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  1. 1. INDEX Sl. Para Description Page No. No. PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i-xxvii CHAPTER I PERSPECTIVE AND CONTEXT 1. 1.1 Induction Training Reflects the Federal Features of the 1 Service: 2. 1.2 Structure and Duration of the Induction Training 2 3. 1.3 Objectives of Professional Training at LBSNAA 3 4. 1.4 State and District Training 4 5. 1.5 The Constitution of the Syllabus Review Committee: 5 CHAPTER II METHODOLOGY 6. 2.1 Approach adopted by the Committee 8 7. 2.2 Issues Considered by the Committee 8 8. 2.3 Consultations with Experts, and Stakeholders 9 CHAPTER III 9. 3.1 Training Needs & the Current Induction Training: 13 A Synthesis of the Inputs Received 10. 3.2 Who are the trainees? 13 11. 3.3 Working environment 15 12. 3.4 Framework to Assess Training Needs and Training 20 Gaps 13. 3.5 The Value Challenge 21 14 3.6 Subject/Sectoral Expertise 29 15. 3.7 What the respondents have to say about content and 32 transaction of syllabus 16. 3.8 Political Concepts and Constitution, and Indian History 34 and Culture 17. 3.9 Law 38 18. 3.10 Integrating Public Administrations and Management 40
  2. 2. 19. 3.11 More Emphasis on Development Needed 42 20. 3.12 More Emphasis on Urban Governance Needed 45 21. 3.13 Training in Districts and ATIs 47 22. 3.14 More Economics 49 23. 3.15 Skills and Competencies directly related to the tasks of 52 a SDM/Additional DM/DM. 24. 3.16 Language 54 25. 3.17 Questions of pedagogy 54 Training is too theoretical and attempts far too many things, many of which are not relevant 26. 3.18 Restructuring the Sandwich Pattern: Dr. Agnihotri’s 58 Theo-Practical Model CHAPTER IV FOUNDATION COURSE 27 4.1 Duration 60 28 4.2 Periodicity of Foundation Course 60 29 4.3 All Services to Give Equal Weightage to Foundation 61 Course 30 4.4 Duration of a Class 62 31 4.5 Reorganization of Subjects 62 32. 4.6 Contemporary India and the Global Environment 63 33. 4.7 Governance, Ethics, and Leadership 63 34. 4.8 Public Administration and Management 64 35. 4.9 eGovernance 65 36. 4.10 Law 65 37. 4.11 Political Economy 66 38. 4.12 Evaluation 66 Foundation Course 39. Table I Contemporary India and the Global Environment 67 Syllabus 40. Table II Foundation Course: Governance, Ethics & Leadership 73 Syllabus 41. Table III Foundation Course: Public Administration & 78 Management Syllabus 42. Table IV Foundation Course: eGovernace Syllabus 82
  3. 3. 43. Table V Foundation Course: Law Syllabus 85 44. Table VI Foundation Course: Political Economy Syllabus 87 CHAPTER V IAS PROFESSIONAL TRAINING PART I: INTRODUCTORY 45. 5.1 Duration of Phase I, State/District and Phase II Training 89 46. 5.2 Basic Principles underlying the changes suggested to 91 the syllabus 47. 5.3 Reorganization of Subjects 92 48. 5.4 Indian Administrative Service (Probationers Final 93 Examination) to be at the end of State/District Training 49. 5.5 Learning Objectives during State/District Training 94 50 5.6 Structured Training Pattern 94 51. 5.7 Strengthening of ATIs 95 52. 5.8 Choice of Training District and District Collector 95 53. 5.9 Fostering Linkages Between the Training at LBSNAA 96 and in the States/Districts 54. 5.10 District Assignments and Action Research 96 55. 5.11 Focus on Experience Sharing & Interactive Sessions 98 56. 5.12 Additional Modules and Seminars 98 57. 5.13 Additional Inputs on eGovernance 99 58. Table I Common Pattern of State Attachment of IAS 107 Probationers 59. Table II Additional Inputs of Governance, Ethics and 108 Leadership 60. Table III Additional Inputs of Administration and Management 109 61. Table IV Additional Inputs of Human and Social Development 109 62. Table V District and Regulatory Administration 112 63. Table VI Additional Inputs of eGovernance 115 64. Table VII Additional Inputs of Law 117 65. Table VIII Additional Inputs of Political Economy 120 66. Table IX Allocation of the Module Themes Currently being 122 Transacted Among Different 67. Table X Illustrative List of Topics Which Need to be Covered 123 During the State/District Training
  4. 4. 68. Table XI EGovernance Training module Professional 126 Course(Phase II) 69. Table XII Indian Administration Service (Probationers Final 127 Examination) Regulation, 1955: Allocation of Marks Among Subjects CHAPTER VI TRAINING OF OFFICERS PROMOTED OR APPOINTED BY SELECTION TO THE IAS 70. 6.1 Rules Regarding promotion to the IAS 128 71. 6.2 Present Pattern of Induction Training of Officers 128 Promoted to the IAS 72. 6.3 Training Needs of Officers Promoted to IAS 129 CHAPTER VII SELF DEVELOPMENT AND LIFELONG LEARNING 73. 7.1 Induction Training a Preparation for Lifelong Learning 132 74. 7.2 Facilitating Learning-on-the job by Young IAS Officers 133 75. 7.3 Linkages between Induction training with Mid-career 135 training Linki ng Induction/Mid-career Training with the Award of a Post Graduate Degree in Public Policy and Management CHAPTER VIII SPECIAL TRAINING NEEDS OF THE NORTH EAST CADRES 76. 8.1 Introductory 138 77. 8.2 Counseling 138 78. 8.3 Special Training Needs 139 79. 8.4 Special arrangements for on the on –job training 141 80. 8.5 Institutional arrangements 141 81. 8.6 Combating stereo-types 141 CHAPTER IX INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE STRENGTHENING OF LBSNAA 82. 9.1 Training Activities 142 83. 9.2 LBSNAA: Hub of Networks of Training Institutions 143 84. 9.3 Research Centres Attached to LBSNAA 143 85. 9.4 Institutional Collaborations 143 86. 9.5 Faculty 144 87. 9.6 Unit for Case Development 146
  5. 5. 88. 9.7 LBSNAA to be the National Repository of Training 147 Material 89. 9.8 Reorganizing the Structure of LBSNAA 147 90. Annexure I The Indian Administration Services (Probationers’ 151 Final Examination) Regulations, 1955 91. Annexure II Salient Features of the Foundation, Phase I, State and 156 Phase II Training1 92. Appendix II District Training Programme for IAS Officer-Trainees 212 To Annexure II 93. Appendix III Training need Analysis & Design of Training 213 To Annexure II 94. Annexure III OFFICE MEMORANDUM 278 95. Annexure IV Dear Colleague, The Government have appointed a 280 committee under the chairmanship of Shri RVV Ayyar, IAS [Retd.] to review the induction training of IAS officers. Your views would be very valuable for the review. I Shall be grateful if you could devote a little time for offering your views. A questionnaire is enclosed to help you to organize your thoughts. Vashudha Mishra 96. Annexure V Committee for Reviewing the Induction Training of 287 IAS Officers Questionnaire for eliciting the views of Senior IAS officers who s upervise the work of IAS officers with ten years of 10 years of service or less) 97. Annexure VI Questionnaire for Officers Promoted from the State 289 Civil Services/Gazetted Services
  6. 6. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 Preface It is a great privilege and pleasure to chair the IAS Induction Training Syllabus Review Committee which was constituted by the Department of Personnel and Training on 29th March, 2005. To use an evocative expression of V.S.Naipaul, the ongoing democratization process has transformed India into a land of mutinies. The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution have altogether transformed district administration and the role of district officers. The working environment has become more demanding and complex. There is an all-pervasive demand for improved governance. The Information Technology Revolution is reconfiguring the landscape of governance. E-Governance expands the reach and grasp of governments and makes it possible to attain levels of performance that were hitherto unimaginable. The need for inculcating values in the officers for further professionalising the civil services has become all the more important. The spirit of the times calls for the IAS to reinvent itself, enhance public confidence by superb professional competence, personal commitment and professional and personal integrity. In its work, the Committee was greatly benefited by: — The extensive presentations made and inputs provided by the faculty of LBSNAA; — Papers presented by officers and academics; — An evaluation study commissioned by the Department of Personnel and Training and undertaken by the Centre for Good Governance, Hyderabad; and — An alternative model of Induction Training drawn up by Dr. V.K.Agnihotri, former Secretary to Govt. of India and former Jt. Director of LBSNAA. The Committee was also able to assess the training needs as well as changes needed in the induction training by a synthesis of the multifarious inputs received through extensive stakeholder consultations it had with the LBSNAA faculty, well known experts in the fields of Law, Management, Public Administration, Economics etc, Directors of CTIs/ATIs, IAS officers of various levels of seniority, representatives of Civil Society Organisations, Governors, Chief Ministers, State Governments and Central Government Ministries and Departments. The responses received were extremely rich in content and covered a wide range of issues that the Committee ought to consider. It is significant that except for a couple of responses, none questioned the duration of the training or the idea underlying the present sandwich pattern of training.
