a reflective component.
  • Service learning focuses equally on learning and service as well as equal benefits for the student and the recipient.
  • While several frameworks for structuring service-learning in dental and dental hygiene curricula have been proposed, there are key components that distinguish it in the following ways: Curricular Connection – service combined with learning adds value to each and transforms both. Can be course-based, competency-based, or a structured volunteer experience. Sustained Community Partnerships – emphasis is placed on developing high-quality, equal, ongoing relationships with selected community partners. If there are voids in representation of certain types of disabilities or cultural groups, it may be advantageous to recruit community partners that serve those populations.
  • Guided Reflection – fosters the exploration and clarification of complex social issues and personal values. Can occur in a variety of times, locations, and forms, but needs to be continuous, contextual, challenging and connected. Community Needs
  • Evaluation takes place throughout the process and includes not only students but community partner agency mentors, participating faculty. .
  • Service Learning in Dental and Dental Hygiene Education

    1. 1. Service-Learning in Preceptorships Kim T. Isringhausen, BSDH, RDH, MPH Director, Division of Dental Hygiene & Preceptorship Programs, VCU School of Dentistry
    2. 2. “ What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing.” Aristotle
    3. 3. Elements of the Learning Experience <ul><li>Learner must be willing to be actively involved in the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Learner must be able to reflect on the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Learner must possess and use analytical skills to conceptualize the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Learner must possess decision making and problem solving skills in order to use the new ideas gained from the experience </li></ul>
    4. 4. Community Service <ul><li>An act by a person that benefits the local community </li></ul>
    5. 5. Service-Learning <ul><li>A method of teaching, learning and reflecting that combines academic classroom curriculum with meaningful service throughout the community </li></ul>Goal setting experimenting/observing reviewing action planning
    6. 6. Service-Learning <ul><li>“ a method under which students or participants learn and develop through active participation in thoughtfully organized service that is conducted in and meets the needs of a community; is coordinated with an elementary school, secondary school, institution of higher education, or community service program, and with the community; and helps foster civic responsibility; and that is integrated into and enhances the academic curriculum of the students, or the educational components of the community service program in which the participants are enrolled; and provides structured time for the students or participants to reflect on the service experience.” </li></ul>
    7. 7. Service-Learning <ul><li>Experiential educational approach based on reciprocal learning </li></ul><ul><li>Structured learning experience that combines community service with preparation and reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy, pedagogy, and model for community development that is used as an instructional strategy to meet learning goals and/or content standard </li></ul>
    8. 9. Comparison <ul><li>Service-Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates academic study with community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes learning more intentional through reflective writing, group discussions and other activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fosters participant learning about larger social issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not typically include an academic component </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning is often the responsibility of the agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not offer academic credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student learning is likely to take place, although not the focus for the service </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Comparison <ul><li>Service-Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposes the “service” in terms of social, economic or educational justice instead of “charity” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not viewed as a framework, philosophy or pedagogy </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Key Components to SL <ul><li>Curricular Connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be an academic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustained Community Partnerships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both sides give to and benefit from the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most valuable are those that provide direct services for populations with which students need to increase their level of comfort and competence </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Key Components to SL <ul><li>Guided Reflection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central characteristic of service-learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hyphen that links service and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must not only strive to enhance the students’ knowledge and clinical skills but also facilitate their personal and professional judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be written, guided group discussion, focus group. . . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authentic Community Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community members or service recipients involved in determining significance and depth of service activities involved </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Key Components to SL <ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-structured assessment instruments with constructive feedback through reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not graded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be applied for continuous quality improvement </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Community Partnerships <ul><li>American Red Cross Clinic, Norfolk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 dental students, 2-week rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norfolk residents 18 years and older, low-income, mostly un-insured </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boydton Dental Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 dental students, 2 hygiene students; 2-week rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sliding fee system, large pedo population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bradley Free Clinic, Roanoke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 dental students, 1-week rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free dental care for the working poor, adult, 75% unemployed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CrossOver Ministries, Richmond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 dental students, 2 dental hygiene; various days of the month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free clinic, large Hispanic population, special needs patients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daily Planet, Richmond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 dental students, 2 dental hygiene, two days per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free clinic, homeless population, underserved </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Community Partnerships <ul><li>Federal Correctional Complex, Petersburg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 dental hygiene student, four days per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low and medium security facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male offenders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JSRCC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 dental students, one day per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dental assistant program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Care to students and community at reduced rates, dental insurance not accepted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lynchburg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 dental students, 2 dental hygiene; 2-week rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18-75 year age range, no dental insurance, may have Medicaid or Medicare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Martinsville </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 dental students, 1 dental hygiene; 1 week rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income below poverty level, unemployed adults, children with Medicaid </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Community Partnerships <ul><li>Northern Neck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 dental students, 2 dental hygiene; 2-week rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninsured but may have Medicaid, Medicare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saltville </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 dental students, 1-week rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins January 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of McKee Hospital, will also work closely with Smyth County Free Clinic, Wytheville CC and Washington Skill Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 dental chairs available for student use; 5 for supervising dentist(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Veteran’s Hospital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 dental hygiene students, one day per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medically compromised patient population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virginia Home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 dental hygiene students, one day per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults with irreversible physical disabilities </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. Clinical Component
    17. 18. Reflective Component
    18. 19. Guided Reflection <ul><li>Journal writing is used to facilitate reflection, critical thought, and expression of feelings regarding community-based educational experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-assigned topics encourage students to reflect critically on their preceptorship learning experiences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unresolved problems encountered </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Guided Reflection <ul><li>In addition, reflective journals are used to emphasize connecting clinical content with thought process and self-awareness through self-evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Students: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record and describe experiences, feelings, and thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How they have changed because of experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How experience will influence the way they practice </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Guided Reflection <ul><li>Free-form style journal writing is included in the assignment as an expression of personal goals such as confidence levels and time management. </li></ul><ul><li>Journals have revealed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumptions and stereotypes about various populations recognized and challenged during preceptorships </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Focus Groups
    22. 23. Focus Groups <ul><li>Used to generate open interactive discussions about community-based learning among students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8-12 students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sessions tape-recorded and transcribed </li></ul></ul>

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