Day 2 history and psych foundations bridgewater 2011


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  • Chapter 8 mcgraw hill site
  • Thorndike maintained that: Conditions influence behavior Attitudes and ability can improve over time Instruction can be designed and controlled It is important to select stimuli and experiences that are integrated consistently and reinforce connections
  • He attempted, more than others at the time to apply his theory to the classroom.
  • Examples: If a student does well, praising them is a positive reinforcment. If a teacher shouts “keep quiet!” the students silence reinforces the shouting.” Negative reinforcement is the removal of a harmful stimulant when desired behavior occurs (removing electric current in the operant box with rats when the pressed the lever) In the rats, if they pressed the lever, they were rewarded. If the food was not provided when they pressed the lever, (negative) then they would eventually stop pressing.
  • While learning new skills, students must know if they are doing things correctly or they will become frustrated or unsure of themselves.
  • He doesn’t seem fall solely under behaviorism. He is in between behaviorism and congitive pyschology.
  • He is best known for his Nine Instructional Events. (Cognitive)
  • 1. fear response to a rat (scared of it) 2. Student’s response to “please sit” 3. dotting the i and crossing the t in a word with both letters 4. translating a foreign word
  • 5. discriminating between grass and trees 6. examples, animals grammar, and so on 7. animals have offspring – adjective modifies a noun 8. finding the area of a triangle given the dimensions of two sides.
  • Day 2 history and psych foundations bridgewater 2011

    1. 1. Welcome to Day 2
    2. 2. <ul><li> _.html </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Quiz – what’s my educational philosophy </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Online version </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree with the results? </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Jigsaw read Chapter 2 to review and discuss. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Fill out chart, compare and then hand out chart with copy of p. 55/56 </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li> </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophies of Education </li></ul><ul><li>You will find a mission statement posted on all of the following K-12 school Web sites. Goodwin School Shafter Elementary School Evergreen Kingsburg School </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the philosophies covered can you identify within these mission statements? What Web site elements photos, content, format give credence to your appraisal and validate the school's philosophy? Are there conflicting messages? </li></ul><ul><li>Which mission statement is most appealing to you? What does this tell you about your own philosophy of education? </li></ul><ul><li>Mission statements etc. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
    8. 8. Historical Foundations
    9. 9. Historical foundations <ul><li>Colonial </li></ul><ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>Nineteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>Universal education </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional period </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is born </li></ul>
    10. 10. Colonial Period (1642-1776) <ul><li>Reading as most important subject </li></ul><ul><li>Writing, then spelling to understand scriptures and notices of civil affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Town School </li></ul><ul><li>Parochial / Private School </li></ul><ul><li>Latin Grammar Schools </li></ul><ul><li>The Academy </li></ul><ul><li>College </li></ul><ul><li>Old Textbooks, Old Readers </li></ul>
    11. 11. National Period (1776-1850) <ul><li>Decline of religious influence </li></ul><ul><li>Link with government and freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Rush – Science, Progree and Free Education </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson – Education for Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Webster – Schoolmaster and Cultural Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>McGuffey – Readers and American Virtues </li></ul>
    12. 12. Nineteenth Century European Educators <ul><li>Psychologically oriented curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>New practices contrary to rote, memorization and corporal punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Pestalozzi – General and Special Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Froebel – the Kindergarten Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Herbart – Moral and Intellectual Development </li></ul><ul><li>Spencer – Utilitarian and Scientific Education </li></ul>
    13. 13. Rise of Universal Education (1820-1920) <ul><li>Equality, mass education </li></ul><ul><li>Monitorial Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Common Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary School Curriculum Evolves </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Schools </li></ul><ul><li>The Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary School Curriculum Evolves </li></ul>
    14. 14. Activity <ul><li>Jigsaw - In groups of 3-6, each read one or two periods of history from the reading provided (Chapter 3 from Ornstein and Hunkins book), taking notes but focusing on one aspect. </li></ul><ul><li>Told you, you’d be happy you didn’t have to order this as your course textbook! </li></ul><ul><li>Zero in on one aspect and see how it has changed over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your findings with your group and complete the chart. </li></ul><ul><li>As others share their findings, fill in your chart for other aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>Math, Reading, Writing, Science, Arts, Gender </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    15. 15. The Last Thirty Years <ul><li>1970s - special interest groups/government agencies took over leadership of program development </li></ul><ul><li>1980s - provincial/state governments took leadership in response to industrial and business interests in academic excellence </li></ul><ul><li>1990s - curriculum development at local level regained importance; &quot;effective schools&quot;; site-based management; emphasis on curriculum adaptations to community's learners </li></ul>
    16. 16. So…Shift Happens? <ul><li>Curriculum is dynamic and ever changing </li></ul><ul><li>“Truth and reality are whatever the individual or group discuss it to be.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Now What? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Dewey’s pedagogic creed <ul><li>How does this apply today? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this fit in with the ideas presented by Shift Happens? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    18. 18. Psychological Foundations of Curriculum