  7. 7. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 In this report an attempt has been made to offer practical recommendations keeping in mind the central message emerging from the various responses that training needs to inculcate in the OTs professional competence, personal commitment and professional and personal integrity. I hope that implementation of the recommendations contained in this report would further enhance the relevance of training and reinforce the Government’s ongoing efforts in bringing about civil service reforms and further professionalising the IAS. I would like to express my gratitude to all those who have helped the Committee in its work, by providing substantive i nputs and participating in the deliberations of the Committee. (R.V.Vaidyanatha Ayyar) Chairman 19.06.2007
  8. 8. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 Acknowledgements The Committee wishes to place on record its deep sense of gratitude to all those who have contributed to the making of this report, particularly the following: LBSNAA DoP&T Shri D.S.Mathur Shri Ajay Sawhney Shri Rudhra Gangadharan Shri Vineet Pandey Shri Padamvir Singh Ms. R.Jaya Shri L.C.Singhi Shri K.S.Saha Shri T.K.Manoj Kumar Ms Jyotsna Verma Ray Ms. Vasudha Mishra Shri Dileep Rao Ms. Ranjana Chopra Shri Arvind Pokhriyal Ms. Rajni Sibal ATIs & CTIs Shri K.K.Pathak Shri A.K.Parida Ms. Arti Ahuja Dr. Rakesh Hooja Ms. Kalpana Dube Dr. Harjit S. Anand Shri Alok Kumar Shri A.K.Choudhary Prof A.S.Khullar Shri G.S.Dutt Shri Akashdeep Chakravarti Shri Kamal Kumar Shri Rakesh Chandra Ms Shobhna Jain Shri Ashim Debnath Shri P. Dayachari Academics Shri M. Narayan Rao Prof M.Rajiv Lochan Dr. G.S. Rajagopal Dr. P.K.Mohanty Shri Ratnakar Gaekwad Prof Pranab Banerjee Ms. Meeta Rajivlochan Prof Seeta Prabhu Ms. Sujatha Saunik Dr. T.K.Oommen Others Dr. Vivek Kumar Dr. V.K.Agnihotri Civil Society Organisations Shri B.S.Baswan Dr. Rajesh Tandon, PRIA Dr.T.K.Oommen Shri Ramesh Ramanathan, Janagraha Shri Amarjeet Sinha BASIX, Hyderabad Shri R.S Pandey Shri Puran Chand Pandey, VANI Shri B.N.Goldar Shri Vithal Rajan
  9. 9. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 Executive Summary Overarching Elements of the Induction Training 1. Induction training, that is to say training on entry into service, has been an important feature of the Indian Administrative Service ever since it was constituted in 1947. Satisfactory completion of the training has been a rite of passage, marking the transition of the recruit from a probationer to an officer. Over years, the content and process of the induction training of IAS officers recruited through competitive examinations have changed considerably. And yet, that training retains its overarching elements and focus. The induction training has three overarching elements. They are: o Instruction at the IAS Training School, Delhi [Metcalfe House] till 1959 and at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration [LBSNAA], Mussoorie thereafter, o Learning by observing and learning by doing, mainly in a district and o Acculturation, imbibing the tradition, norms and mores of the service Induction Training is bifocal 2. The induction training is bifocal. It seeks to instill in every trainee an all-India perspective as befits an entrant to an All-India Service; yet at the same time, it also seeks to impart knowledge of the language, laws and administrative practices of the State cadre to which the trainee is posted. This is rightly so, given the way that the IAS was conceived and has been functioning. The IAS was designed as an integral part of our federal polity, as a service common to the Centre and the States, in order to ensure that the Centre is in close touch with ground realities, and that the States get a leavening of senior officers from outside whose vision and outlook transcend local horizons. The training of IAS officers is a joint responsibility of the State and Central Governments. The quality of training is ultimately dependent upon the interest that the Central and State Governments pay to the training of the entrants to service. Duration and Sequencing 3. The duration of the induction training is expected to be 104 weeks divided equally between LBSNAA and the State cadre to which the probationer is allotted. Since 1969, the “sandwich pattern” is in vogue. The 52 weeks of training at LBSNAA, inclusive of the Foundation Course is divided into spells: the first spell is of eight months duration and the second of four months. In between the two spells of training at LBSNAA is the training in the State cadre. The first spell of training is divided into two parts: the Foundation Course and Phase I IAS Professional Training; the second spell called Phase II IAS Professional Training is utilized to transact topics which are better comprehended after practical training in the field, for sharing by the probationers of their field experiences and for acquiring a comparative understanding of the administrative practices in different States. Phase I training includes a Winter Study Tour, of about eight weeks duration, popularly known as Bharat Darshan, a unique opportunity to savor the grandeur and rich diversity of a continental nation, discern the underlying unity in the midst of diversity. The Study tour is also utilized to get the trainees acquainted with armed services, public and private sector undertakings, media, NGOs, urban bodies, and Parliamentary practices. As of now, mainly due to logistical i
  10. 10. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 reasons, the total duration of training at LBSNAA is about forty-five weeks, of which Foundation Course is for a period of fifteen weeks, Phase I twenty six weeks and Phase II eight weeks. Or in other words, the training at LBSNAA falls short of the norm by about three weeks, and this has been impacting on the satisfactory transaction of the syllabus. Foundation Course 4. The Foundation Course is common to all those recruited to the All-India and Central services through the common Civil Service examination. Officers of some technical services like the Indian Economic Service and the Indian Statistical Service also participate in the Foundation Course. As its name suggests, the Foundation Course provides the foundation for the subsequent professional training of the different services at Central Training Institutions [CTIs] such as LBSNAA for the IAS, the Sardar Patel National Police Academy for the Indian Police Service, The National Academy of Direct Taxes, Nagpur for Indian Revenue Service, and the Railway Staff College, Vadodara for the Indian Railway Services. The Foundation Course acts as a bridge between the academic world of college and the structured system of government. The major objectives of the Foundation Course are the following: (i) developing an esprit de corps among the probationers of different services, (ii) fostering the attitudes and values that every senior civil servant should possess, and (iii) imparting a basic understanding of the environment, the machinery of the government, and of the subject competencies and skills that all these officers have to possess for discharging their duties in the initial years of service. 5. Of the 15 weeks duration, 12 weeks are devoted to course work and 3 weeks to village study and extracurricular activities like trekking and river rafting. The subjects studied are Management, Economics, Public Administration, Law, Political Concepts and Constitution of India, Indian History and Culture, Information and Communication Technology, Hindi (who have no prior proficiency) and language of the cadre. At the end of the Foundation Course, the officer-trainees (OTs) are assessed with reference to the proficiency they acquire in the subjects, the soft skills that are transacted in the Foundation Course, and the extent to which they internalize the values and attitudes that the course seeks to foster. IAS Professional Training 6. The duration and content of the Foundation Course are an administrative arrangement. The syllabus is decided by LBSNAA in consultation with the Directors of other Central Training Institutions. In contrast to the Foundation Course, the subjects and the broad syllabus of each subject to be covered in the professional training of IAS officers are specified by statute, namely the First Schedule to the Indian Administrative Service (Probationers Final Examination) Regulation, 1955. This schedule was last revised in 1996. However, in effect the syllabus and marks specified by the First Schedule have been functioning as a broad narrative framework within which LBSNAA has been regularly updating the syllabus, and fixing the total number of marks for each subject. In recent years, training at LBSNAA has come to focus on the training needs of the positions that officers are expected to hold in the first ten years. 7. Historically, the State-specific learning has been taking place in the district. “Mentoring” by the District Collector is a hoary civil service tradition. Several States have a structured pattern of ii
