UNIT ILiterary Elements and theShort StoryOVERVIEWThis unit focuses on reading and responding to a variety of short stories, both classic and contemporary,and applying a variety of reading and comprehension strategies. The development of compositions thatinterpret and analyze short story elements and the use of self-assessment and peer review to editpreliminary drafts and produce final products are essential elements of this unit. Written responses to avariety of writing prompts in a journal/learning log; grammar instruction differentiated for students’specific needs; independent reading instruction and monitoring; definition of vocabulary words withinthe context of the literature and appropriate use of the words in self-generated sentences; and listing ofimportant literary terms are ongoingFOCUS STANDARDSThese Focus Standards have been selected for the unit from the Common Core State Standards. RL.9-10.1: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. RL.9-10.5: Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise. W.9-10.2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. SL.9-10.1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. L.9-10.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. L.9-10.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.GUIDING QUESTIONS1. Can students show how the author’s use of literary devices and figurative language expresses andaffects meaning?2. Can students identify plot elements (e.g., exposition, rising action, climax) and explain how theycontribute to the interest, conflict, or suspense of a story?3. Can students develop complex compositions applying standard rules of usage and sentenceformation?4. Can students relate the characters, plot, and theme to a personal experience?
5. Can students compare and/or contrast the theme of the short story to themes in popular televisionsitcoms and movies?6. Can students use a variety of strategies to extend vocabulary?UNIT OBJECTIVES Identify and explain plot structure (i.e., exposition, rising action, crisis/climax, falling action,resolution/denouement) in short stories. Understand and explain why plots in short stories usually focus on a single event. Analyze how authors create the setting in a short story. Define the concept of theme and identify the theme(s) in stories read. Identify and explain characterization techniques in short stories. Identify and explain the use of figurative language in short stories. Analyze how authors create tone in short stories. Identify the point of view in a short story and analyze how point of view affects the reader’s interpretation of the story. Write a coherent essay of literary analysis with a clear thesis statement, at least three pieces of evidence from texts, and a strong introduction and conclusion. Define and refine research questions; cite sources accurately, distinguishing between paraphrasing and quoting.LITERARY TEXTS - Short stories Skill/Literary Focus Pg# COLLECTION 1 - Plot: Time and Understand plot structure and development of 2 Sequence time and sequence The Most Dangerous Game Analyze plot structure and foreshadowing; make 16-37 predictions; write a story sequel. A Christmas Memory Analyze setting and how it affects mood; Identify 62-76 sensory details; write a description of a place COLLECTION 2 - Character Understand characterization 96 Harrison Bergeron Character 98-107 Thank You, M’am Analyze how character traits are revealed 108-117 through dialogue; make inferences; write a letter Marigolds Analyze internal and external conflicts; make 140-152 inferences about character motivation; write an autobiographical narrative Skills Review Character Traits 162-165 COLLECTION 3 Understand the omniscient narrator (or point of 188 The Interlopers view) and the surprise ending; monitor your 195 reading Analyze the omniscient narrator (or point of view); monitor your reading; write a surprise ending The Necklace Analyze the third-person-limited point of view; 197-209
summarize plot; write a position statement. Write a description. The Cask of Amontillado Understand the first-person narrator and the 210-220 unreliable narrator; draw conclusions Skills Review Narrator and Voice 240-241 COLLECTION 4 Understand theme and universal themes. 246 Theme Compare a theme across genres 260 Understand and compare universal themes; compare and contrast themes. Comparing Universal Themes: Making Predictions/ Theme and Conflict 260-280 The Sniper and Cranes Making Inferences/ Theme and Character Skills Review Compare Themes 328-329 COLLECTION 5 Understand irony (verbal irony, situational irony, 334 Irony and Ambiguity and dramatic irony) and ambiguity The Gift of the Magi Analyze situational irony and the surprise ending; 348-358 make predictions; write a character description. Write a letter The Lady, or the Tiger? Analyze ambiguity; make inferences about 356-369 character motivation; write a persuasive essay. Write a sequel. A Sound of Thunder Analyze elements of style, including figurative 580-597 language, and mood; understand cause and effect relationships; write a descriptive essay. Skills Review Diction, Figurative Language, tone and mood 638-639Sample activities and assessmentsReading Log - ongoing identify the main parts of plot (e.g., exposition, inciting incident, development, climax, resolution, and denouement). write a learning log entry that identifies: o the main parts of plot (e.g., exposition, inciting incident, development, climax, resolution, and denouement) o a conflict recently experienced and how it was resolved – identify conflict type and characters involved o theme – with four or six text-supported reasons for suggesting this theme o characters – identify character type and character developmentSeminar Responses - ongoing Seminar questions will be generated for each short story read. ie. From Poe’s "The Cask of Amontillado,” is Montresor a reliable narrator? Cite at least three reasons to support your argumentTheme Identification identify a major theme and provide four or six text-supported reasons for suggesting their themePhotoMovie
Select a short story and create a photomovie with at least 20 pictures that summarize the plot of the short story. Literary Element Poster students will work in cooperative groups to analyze and interpret a self-selected literary element (e.g., theme, plot, characterization) or device (e.g., symbolism, oxymoron, and flashback) create a visual representation of their analysis on a poster prepare and deliver an oral presentation/explanation of the poster fill out an evaluation form for at least two peer presentations Plot Element Poster/Graphic Essay create a poster with at least 20 pictures that summarize the plot of the short story. Character Analysis and Descriptive Composition develop a multiparagraph expository composition that includes text-supported evidence to trace the development of a student-selected character from the short story Performance Select a one-minute passage from one of the short stories and recite it from memory. Include an introduction that states: o What the excerpt is from o Who wrote it o Which literary element it exemplifies and why LITERARY TEXTS - Art1. Emanuel Leutze, Washington Crossing The Delaware (1851)2. Jacob Lawrence, On The Way (1990)
3. Michelangelo, The Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel (c. 1511)
4. Pablo Picasso, Young Acrobat on a Ball (1905)5. Roy DeCarava, Untitled (1950)
6. Sultan Muhammad, From a Khamsa of Nizami (1539-43)
Sample activities and assessments Select an artwork and write an essay in which you discuss the use of symbolism in each. State your thesis clearly and include at least three pieces of evidence to support it. Draw a chart with 6 boxes. Label 4 boxes with the categories, people, places, things, and ideas, and list the nouns by category that you see in the image. In the other 2 boxes, list the verbs and then adjectives/adverbs.LANGUAGE GRAMMAR – 0ngoingParts of Speech Review - proofreads Verbs: principal parts of verbs, especially irregular past and past participles; simple, perfect, and progressive tenses; agreement of subject and verb, especially with collective nouns Nouns: common, proper, concrete, abstract, countable, collective, compound, possessive, gerundsSample activities and assessments mini-lessons that will become differentiated for students’ specific needs and will be integrated within student writing assignments and not taught in isolation.UNIT TERMINOLOGYElements of Fiction: plot & plot structure; character & characterization; setting; time shifts; sequenceclues; cause-effect relationships; point of view; theme; dialogue; mood; flashback/foreshadowing;