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Evaluating an argument

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Presentation accompanies Holt Literature book

Presentation accompanies Holt Literature book

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • 1. Informational Text Evaluating an Argument
    • Informational Text
      • Connecting to the Literature
      • Introducing the Informational Text
      • Vocabulary
    • Informational Reading Focus: Evaluating an Argument
      • Evaluating an Argument
      • Assignment
    Feature Menu
  • 2. Connecting to the Literature “ The Lady or the Tiger?” describes a system of justice in which the fate of the accused is decided entirely by chance. How fair is our own system, trial by jury? Read the following persuasive essay to find out what one expert thinks. [End of Section]
  • 3. Introducing the Informational Text A Defense of the Jury System
  • 4. Introducing the Informational Text A Defense of the Jury System If you were charged with a crime, would you rather have a jury of your peers or a panel of judges decide your fate? Read “A Defense of the Jury System” for one author’s views on the jury system in our country. [End of Section]
  • 5. Vocabulary Vocabulary Development irrational adj.: not based on reason or logic. superficial adj.: not deep or thorough; shallow. obscure v.: conceal; cover up. advocates v.: supports; argues in favor of. conscientiously adv.: carefully and thoughtfully. affluent adj.: wealthy.
  • 6. Vocabulary Vocabulary Practice Fill in the blanks with words from the Word Bank. 1. On rainy days, clouds _________ the mountaintop view. 2. An _________ argument is illogical. 3. Sensitive and attentive, the nurse cared for her patients _____________. 4. Someone with a _________ view of life might be called shallow. irrational superficial obscure conscientiously obscure irrational conscientiously superficial [End of Section]
  • 7. Evaluating an Argument When you read an author’s argument —a series of statements intended to convince you of something—you are like a juror in a trial. Like a juror, you analyze the evidence presented and decide whether the argument is sound.
  • 8. Evaluating an Argument Understand the claim, or opinion. Read through the article to make sure you understand the issue.
      • Identify the author’s claim , or opinion —the thing the author is trying to prove.
      • Restate the author’s opinion in your own words.
  • 9. Evaluating an Argument Quick Check Jurors are drawn from both sexes, all ethnic groups, all economic backgrounds, all adult ages, all religions, and all neighborhoods within a jurisdiction. (Indeed, the only qualification a person needs to be a juror is the ability to be fair and impartial.) Consequently, a jury will reflect diverse viewpoints and experiences, rather than just the viewpoint and experiences of a single judge. The jury system thus helps ensure that a verdict will not be based on an individual’s biases or lack of understanding of particular people’s experiences. — from “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, Esq. What is the author’s claim?
  • 10. Evaluating an Argument Quick Check What is the author’s claim? Because jurors come from varied backgrounds, the jury system helps ensure that verdicts are fair. Jurors are drawn from both sexes, all ethnic groups, all economic backgrounds, all adult ages, all religions, and all neighborhoods within a jurisdiction. (Indeed, the only qualification a person needs to be a juror is the ability to be fair and impartial.) Consequently, a jury will reflect diverse viewpoints and experiences, rather than just the viewpoint and experiences of a single judge. The jury system thus helps ensure that a verdict will not be based on an individual’s biases or lack of understanding of particular people’s experiences. — from “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, Esq.
  • 11. Evaluating an Argument Identify the support. To present persuasive arguments, an author must support his or her claims. Look for
      • logical appeals
      • emotional appeals
  • 12. Evaluating an Argument Logical appeals include reasons and evidence.
      • Reasons are statements that explain why the author holds an opinion.
      • Evidence is the information that authors use to support their reasons. Evidence includes
        • facts
        • statistics (number facts)
        • examples
        • quotations from or opinions of experts
  • 13. Evaluating an Argument Emotional appeals play on readers’ emotions rather than their reason. Emotional appeals include
      • loaded words (words with strong emotional connotations)
    Emotional appeals can be effective but shouldn’t be relied on too heavily. Arguments that rely heavily on emotional appeals rather than logic are usually weak.
      • anecdotes (brief stories)
  • 14. Evaluating an Argument The author claims that the jury system helps ensure a fair trial. What support does he present? Quick Check Jurors are drawn from both sexes, all ethnic groups, all economic backgrounds, all adult ages, all religions, and all neighborhoods within a jurisdiction. (Indeed, the only qualification a person needs to be a juror is the ability to be fair and impartial.) Consequently, a jury will reflect diverse viewpoints and experiences, rather than just the viewpoint and experiences of a single judge. The jury system thus helps ensure that a verdict will not be based on an individual’s biases or lack of understanding of particular people’s experiences. — from “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, Esq.
  • 15. Evaluating an Argument Quick Check What support does the author present? He explains that jurors come from varied backgrounds. Jurors are drawn from both sexes, all ethnic groups, all economic backgrounds, all adult ages, all religions, and all neighborhoods within a jurisdiction. (Indeed, the only qualification a person needs to be a juror is the ability to be fair and impartial.) Consequently, a jury will reflect diverse viewpoints and experiences, rather than just the viewpoint and experiences of a single judge. The jury system thus helps ensure that a verdict will not be based on an individual’s biases or lack of understanding of particular people’s experiences. — from “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, Esq.