  11. 11. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 training, and the diaries of the OTs are reviewed and directions given not only by the Collector but officers supervising the work of Collectors such as the Member, Board of Revenue. However, in many States the training to be imparted is left to the discretion of the Collector, and it is not unusual for a Collector to consider the OT to be an extra hand for doing odd jobs. Over the last two decades, State Administrative Training Institutions [ATIs] have come up in most of the States, and the financial support of DOPT has endowed most of them with good physical infrastructure. In most States, training in ATIs has come to complement the institutional training at LBSNAA, and the training in the districts; they provide a more formal arrangement for the teaching of State laws, regulations and administrative practices. In most States, training in the State is coordinated by the State General Administration/Personnel Department, while in a very few States like Rajasthan it is the ATI which does the coordination. Annexure II is a descriptive narrative of the different aspects of training as it is now imparted, including the subjects, topics covered in each subject, sessions devoted to each topic, the pattern of training in the States/districts, and evaluation. Background to the appointment of the Committee 8. In 1977, the sandwich pattern was reviewed by LBSNAA at the behest of the Department of Personnel and Training [DOPT]; in 1986, and again in 1996 DOPT set up Study Groups to review the induction training. These reviews as well as the suggestions of a Standing Syllabus Review Committee contributed to the revision of the syllabus. In early 2005, the Government felt that it would be desirable to undertake a comprehensive decennial review of the induction training, and appointed a Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. R. V. Vaidyanatha Ayyar, IAS (Retd.). The Training Division, DOPT advised the Committee that instead of taking for granted the basic features of the present induction system, the review should question them, and assess their relevance, and that this would require a process of consultation with a wide range of stakeholders. Methodology Adopted by the Committee [Chapter 2] 9. The Committee adopted the following seven-pronged approach: (i) normatively assessing from first principles the training needs of an IAS officer during the first ten years of his service, (ii) adopting a historical approach, (iii) factoring in the syllabus of the new mid-career training programme of IAS officers as proposed by the Yugandhar Committee and as outlined by the DOPT in its Request For Proposals from reputed academic institutions in India and abroad, (iv) factoring in the training being imparted to higher civil servants in countries like France and the United Kingdom, (v) factoring in the syllabus of post graduate programmes in public policy, public administration, and public management in the various courses to which DOPT deputes IAS officers, (vi) factoring in the training in private sector and civil society organizations, and (vii) extensive stakeholder consultation on training. The Committee elicited the opinion of State Governments and Union Territory Administrations, Central Government ministries and departments, prominent public personalities like iii
  12. 12. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 Governors and Chief Ministers, Directors of CTIs and ATIs, LBSNAA faculty, IAS officers of various vintages, industry associations, civil society organizations, academics, and well known experts in the fields of law, management, public administration, and economics. The Committee drew upon the Internet Revolution and emergence of IAS and civil society virtual networks to reach out to thousands of persons and organizations. The questionnaires were posted on the websites of DOPT, LBSNAA, and a few NGO networks. The Committee also held consultation meetings in Mussoorie, Pune, Hyderabad, Delhi, Bangalore, and Guwahati. Questions considered by the Committee 10. The Committee examined the following questions: o Who are the trainees? § What is their sociological and academic background? § Have the characteristics of the trainees changed significantly since the previous reviews of induction training in 1986 and 1996? o What are the changes in the organizational and societal environment since the previous reviews? o What are the changes since the previous reviews of the governmental and societal perceptions and expectations of the IAS officers? o Are all these changes significant enough to warrant a change in the training design, content and transaction? o Normatively, what are the knowledge and skills that an OT should acquire at the end of the induction training and what are the attitudes and values that he should come to possess? o Does the induction training meet the normative standard? Does it impart the necessary knowl edge and skills, and suitably mould values and attitudes? o What are the Type I and Type II errors of the current induction training? § What are the knowledge, skills and Normative Values that the training ought to impart but does not? § Does it cover unnecessarily topics and skills, which the OTs already possess through their education, and preparation for the Civil Service Examinations? § Does the training impart or reinforce values and attitudes that are inappropriate for a life in public service in a democratic polity and society? o How effective is the training? How closely do the training outcomes correspond to the training objectives? o Can the effectiveness be improved by changes in design [duration, sequencing and methodology] of training? iv
  13. 13. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 Documents prepared for the Committee 11. The Committee also drew upon an evaluation study of the induction training by the Centre for Good Governance (CGG), Hyderabad, an alternative model of induction training drawn up by Dr. V.K.Agnihotri IAS (Retd), and eleven papers prepared by experts at the behest of the Committee. Duration needs no change; inter-se allocation of time needs change 12. It is significant that except for a couple of responses, none questioned the duration of the training or the idea underlying the sandwich training, namely that the training at LBSNAA should provide ample opportunities to OTs for reflecting on their field experiences. Given the overwhelming view of the respondents who span a wide cross-section of the society, and taking note of the fact that the overall training frame has stood the test of time, and seems to fit the unique organizing principles of the IAS, the Committee decided to retain the total duration of the training as well as the sandwich pattern; it is however necessary to alter the inter-se allocation of time between the institutional training at LBSNAA, and the State/district training, as well as the sequencing of training. The Committee, therefore, concentrated on a rigorous scrutiny of the content and process of training, keeping in mind the central message of the responses, namely that training needs to more intensely foster professional competence, personal commitment, and professional and personal integrity. Synthesis of Inputs [Chapter 3] OT profile 13 Chapter 3 synthesizes the responses received by the Committee. As compared to their counterparts before 1990s, as a group, today’s OTs are older and have a more diversified academic background. And more significantly, they are more representative of the Indian society, a fact that is often missed in the discourse on the IAS and governance. The 1990s witnessed the beginning of the large-scale influx of candidates with engineering, management, medical and agriculture education, several of them with degrees from the prestigious IITs and IIMs. However, in contrast to OTs with specialized professional qualifications, quite a few of the recent entrants have acquired their degrees thorough distance education, never entering the portals of a college, much less a university. Some of them were even engaged in blue-collar jobs before they joined the service. The social and regional composition of the IAS is no longer what it used be. In the past, metropolitan areas, a few states, a few select colleges and universities, and a few communities used to account for a significant share of the OTs. Happily, this is no longer so. From the point of view of training, the OTs are now more diverse, and majority of them are techno-savvy. Metamorphosis of the working environment 14. By all accounts, o the working environment in which officers have to work is, in comparison with the past, more demanding and complex, o there is all-pervasive demand for improved governance, v