    19. 19. Focusing Questions <ul><li>In what ways do psychological foundations enable curriculum workers (teachers, supervisors, and curriculum developers) to perform their educational responsibilities? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you compare the three major theoretical schools of learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How has the view of multiple intelligences influenced the field of curriculum? How might this concept of intelligence influence the field in the future? </li></ul><ul><li>How does constructivism incorporate the most recent views of learning? </li></ul>
    20. 20. Focusing Questions <ul><li>How should the concept of learning styles influence the thinking of those responsible for curriculum development and delivery? </li></ul><ul><li>How should an educator use the information about various types of thinking? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you define humanistic learning in schools? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways can addressing emotional intelligence be justified in the curriculum? </li></ul>
    21. 21. What is Psychology? <ul><li>Psychology is the scientific study of mental functions and behavior including: </li></ul><ul><li>perception, cognition, behavior, emotion, personality, and interpersonal relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>The major theories of learning have been classified into three groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorist theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on stimulus response and reinforcers; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies conditioning, modifying, or shaping behavior through reinforcement and rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses information processing in relation to the total environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies developmental stages, understanding, multiple forms of intelligence, problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phenomenological and Humanistic theories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on the whole child, their social, psychological, and cognitive development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies focus on human needs, attitudes, feelings and self-awareness. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Do the major theories agree? <ul><li>Psychology theories provide insight into understanding the teaching and learning process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do learners respond as they do to teachers efforts? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What impact does the school and culture have on students learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychology theories provide principles and direction for curriculum developer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How should curriculum be organized to enhance learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the optimal level of student participation in learning the curriculums various contents? </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Activity <ul><li>In small groups, learn about a psychological theory of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a multimedia product to share key findings with your group – engage us, motivate us, help us wade through this information in an entertaining way . </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviourism </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive – Montessori, Piaget, Vygotsky, Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative! </li></ul><ul><li>How does this fit in with us? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Behaviorism <ul><ul><li>Key Players: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorndike – Connectionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavlov (and Watson) – Classical Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skinner – Operant Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandura – Observable Learning and Modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gagné – Hierarchical Learning </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Edward Thorndike <ul><ul><li>Father of modern educational psychology & founder of behavioral psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started his research with animals using stimulus-response (classic conditioning) and developed the idea of Connectionism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1928-Thordike conducted his first major study with adults. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined learning as a connection or association of an increasing number of habits. (More complicated associations means higher levels of understanding.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three Laws of Learning </li></ul></ul>&quot;Photo of Edward Thorndike.&quot; [Online image] 1 February 2009. <http://> (1874 – 1949)
    26. 26. <ul><li>Law of Readiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often misinterpreted as educational readiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deals with attitudes and focus. “Why should I do this?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If nervous system is ready, conduction is satisfying and lack of conduction is annoying. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law of Exercise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of connections is proportional to frequency, duration, and intensity of its occurrence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justifies drill, repetition and review. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seen today in behavior modification and basic skill instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law of Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responses that cause satisfaction strengthen connections and discomfort weakens connections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justifies use of rewards and punishments, especially Skinner’s operant model. </li></ul></ul>Three Laws of Learning
    27. 27. Thorndike’s Influence <ul><li>Thorndike and other followers believed that rote memorization does not necessarily strengthen connections. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There has to be some sort of meaning associated with it in order to be transferred to other situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thorndike broke the traditional thinking about hierarchy of subject matter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One subject was no more important to meaningful learning than another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Until then, math and science were seen as more important to teaching structure. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Ivan Pavlov <ul><ul><li>Pavlov was the first to demonstrate Classical Conditioning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He is best known for his experiment with salivating dogs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliciting an unconditioned response by using previously neutral stimuli. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditioned stimuli create reflexes that are not “learned,” but are instinctual. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral and unconditioned stimuli are introduced at the same time. Unconditioned stimuli are gradually removed, and the neutral stimuli elicit the same reflex. </li></ul></ul></ul>&quot;Pavlov's Drooling Dogs.&quot; [Online image] 1 February 2009. <http://> (1849 – 1936)