  • 16. Evaluating an Argument Quick Check Does the author use logical or emotional appeals? Jurors are drawn from both sexes, all ethnic groups, all economic backgrounds, all adult ages, all religions, and all neighborhoods within a jurisdiction. (Indeed, the only qualification a person needs to be a juror is the ability to be fair and impartial.) Consequently, a jury will reflect diverse viewpoints and experiences, rather than just the viewpoint and experiences of a single judge. The jury system thus helps ensure that a verdict will not be based on an individual’s biases or lack of understanding of particular people’s experiences. — from “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, Esq.
  • 17. Evaluating an Argument Logical appeals Quick Check Does the author use logical or emotional appeals? Jurors are drawn from both sexes, all ethnic groups, all economic backgrounds, all adult ages, all religions, and all neighborhoods within a jurisdiction. (Indeed, the only qualification a person needs to be a juror is the ability to be fair and impartial.) Consequently, a jury will reflect diverse viewpoints and experiences, rather than just the viewpoint and experiences of a single judge. The jury system thus helps ensure that a verdict will not be based on an individual’s biases or lack of understanding of particular people’s experiences. — from “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, Esq.
  • 18. Evaluating an Argument Evaluate the evidence. A good argument must be backed up by solid evidence. As you read, ask yourself:
      • Does the evidence directly support the author’s reasons?
      • Does the author present sufficient evidence to back up generalizations and prove the claim?
      • Has the author loaded the argument with emotional appeals instead of providing valid evidence?
  • 19. Evaluating an Argument How effective is the author’s evidence? Quick Check Jurors are drawn from both sexes, all ethnic groups, all economic backgrounds, all adult ages, all religions, and all neighborhoods within a jurisdiction. (Indeed, the only qualification a person needs to be a juror is the ability to be fair and impartial.) Consequently, a jury will reflect diverse viewpoints and experiences, rather than just the viewpoint and experiences of a single judge. The jury system thus helps ensure that a verdict will not be based on an individual’s biases or lack of understanding of particular people’s experiences. — from “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, Esq.
  • 20. Evaluating an Argument The evidence is somewhat effective. Examples would strengthen the argument. Quick Check How effective is the author’s evidence? Jurors are drawn from both sexes, all ethnic groups, all economic backgrounds, all adult ages, all religions, and all neighborhoods within a jurisdiction. (Indeed, the only qualification a person needs to be a juror is the ability to be fair and impartial.) Consequently, a jury will reflect diverse viewpoints and experiences, rather than just the viewpoint and experiences of a single judge. The jury system thus helps ensure that a verdict will not be based on an individual’s biases or lack of understanding of particular people’s experiences. — from “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, Esq.
  • 21. Evaluating an Argument Identify the author’s intent. Think about why the author is making this argument.
      • Pay attention to how the author’s intent , or purpose, influences the tone of the argument.
      • Look for bias , or prejudice, on the part of the author.
  • 22. Evaluating an Argument What is the author’s intent? Quick Check Jurors are drawn from both sexes, all ethnic groups, all economic backgrounds, all adult ages, all religions, and all neighborhoods within a jurisdiction. (Indeed, the only qualification a person needs to be a juror is the ability to be fair and impartial.) Consequently, a jury will reflect diverse viewpoints and experiences, rather than just the viewpoint and experiences of a single judge. The jury system thus helps ensure that a verdict will not be based on an individual’s biases or lack of understanding of particular people’s experiences. — from “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, Esq.
  • 23. Evaluating an Argument To convince the reader that the jury system works. Quick Check What is the author’s intent? Jurors are drawn from both sexes, all ethnic groups, all economic backgrounds, all adult ages, all religions, and all neighborhoods within a jurisdiction. (Indeed, the only qualification a person needs to be a juror is the ability to be fair and impartial.) Consequently, a jury will reflect diverse viewpoints and experiences, rather than just the viewpoint and experiences of a single judge. The jury system thus helps ensure that a verdict will not be based on an individual’s biases or lack of understanding of particular people’s experiences. — from “A Defense of the Jury System” by Thomas M. Ross, Esq.
  • 24. Evaluating an Argument Create a chart. Identify an argument’s strengths and weaknesses. [End of Section] Evaluating an Author’s Argument Claim or Opinion: Logical Appeals Reason 1: Evidence: Reason 2: Evidence: Emotional Appeals Loaded Words: Anecdotes: Tone:
  • 25. Assignment As you read “A Defense of the Jury System,” evaluate the credibility of the author’s arguments. [End of Section] Evaluating an Author’s Argument Claim or Opinion: Logical Appeals Reason 1: Evidence: Reason 2: Evidence: Emotional Appeals Loaded Words: Anecdotes: Tone:
  • 26. The End
  • 27. Evaluating an Argument Claim Authors often present their claims in the form of generalizations —broad statements that apply to many situations. Laws requiring cyclists to wear helmets save lives. Tutoring programs help students earn higher grades and build self-esteem.
  • 28. Evaluating an Argument Loaded words are intended to persuade readers by appealing to their emotions. hero victim freedom survivor sacrifice reckless greed poison
  • 29. Evaluating an Argument Ancedotes personalize an issue and often put a human face on cold facts. When my son had a seizure, the 911 operator really helped me stay calm and focused. She gave clear instructions and let me know that help was on the way.
  • 30. Evaluating an Argument Bias is a prejudice toward one side of an issue.
      • Unbiased writers carefully weigh the evidence before arriving at an opinion.
      • Biased writers present only one side of an issue.
  • 31. Evaluating an Argument Intent is the purpose for writing.
      • Is the writer trying to inform readers about a topic or situation?
      • Is the writer trying to persuade readers to change their minds or to take action?

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