  14. 14. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 o a paradigm shift has occurred in the idea of governance, of what governments should do, and also how they should govern, and o the reinforcing forces of globalization, urbanization, democratization, and IT revolution are immutably altering the practice of governance. 15. The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution have altogether transformed district administration and the role of district officers. Decision-making authority, which was formally centralized in the office of the District Collector, is now substantially more decentralized and diffused. Further, as befits a democratic polity, there is an ever-increasing pressure on governments at all levels to perform better, be more responsive to citizen needs and concerns, be transparent in their functioning, and enhance the space for the participation of citizens and citizen groups in the development and implementation of policies and programs. Issues are increasingly getting politicized, political consciousness is increasing, and the marginalized are now finding their voice. With the emergence of civil society and judicial activism, and the increasing uncertainty of electoral outcomes, the accountability of governments and of civil servants is qualitatively distinct from that in the past. The enactment of the Right to Information Act, 2005, gives an imprimatur to the new paradigm of governme nt. 16. Governments are expected to play multiple roles, not all of which are congruent. Further, perceptions about how the government should discharge a particular role [eg., creating an enabling environment for participation in a globalizing economy] vary widely; consequently governments are required to balance the competing perceptions. The very process of democratization renders governance at all levels infinitely more complex and arduous. An additional degree of complexity arises from the fact that the transition of the polity and society to a rule-bound democratic polity is not yet complete. In all, a command and control style of governance is utterly unsuitable. Dissent, and conflicts over policy, programmes and implementation are more open and sharper. Having an open mind, reconciling conflicting perceptions, interests and ideologies, and constructively engaging civil society and business groups are essential aspects of democratic governance. The process of reconciliation, and negotiating the maze of institutional checks and balances, can be long and arduous. It requires a higher level of negotiation skills than what civil servants traditionally possess, and further civil servants having an emotional temperament different from that in the past. 17. The challenge of coping with a more complex environment, which is arduous enough, is compounded by an all-pervasive cynicism and contempt of politics and administration. Part of the cynicism arises from an unrealistically idealistic view of government and politics. And further, condemning politics and government altogether carries the danger of delegitimizing democracy itself. Be that as it may, underlying the cynicism is a basic reality, namely that the governance at all levels needs vast improvement. By all accounts, India is on the trajectory of high economic growth and is poised to emerge as one of the top three economies of the world in the next three decades. The high growth makes possible eradicating the worst manifestations of deprivation, and building a more humane and inclusive society. The key to realizing this golden promise is better governance. 18. Much as it is ushering the post-Gutenberg society, the Information Technology [IT] Revolution is reconfiguring the landscape of governance, and transforming the machinery and tools of government. E-governance expands the reach and grasp of government, and makes it possible to attain levels of performance that were hitherto unimaginable. At the same time, the IT revolution has rendered some aspects of governance more complex and arduous. The 24-hour TV news channels, cell phone, and increasingly the Internet, have transformed the pace, rhythm and logic of vi
  15. 15. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 public affairs in their entirety. Dispersing an unlawful crowd, or as the Kutch earthquake, Tsunami and Mumbai floods have vividly shown, handling of natural calamites are now qualitatively different. Politics, elections, waging of war and peace, diplomacy, maintenance of law and order, handling of crises and natural calamites, judicial processes, negotiations, policymaking, and programme implementation, name any aspect of governance, it is not what it used to be. A welcome feature of the media revolution is that it has enhanced the power of citizens to control their governments. However, the power and impact of TV and the Internet are not an unmixed blessing. The Internet and Media revolutions have also contributed to the formidable reach and grasp of the multinational civil society networks. These networks can now reach out to groups anywhere in the world, and extend their solidarity and resources. Consequently, the local civil society groups now have a power to influence the actions and decisions of a government that is far higher than what their domestic standing would warrant. Managing the media and civil society groups, constructively engaging them, and if need be forging partnerships with them, have come to be important aspects of governance. Value Challenge 19. The responses of many officers have been self-critical, and echo the concerns expressed by civil society groups about the attitudes and working style of many IAS officers. What comes out is that in two or three years of service many officers lose their youthful idealism as they encounter the objective reality in the field, which is in sharp contrast to the rosy picture of district life they have in Mussoorie. Many of them, to quote a respondent, “either just take to sanyas literally, saying 'theek hai, chalta hai, kuch bhi nahin kar sakte hain' or they become a part of the whole unseemly state of things.” Many officers are genuinely concerned that quite a few of their colleagues are not behaving and performing in a manner which commands respect, that many are judgmental about people outside the service, and are unwilling to respect differences, to interact with “outsiders”, to work in a very participatory kind of a fashion., and that there are very many valid complaints of corruption, caste bias, insensitivity to the problems of the poor and under-privileged, and the poor delivery of services. 20. Many spoke of the travails of the young officer who wished “to hold his own even if he does not see this demonstrated around him,” of short and precarious tenures, of being subject multiple pressures and demands, of being caught in the cross-fire of conflicts between different officeholders (eg., chairman of the Zilla Parishad and the “district minister”), and of inadequate support from official and political superiors. It is imperative during the counseling, and in instruction to provide a realistic picture of the work environment, and to brace the OTs to face the challenges ahead. Many spoke of the need to stress the importance of officers being team players. OTs should be encouraged to internalize the fact that some occasions necessitate the officers to be in the limelight, and some being anonymous and obscure. Sometimes they need to be the face of the Government in certain situations, and faceless bureaucrats in certain other situations. Further, it is important to recognize that gi ven the multifarious roles of governments, civil servants need to adopt the appropriate working style and persona in discharging a given role. In respect of regulation, enforcement of rule of law and conduct of elections, civil servants need to act independently without fear or favor. In respect of roles like development, empowerment, and poverty alleviation, civil servants have to act in partnership with citizens and civil society organizations, and for enhancing global competitiveness act in partnership with the private sector. Performance outcomes of the government as a whole are dependent not only upon the efforts made by governments and their functionaries but also those of citizens, civil society vii
  16. 16. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 organizations and the private sector. Many emphasised the need to give more emphasis to leadership and strategic management, as IAS placed in leadership positions right from the start are expected to be change agents. Therefore they must be equipped to lead, to decide, to innovate and to facilitate transformation of the society, polity and economy. 21. From the responses received, it would appear there are three types of values and attitudes that are to be instilled during the induction training and later reinforced in mid-career training. These are the following: o Personal values and attitudes such as integrity [Financial and intellectual], work ethic, inner strength and self-confidence to face the tough challenges and crises in life and career. o Professional values and attitudes such as professional integrity, commitment to the Constitutional vales, and the obligation it casts on the State, and State functionaries particularly in regard to the marginalized and voiceless, principles of good governance and public life such as accountability, outcome orientation, transparency, responsiveness, rule of law, honesty, openness, and objectivity, and nation building o Leadership and team work qualities All the respondents appreciated some of the efforts now being made by LBSNAA to inculcate values and attitudes eg., inviting role models to address and interact with the OTs. However, they felt that more needs to be done. 22. Based on the suggestions received the Committee recommends the following: o A proper teaching of the Constitution not so much as a legal text, but as a secular testament that should guide the OTs in their career, in understanding the nature of their service, in understanding the obligations cast on the State and State functionaries to ensure that all citizens enjoy rights [such as right to life, right to health, right to education, and due process], in coping with ethical dilemmas, and in doing their duty towards all citizens without fear or favor.. o A more rigorous teaching of ethics. LBSNAA can draw upon the seminal training programme entitled Ethical Issues in Today’s Administration, which it is offering for mid-career officers. o Values and attitudes should be considered as a crosscutting theme that should figure in all the academic modules of Phase I, and the interactive sessions of Phase II. o LBSNAA has already a system in place for encouraging OTs to study and review books. This activity could be streamlined and strengthened so as to cover classics and inspirational books, and to organize serious discussion of those books such that the outcomes are akin to what true liberal education would do to strengthen character and sense of purpose. o Reinforcement of the normative values and attitudes in subsequent in-service trainings. o Stronger inputs on leadership and strategic management. viii