    29. 29. <ul><li>Pavlov’s experiment with salivating dogs best demonstrated the principle of Classical Conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs were trained to salivate at the sound of a bell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dogs naturally salivated with food. (Unconditioned response) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A bell (neutral stimuli) was rung every time the dogs were fed over a period of time creating the association/connection of the bell with food. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After time, the dogs salivated at the sound of the bell alone. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pavlov’s Dogs Game </li></ul>Pavlov’s Dogs
    30. 30. James Watson <ul><li>Watson took Pavlov’s findings to another level. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasized that learning was observable or measurable, not cognitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed the key to learning was in conditioning a child from an early age based on Pavlov’s methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture vs. Nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watson’s theories strengthened the argument for the influence of experiences as opposed to genetics. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. B. F. Skinner <ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner was one of the most influential American psychologists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He began his research with rats at Harvard and pigeons during WWII. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His work led to the development of the Theory of Operant Conditioning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The idea that behavior is determined or influenced by its consequence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent vs. Operant behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent behavior is the elicited response tied to a definite stimulus. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operant behavior is the emitted response seemingly unrelated to any specific stimuli. </li></ul></ul></ul>Joyce Dopkeen-New York Times. &quot;B.F. Skinner.&quot; [Online image] 1 February 2009. <http://>. (1904 – 1990)
    32. 32. <ul><li>Types of reinforcers (stimuli) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary – stimuli fulfilling basic human drives such as food and water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary – personally important, such as approval of friends or teachers, winning money, awards, or recognition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary reinforcers can become primary. Due to the wide range of secondary reinforcers, Skinner referred to them as generalized. </li></ul></ul>Operant Conditioning
    33. 33. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Operant behavior will “extinguish” without reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcer – presenting a reinforcing stimulus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement – removing/withdrawing a stimulus or reinforcer but it is not punishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment – presenting harmful stimuli (rejected by Skinner because he felt it interfered with learning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Reinforcers always strengthen behavior.” “Punishment is used to suppress behavior.” (B.F. Skinner, “A Brief Survey of Operant Behavior” </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Desired operant behaviors must be reinforced in a timely manner. Delay of reinforcement hinders performance. </li></ul><ul><li>By selecting which behavior to reinforce, we can direct the learning process in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners can acquire new operants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As behavior is shaped, new and more complex concepts can be introduced and desired behavior again reinforced. </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Operant Conditioning “ Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten” B.F. Skinner &quot;Skinner Box.&quot; [Online image] 1 February 2009. <http://>.
    36. 36. Albert Bandura <ul><ul><li>Bandura contributed to the understanding of learning through observation and modeling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He showed that aggressive behavior can be learned from watching adults fighting, violent cartoons or even violent video games. Passive behavior can also be learned from watching adults with subdued </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated demonstration and modeling is used by coaches in various sports, military endeavors, and is also used in the classroom setting to model and practice desired behaviors. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Robert Gagné <ul><ul><li>Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning notes the transition from behaviorism to cognitive psychology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hierarchy of Learning is an arrangement of 8 behaviors ranging from simple to complex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The first 5 behaviors are Behaviorist, the next 2 are both behaviorist and cognitive and the last (highest form) is cognitive. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The hierarchy suggests a “bottom-up” approach to learning where general principles/concepts must be learned before advanced learning can take place. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He also describes 5 observable and measurable learning outcomes </li></ul></ul>&quot;Photo of Robert Gagne.&quot; [Online image] 1 February 2009. <http://>. (1916 – 2002)
    38. 38. Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning Behavioral Behavioral Behavioral Behavioral 1. Signal Learning : Classical Conditioning - Response to a signal 2. Stimulus-Response: Operant Conditioning – Response to given stimulus 3. Motor Chains: Linking two or more stimulus response connections to form a more complex skill 4. Verbal Association: Linking two or more words or ideas
    39. 39. Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning (Cont.) Behavioral Behavioral - Cognitive Behavioral - Cognitive Cognitive – higher order 5. Multiple Discriminations: Responding in different ways to different items in a set 6. Concepts: reacting to stimuli in an abstract way 7. Rules: Chaining two or more stimulus situations or concepts 8. Problem Solving Combining known rules/principles into new situations to solve a problem