  17. 17. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 o Carving out a separate subject entitled Governance, Ethics and Leadership in the Foundation Course and Phase I. Immersion Programmes: A 9-day rural immersion programme and a 5-day urban slum immersion programme during the Bharat Darshan. A distinguishing feature of these programmes would be that the OT sheds his official status, and would be just a learner. These programmes would be organized by reputed civil society organizations, and the objective is to enable the OT to acquire a perspective that complements the official perspective by looking at from the outside, the system, its actual operation, its effectiveness and responsiveness, the problems of ordinary citizens, the existential condition of the marginalized and voiceless, and how well-meaning civil society organizations are striving to improve that existential condition. Such programmes are now de rigueur for professionals of many developmental agencies as well of civil service in some developing countries. Syllabus to move out of academic silos; to be function-related 23. The Committee received a valuable suggestion that the syllabus of induction training should not be framed as a mechanical extension of the academic disciplines with a few seasonal flavors like WTO thrown in; as far as possible, it should be inter-disciplinary and seek to intellectually equip the OTs for the tasks ahead by enhancing their understanding and helping them embed in a conceptual grid the work on hand and the challenges, and to come up with well thought out solutions. The Committee adopted this suggestion as the organizing principle of the syllabus. The Committee takes note of the welcome fact that most topics are now transacted in Phase I in inter-disciplinary modules reckons the suggestion made; it would be desirable to further strengthen this approach by strengthening inputs that facilitate better conceptual understanding of the topics. Stakeholder opinions on the content and transaction 24. The major responses regarding the induction training are as follows: The major responses are the following: o Foundation Course: Directors of the Central Training Institutions as well as officers of the services participating in the Foundation Course endorsed the utility of the Foundation Corps in building esprit de corps among different services. All the young officer-respondents were highly appreciative of the extra-curricular activities like trekking and river rafting. However, almost all felt that the syllabus of the two subjects Political Concepts and Constitution, and Indian History and Culture repeats the syllabus of the General Studies papers of the Civil Services examinations, and that it has no practical relevance in the functioning of the young officer in the service that follows immediately after the induction training. Some non-IAS OTs felt that the Foundation Course was far too IAS-oriented, and that very little knowledge was imparted about the history, organization and mandate of other services. IAS respondents also desired to know more about other services. o Almost all were appreciative of the law inputs provided in the Foundation Course, Phase I and II training. LBSNAA may periodically undertake Training Needs Analysis for Foundation Course, Phases I and II as well as Training in the State so that curriculum and its transaction continues to be in synch with the training needs. LBSNAA may associate outside expertise as may be necessary. ix
  18. 18. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 o It is desirable to integrate as far as possible Public Administration and Management, for otherwise there could be a feeling among OTs that principles of management are stand alone and have no relevance in their day-to-day work. o Induction training is far too revenue administration oriented, and more emphasis needs to be given to social sectors and urban governance, o The coverage of economics is inadequate and not in tune with the current mainstream economic thinking, o District training is uneven across states, o So is training in State Administrative Training Institutions [ATIs], o Specialized competencies like law and order management, disaster management, and building private-public partnerships should receive more emphasis, o Language: Curricular load is uneven among OTs, as: § many OTs who are proficient in Hindi are not required to learn Hindi, and § many OTs are not required to learn the language of the cadre as they are proficient in that language. o Training is too theoretical, out of synch with field realities, § The OTs are prone to a quick training fatigue. The instructor loses them as soon as he takes up a theoretical concept or method, more so if the instructor is an academic. o The syllabus is fine but its transaction leaves much to be desired, o Training attempts to do far too many things, and o Special attention should be paid to OTs from North East cadres. New Subject: Contemporary India and the Global Environment 25. The Committee feels that it is expedient to replace the two subjects of the Foundation Course, entitled Political Concepts and Constitution, and Indian History and Culture by a new subject entitled Contemporary India and the Global Environment. In keeping with the fact that the Constitution is the fountainhead of all public values, Constitution would be a part of the syllabus of the new subject suggested above, namely Governance, Ethics and Leadership. The subject Contemporary India and the Global Environment is designed to offer the OTs a nuanced understanding of the Indian history, society and economy, the forces, which are transforming different aspects of India, the global environment in which India is embedded. In view of the increasing pace of globalization and global interdependence, the course would also help the OTs acquire an understanding of the interplay of national policy and the global environment. As it is important to bring in multiple perspectives, the Committee recommends that this subject eminently deserves to be taught by a well-qualified academic. Law 26. The law syllabus does need much of a change. However, it has been reviewed keeping in view the following basic principles: x
  19. 19. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 o An IAS officer needs to appreciate the importance of Rule of Law, and of the role of law as an instrument to bring desired change in socio-economic life of the citizens. o The Constitution is the basic law. o Bifurcation of Executive and Judiciary. o International law has become very important. o The increasing importance of Intellectual Property Rights. o The changing nature of regulation o Focus on quintessential legislation o Need to instill legal and judicial skills, and help develop a judicious mind. o Mock trials at Academy to supplement the e xperience of OTs as Judicial Magistrate. Based on these principles, the syllabus has been updated. Integration of Management and Public Administration 27. Instead of treating public administration as distinct areas, it would be useful to recognize that all organizations including government share some common basic principles and methods of management, and that in respect of some functions of government, the distinctive features of governance necessitate considerable modification of the principles and methods applied by other organizations. Government is far too complex and democratic an organization for governance to be a clone of business management. It is therefore important to equip OTs with modern principles and methods of management and at the same time instill in them the discernment to judge when these methods can straightaway be applied and when they need adaptation. The modular transaction of most topics in Phase I does indeed to some extent bring about the integration of public administration and management. It is necessary to be more explicit about this integration, extend it to the Foundation Course and deepen the integration in Phases I and II. . This would keeping in with the fact that the First Schedule to the Indian Administrative Service (Probationers Final Examination) Regulation, 1955 lists Public Administration and Management as a single subject. The much needed integration calls for far greater use of cases and simulation for teaching public administration. Presently, inputs are given mai nly through lectures delivered by eminent practitioners in the field. Even though the probationers are tested on these inputs, these examinations are subjective and descriptive in nature, i.e., they answer questions set in the traditional pattern of examinations in Indian universities. Cases should be got prepared on a war footing. They should have teaching notes and be validated. Social and Human Development 28. Many respondents also observed that, the training lays far too much attention to revenue administration to the detriment of developmental administration. In the Foundation Course, there is great merit in strengthening the conceptual underpinnings of the module in Public Administration entitled Development, Welfare and Social Administration, and to anchor the Village Visit Programme in the human development framework. The Committee feels that in the IAS Professional Training there is a vital need to carve out a separate subject entitled Social and Human Development, and to give commensurate attention to the practical aspects of social and human development in district training. xi
  20. 20. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 More emphasis on urban governance and development needed 29. The Committee is in agreement with the views expressed by many that the focus of the training is still rural, that issues of urban governance, development and poverty receive more attention, as thirty per cent of the population already live in urban areas, that the urban poor are more numerous than the rural poor and that urban governance, development and delivery of basic services have features which are distinct from those in rural areas. And further within ten to fifteen years, more than half the population would live in urban areas. Now we have to look at development issues from a different perspective, not just macro level but from the point of view of decentralization. The 73rd and 74th Amendments have to be read together. It necessary to assign a greater weightage to issues of urban governance and development in all stages of the Professional training- Phase I, district and Phase II. Training in many States cause of grave concern 30. From what one hears from young officers as well as the faculty of LBSNAA, the tradition of a sound district training complemented by institutional training in ATIs flourishes now only in some States. In many States: o The training is unstructured, and most of the time the OTs are left to themselves as a result of which they drift and feel the stint monotonous. o Even in States with a structured training, the training manuals are not always up-to- date. o Though it is very well recognized that the quality of the training very much depends upon the choice of the district and, of the District Collector, OTs are posted to districts as a matter of routine without discernment. o Far too much importance is given to attachments that would be useful to pick up the skills and competencies required of a revenue officer, and far too little to attachments that given an insight into the functioning of the Panchayat Raj institutions and municipalities, and of development departments. o OTs are not given independent charges at all; consequently they do not have the opportunity to learn by doing, and pick up the nitty gritty of revenue and developmental administration. o In many States OTs are not being vested with judicial powers; consequently they would have no experiential knowledge of judicial process. o Exceptions apart, the post of Director/DG of ATI is considered to be a gulag for officers who have fallen out of favor with the government; ATIs are not funded adequately and the faculty resources poor, and they have little interaction with the universities and other institutions of learning in the State. 31. On its part, LBSNAA has been pro-actively responding to the inadequacies of training in some States. Successive Directors have been interceding with the States whenever an OT has problems in district training. Further each State cadre is assigned a Counselor, drawn from the faculty; the Counselor is expected to guide the OTs of the cadres allotted to him throughout the training, at LBSNAA as well as in the State. The umbilical chord connecting the OT and LBSNAA xii
  21. 21. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 remains intact even during the training in the State. Language instruction continues to be imparted through the correspondence mode. Counselors visit the OTs in the districts and take up with the State Government matters concerning the OTs. The OT is required to submit to LBSNAA monthly diaries, analytical reports on the district, and assignments on the village, district and court work. The diaries, reports and assignments are evaluated and graded. It is important that the State Government/ATI be encouraged to play an active role and provide close guidance and supervision of District Training. As the capacity of the State Governments/ATIs to effectively guide and supervise such training increases, the Academy should concentrate on quality control of the State component of training even while continuing to play a role complementary to the Training in States. 32. The Committee further recommends the following : o The state of district training is such that improving its quality is necessarily of high priority in the agenda of civil service reform. In their periodic interactions with the State Chief Secretaries, Secretary DOPT/Cabinet Secretary may lay emphasis on all the States shouldering their legitimate responsibility in regard to induction training. A time bound action plan should be drawn up to improve the quality of training in States where it is now inadequate. o DOPT should give greater thrust to its ongoing efforts to strengthen the ATIs. Given the state of many ATIs, mere funding may not be enough and “structural adjustment”, as with State Electricity Boards, and urban bodies, is necessary. It is also important to give the post of Director/DG status, importance and dignity so that it comes to be a coveted post than a gulag. Needless to say that this necessitates dialogue with States, and funding on a pattern similar to that of Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission, wherein funding is conditional on concrete steps being taken to improve governance. o As some of the High Courts are purportedly reluctant to vest OTs with magisterial powers, and in view of the importance of OTs acquiring experiential knowledge of judicial process, the matter may be taken up with the Honorable Chief Justice of India following the appropriate procedure. More focus on law and order, disaster management, media management, eGovernance, and private-public partnership needed 33. The management of law and order is qualitatively different from that in the past, so different that it is an altogether different species. First, law and order management is no longer a localized challenge, limited to communally sensitive and insurgency-prone areas. Terrorism can strike anywhere and at any time. Secondly information and disinformation spread in real time; consequently the reverberations of an incident are likely to be felt incredibly faster, more widespread and more intense. Thirdly, the vulnerability of functionaries entrusted with maintenance of law and order has increased enormously. Fourthly, management of media and the visual images has became as important as managing the situation. One can say that a new pedagogy is required to impart the new skills and competencies required for handling the “new” law and order management. Inter-institutional cooperation between LBSNAA, Sardar Patel National Police Academy and other similar institutions, as well as joint training of functionaries belonging to the different services engaged in the maintenance of law and order would be valuable. The Joint civil- military course being organized by LBSNAA can provide valuable inputs for revamping the teaching of the xiii
  22. 22. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 management of law and order. A daylong interaction with Ministry of Home Affairs and Intelligence Agencies on internal security scenario could be organized during Bharat Darshan. 34. Similarly, disaster management is now qualitatively different. Among the competencies that need emphasis are media management, coordination of relief and rehabilitation by multiple agencies of the State as well as “aid” agencies, and civil society organizations. The development of a simulation exercise by LBSNAA is a welcome step. 35. Media management should cover both anticipatable events and issues, and unanticipated events and issues like the occurrence of a disaster or a terrorist strike. Even while embarking on development or implementation of a policy or program, it is imperative to start thinking about how one should go about to get the policy accepted by the important groups having a stake as well as the public at large. This in turn would necessitate thinking about communication strategy/social marketing. For imparting skills in media management, it would be useful to draw upon the expertise of experienced practitioners from the service, Indian Foreign Service [who have been spokespersons of the Ministry of External Affairs], Indian Information Service, private sector and civil society organizations. It is also imperative to develop a repertoire of case and simulation material. Language 36. OTs who are not required to study Hindi or the cadre language because of prior proficiency may be required to study any one of the Indian languages taught at LBSNAA. There would be a qualifying test for the Indian language so offered by an OT. This would promote national integration and fairness in curricular load. More attention to economics 37. The Committee agrees with the strongly articulated views that it is necessary to strengthen the teaching of economics, and of quantitative skills in the induction training. The economist’s way of looking at the world is unique, and of great significance in governance. Therefore economic logic is one of the core competencies that every IAS should have. Contemporary economic thinking has significantly influenced the new public management, and has much to say about the way delivery of services ought to be organized and their effectiveness measured. This is of direct relevance to the OTs for the tasks awaiting them in the districts. Further, it is imperative for the OTs to have a sound understanding of the global economic environment and the way it impacts on India’s economic development, of comparative developmental experience of major countries, the factors that contribute to the wealth and pove rty of nations, and the factors contributing to entrepreneurship. Study Tour to South East and East Asia 38. Several suggested that as in Phase III and IV mid-career training, the induction training should include a two week exposure visit/study tour of South East and East Asian economies to see for themselves how these economies which started five to six decades ago with a developmental base equal to or worse than India have till recently out-performed the Indian economy. The Committee endorses this suggestion; it is better that the exposure begins right at the start of the career. This visit could be organized towards the end of Phase II; after all other topics are transacted. A brief module that exposes the OTs to the important features of the country or countries they would be visiting should precede the tour. The features would include the trajectory of development, the role of States and markets, social policy, infrastructure, and regional development. There should be experience-sharing sessions after the visit. The OTs should be required to write a xiv