    40. 40. Robert Gagné (Cont.) <ul><li>Five Learning Outcomes (observable and measurable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ knowing how” to organize and use verbal and mathematical symbols, concepts and rules to solve a problem. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ knowing what” – knowledge and facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ learning strategies” needed to process information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to coordinate movements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings and emotions developed from positive and negative experiences. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mental operations needed for each outcome differ. </li></ul><ul><li>Gagné’s Instructional Events lead into cognitive psychology. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Cognitive Psychology
    42. 42. Background <ul><li>Replaced behaviorism as dominant philosophy in 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Criticisms of Behaviorism: </li></ul><ul><li>Did not explain: </li></ul><ul><li>language learning </li></ul><ul><li>why people respond differently to the same stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>reinforcement can reduce motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity of newly discovered theories of Piaget and Vygotsky in the 50’s and 60’s </li></ul>
    43. 43. Beginning Mental Model Schools of Thought Behaviorism Cognitive Psychology Piaget, Vygotsky Skinner, Pavlov
    44. 44. Working Mental Model <ul><li>Bandura- bridge/transition </li></ul><ul><li>learning is social by observation, modeling, imitation </li></ul>Behaviorism Cognitive Psychology Pavlov Skinner Bandura Vygotsky Piaget Environment Behavior Spectrum
    45. 45. Behaviorism vs. Cognitive Essential Irrelevant Activation of Prior Knowledge Prepare environment Provide stimulus Teachers role Evidence pointing to brain activity- learning The end in themselves- the only observable truth Behaviors Cognitive Theory Behaviorism Attribute
    46. 46. Maria Montessori (1870 - 1952) <ul><li>Rationale for including her: </li></ul><ul><li>Authors do not place her with progressive child- centered approaches-lack of “free play” vs. freedom within structure </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed behaviorist focus on only “doing” but focused also on looking and listening </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on how sensory stimulation from the environment shapes thinking </li></ul>
    47. 47. Montessori’s Legacy What she did: Psychiatric Clinic at the University of Rome- taught “difficult” children to read at a normal level 1906 asked to start a progressive school for slum children of Italy- Casa dei Bambini (Children’s House)
    48. 48. Jean Piaget 1896 - 1980 <ul><li>Swiss psychologist (Pestalozzi) </li></ul><ul><li>America noticed in the 50’s and 60’s </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced: Tyler, Taba, Bruner, Kohlburg </li></ul><ul><li>and MANY MORE!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Tyler- various assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Taba-Too many facts, not enough connections </li></ul><ul><li>Bruner-stages like Piaget, but are revisited to develop in complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Kohlburg- moral stages </li></ul>
    49. 49. Piaget- Cognitive development stages Formal operations begins @ 11-15 abstract thinker Concrete operations (ages 7 to 11) begins to think abstractly, needs physical, concrete examples Preoperational stage (ages 2 to 4) Needs concrete interactions (no abstract) use of symbols (pictures, words) to communicate Sensorimotor stage (Birth to 2 years old) learning by movement and sensory exploration
    50. 50. Piaget <ul><li>Like Gagne, stages described as hierarchal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning involves: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assimilation (filing info </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in an existing schema) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accommodation (changing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>schemata to fit new info) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Schema theory explains: </li></ul><ul><li>importance of accessing prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>why cognitive dissonance strategies work </li></ul>
    51. 51. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) <ul><li>Russian psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>The West published in 1962 </li></ul><ul><li>theory of sociocultural development </li></ul><ul><li>Culture requires skilled tool use (language, art, counting systems) </li></ul><ul><li>The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) : distance between a student’s performance with help and performance independently. </li></ul><ul><li>learning occurred in this zone </li></ul>
    52. 52. Piaget vs. Vygotsky Modeling and guided learning Discrete hierarchal stages of the individual Emphasis social learning development Which comes first : social learning (chicken) or development (egg)? Vygotsky Piaget
    53. 53. Constructivism <ul><li>Some include this as a separate theory, other include it inside of cognitive theories </li></ul><ul><li>What is learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Individual must construct own knowledge- make meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Learner must reshape words- mimicking is not enough. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners must make knowledge personally relevant </li></ul>
    54. 54. Constructivism <ul><li>How does learning take place? </li></ul><ul><li>New information is linked to prior knowledge, so mental representations are subjective for each learner </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is optimal when there is awareness of the process- metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>“ A common misunderstanding regarding constructivism is that instructors should never tell students anything directly but, instead, should always allow them to construct knowledge for themselves. This is actually confusing a theory of pedagogy (teaching) with a theory of knowing. Constructivism assumes that all knowledge is constructed from the learner’s previous knowledge, regardless of how one is taught. Thus, even listening to a lecture involves active attempts to construct new knowledge.” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2009, January). Constructivism at Retrieved January 24th, 2009 from </li></ul>
    55. 55. What do you want to know about? <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    56. 56. Assignments so far…. <ul><li>Working Definition – jot down a quick thought every day – please date entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>Article Critique / Discussion – search for articles based on something you are interested in – recent articles please. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Curriculum Unit – let’s talk… </li></ul>