  23. 23. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 paper on the lessons they draw from the visit and the relevance of these lessons for India. Evaluation of this assignment should be part of the overall evaluation of Phase II. Pedagogy 39. Criterion of relevance: From what one hears from the OTs, younger officers and the faculty of LBSNAA, the OTs are very keen to pick up those knowledge and skills which they consider directly relevant to the jobs they expect to hold immediately after training. They are known to immensely value experience sharing by senior colleagues; the most popular seminar is that of Sub- divisional officers [SDOs] in Phase II, wherein young officers come over from the sub-divisions to tell their immediate juniors what it is like to be a SDO out there, and what it takes to be effective. In contrast, quite a few respondents mentioned that OTs are not inclined to take the academic aspects seriously and that there is no better way to lose them than delving into theory. Their receptivity seems to be driven by the criterion of relevance. What is in it for me is the question that props again and again. Give us the tools, just the tools for the immediate tasks ahead, seems to be the crying demand. One cannot find fault with the criterion of relevance, except that it is likely that the perception of OTs about what they need to pick up and learn may be incomplete and their time horizon rather too short. Induction training cannot be a technician education; merely imparting gross skills that would be utterly inadequate for the transformative leadership that IAS officers are expected to display throughout the career, and in every position they hold. Hence the criterion of relevance should be broadly defined, and rather futuristic. A major task of the faculty, particularly of those drawn from the service, is to ensure that OTs have a correct appreciation of their training needs, and of the categorical imperative of having to excel in every task assigned to them and to that end of having to learn everything that is required for professional excellence. 40. Emulating science/maths popularization: In transacting subjects like economics, which can be abstract, it is important to remember heavy, lengthy courses of the kind recently experienced at university would put off civil servants trainees be it at LBSNAA or the Civil Service College in Sunningdale, United Kingdom. Where the teaching of any concept or method that is likely to appear to the OTs as theoretical has to be taught, its relevance and utility should be taught upfront. Examples to which the OT can relate or examples that directly relate to the tasks that are ahead of the OTs should be used to illustrate the relevance as well as to elaborate the exposition of the concept or method. There is merit in adopting the pedagogic techniques used for the popularization of mathematics and science, or to give an example nearer home the Panchatantra. 41. Outsourcing Modules: A frequent complaint about the modules on management outsourced to other institutions has been that often there is no attempt to adapt the module to the specific needs of the OTs, and the general tendency is to use cases and other material from business management even when cases based on district administration could be used. It was also stated that sometimes these modules are stand-alone and not integrated with the over-all course design. Needless to say, outsourcing should be preceded by an elaborate dialogue and agreement on the manner in which the module would be integrated with the learning objectives and design of the course, and the content, learning material and transaction of the module. 42. The feeling that a topic is not relevant and too theoretical can be remedied through more OT- friendly pedagogies. The importance of case and simulation material based on workaday experiences, and on examples of outstanding successes and failures cannot be emphasized enough. xv
  24. 24. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 43. Case Development: LBSNAA faculty has developed a good repertoire of case material; these efforts need to be strengthened. The first step could be an external evaluation of the material. The efforts to have good cases and simulation exercises preparation should be intensified. It would be expedient to have a strong unit for development of teaching learning material in association with States and Central ministries and departments, ATIs and academic institutions like IIPA, IIMs and universities. Mechanisms should be put in place for rigorous peer evaluation before the material is used in the classroom, and for review and adaptation in the light of the classroom experience. Ideally, there should be continuity in the manning of this unit, as it would be necessary to continuously monitor the relevance of the material and develop new material. Presently, every few years there is a total turnover of senior faculty at LBSNAA; such an arrangement may not be conducive for managing the case development unit. It would be desirable to have an academic well versed in case writing to head the unit; he could be on contract for a long duration. Alternately, the unit could be outsourced to reputed institutions. 44. For a proper discussion, the duration of a session should be one hour and fifteen minutes; it is now presently 55 minutes, which is rather short. 45. It would be useful to provide the OTs with exhaustive supplementary reading material on each topic, which they can use later in the career for self-development. It would be also useful to supply them useful textbooks as is done in some programmes like the postgraduate Programme in Public Policy and Management at IIM Bangalore, which DOPT funds. Restructuring training so as to enhance the quality of learning: Dr Agnihotri’s Alternate model 46. A major reason why many OTs consider that some of the inputs provided at LBSNAA are too theoretical is the fact that transacting them after the district training, or even better after a few years of regular postings, would be more functional from the learning point of view. The whole purpose of Phase II training was to enhance experiential learning and transaction of subjects, which are better taught after district training. Unfortunately the present duration of Phase II training is only about six weeks as against the four months envisaged when the sandwich training was introduced. Quite a few young officers were of the view that the time being slotted for experience sharing was inadequate, and with so many assignments, Phase II transaction is being routinized. 47. While Phase II duration should definitely be increased, it is necessary to take note of the fact that at this stage of training most OTs are eager to get done with training and move to a regular posting as Sub-divisional Officer. During the consultations some suggested a way out of the dilemma, which would also break the monotony of a long series of attachments in the district training and overcome to some extent the indifferent nature of district training in some States. The key idea is to classify the key competencies and skills to be acquired into two cognate areas, eg., social and human de velopment, and district and regulatory functions, and to separately organize a sandwich programme for each of the two cognate areas. Each sandwich programme would have its own Phase I, Bharat Darshan, State/ district training and culminating in the Phase II training. On a request by the Committee, Dr Agnihotri fleshed out the concept, worked out the implications and suggested concrete modalities whereby the sandwich training could be restructured. The Chairman and some other members of the Committee felt that in view of the impact it would make on learning outcomes, the restructured pattern could be considered for adoption. LBSNAA, however, felt otherwise. While respecting the views of the Academy and the logistic issues involved in bringing xvi
  25. 25. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 the OTs back to the Academy in the middle of their Training in the State, the Chairman and Member Secretary emphasized the need to explore ways to operationalise either the model presented by Dr. Agnihotri or other alternate means in order to establish closer co-relation and proximity between academic inputs received in the Academy, the related field experience during the District Training, and facilitate the process of helping the OTs assimilate their district experience on their return to the Academy. Other recommendations in respect of Foundation Course [Chapter 4] 48. Chapter 4 spells out these recommendations. The duration of the Foundation Course and inter-se allocation of time between course instruction and outdoor activities may be retained as they are. 49. There should be only one Foundation Course a year. Presently in many services, a candidate selected to the service but is desirous of taking another attempt at the Civil Service examination is permitted to skip the Foundation Course with his batchmates and report directly for Professional Training of the service. If he is unsuccessful in his attempt, he is required to participate in the Foundation Course subsequent to the Professional Training. If in case he succeeds in securing entry to the IAS he does the Foundation Course and Professional Course along with his batchmates in the IAS. This practice is dysfunctional in that it goes against the rationale of the Foundation Course, and further most such OTs do not take the professional training seriously. Hence, as in the Indian Forest Service, a entrants to civil services who wish to take another attempt to Civil Services ll Exams should be granted a year’s leave, and be required to report for the Foundation Course along with the next year’s batch. 50. The probation period of an OT regardless of the service to which he belongs should not be confirmed unless the officer qualifies in the Foundation Course. All services participating in the Foundation Course should give due weightage to the marks secured by their officers in the Foundation Course. 51. New subjects: The Committee recommends the following subjects in place of the present subjects: — Contemporary India and the Global Environment — Governance, Ethics and Leadership — Public Administration and Management — E-governance — Law — Political Economy — Language The tables attached to Chapter 4 set out the detailed syllabus of each of the subjects, except language. The chapter also suggests an evaluation pattern. xvii
  26. 26. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 Other recommendations in respect of IAS Professional Training [Chapter 5] 52. Further promoting mutual understanding, it would be useful to compile a handbook that narrates the organization, mission and structure of all the services participating in the Foundation Course, and of their complementary roles. This would enable the OTs to gain an understanding of these services and foster their esprit de corps. 53. Chapter 5 spells out the Committee’s recommendations on the reorganization of the subjects, the syllabus of each subject, and evaluation. As stated above, it gives two alternate models of organizing the training, one the current sandwich pattern, and the other Dr. Agnihotri’s model. 54. In the interests of further professionalizing the service, it is important to ensure that the training period as envisaged is not curtailed. It appears that the curtailment is necessitated by the delayed issue of appointment orders to those successful in the Civil Services Examinations. It would be desirable to work backwards and appropriately fix the schedules for the conduct of examinations and the subsequent process before the appointment orders are issued. Ideally, as with the French higher civil service, there should be fixed dates for the announcement of the results and for the commencement of the Foundation Course. Even if this were not possible for any reason, the duration of the training should be protected by overcoming the logistical problems such as limited hostel accommodation and lecture halls. 55. Duration of Phase I, State/district, and Phase II programs. In view of the additional programmes that the Committee is suggesting, such as the village and urban slum immersion programs, and the study tour of ASEAN countries/ China, it would be necessary to alter the inter-se division of the training duration among the three segments, namely Phase I, State/district, and Phase II. As the additional programmes are expected to enhance the experiential knowledge that OTs would acquire in the district training, it seems desirable to find space for them in the time now allotted for State/district training. The duration of training could be as follows: a) Foundation Course 15 weeks b) Phase-I (including WST) 26 weeks c) Joining Time 10 days c) State/ District Training 50 weeks d) Phase-II 11 weeks+ 4 days e) Joining Time As per eligibility outside the duration of the training f) Total 104 weeks 56. Following are the new subjects recommended in place of the existing subjects: — Contemporary India and the Global Environment — Governance, Ethics and Leadership — Public Administration and Management — eGovernance xviii
  27. 27. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 — Law — Political Economy — Human and Social Development — District and Regulatory Administration — Hindi or if a probationer has prior proficiency in Hindi one of the other Indian languages taught in LBSNAA — Language of the Cadre The tables attached to the chapter give details of the syllabi, and evaluation recommended. 57. Considering that the learning in Phase I and State/ district are complementary, it is desirable that the examinations that Indian Administrative Service (Probationers Final Examination) Regulation, 1955 prescribe conclude after the State/district training. Phase II training may begin with these examinations. It is not necessary or even desirable that the evaluation envisaged by these examinations should only be through traditional examinations as conducted in the universities. The evaluation can be through assignments in the nature of “term papers,” case analysis and so on. The time necessary for conducting these exanimations in Phase II may be provided by shifting the requisite number of days from Phase I training. With the forthcoming examinations in mind, it is very likely that during the district training, OTs would be studying the inputs provided during Phase I training; consequently they are more likely to relate these inputs with the field experience. There is no need to conduct a separate examination in respect of the subject Contemporary India and the Global Environment. The evaluation done during the Foundation Course would suffice. 58. State/ District Training: The importance of all States having a structured programme of training cannot be emphasized enough. This would ensure that the training outcomes are less subject to the vagaries of individuals, be they OTs or the District Collectors. The Committee would s uggest that States, which do not have a structured programme, may develop their own structured programs. While developing such a program, they may take note of the practice in States with a structured programme and the model pattern drawn up by Dr H S Anand. It is important to giving equal importance to revenue and developmental administration. Even States with a structured training pattern need to revise the training pattern taking note of the alteration in the duration of the State/District training suggested by the Committee, as well as the imperative of giving equal importance to revenue and developmental administration. Training manuals/suitable material related to State Laws should be provided to OTs before they leave for their District Training and departmental exams to be conducted regularly. The Committee is of the view that the nomenclature of District Training should be replaced by ‘Training in the State’ in view of the fact that in many States, ATIs have come to play an important role in imparting induction training, and in many States officers are attached to the Secretariat. . 59. Choice of Training District and District Collector: The district chosen should not be a predominantly urban district, which would be atypical and not provide full opportunities for the OT to pick up all the skills and competencies. In some States a few districts, which offer full scope for the training, are designated as training districts, and Collectors of proven ability are posted in such districts, and all the officers with whom the OT would be attached are oriented to the task of training. This practice could be considered for adoption. The “training” Collector should be chosen xix
  28. 28. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 with discernment; the Collector chosen should be an officer reputed for his integrity and competence; the allotment of an OT for training should come to be recognized within the service as a honor bestowed for outstanding dedicated service. Where a District Collector is transferred to another district, the OT also may be transferred along with him. Institutional arrangements should be put in place to oversee the discharge of the training responsibility by the Collectors chosen for training OTs. 60. Fostering Linkages Between the Training at LBSNAA and in the States/Districts: Institutional arrangements should be put in place for a dialogue between LBSNAA, ATIs and the State Secretaries in charge of training so that towards the end of Phase I, before an OT reports to the State for training, he is provided a clear schedule of training in the ATI and the district, and departure from the schedule should occur only if major events that provide for experiential learning such as disaster relief or elections or a law and order situation occur. 61. District Assignments and Action Research: Committee would suggest the allocation and evaluation of assignments may be reorganized as follows: o Socio-economic study of a village o Socio-economic study of a town o Action Research for improving service delivery, or a major program, or strengthening key institutions like ANM Training Schools, District Institutes of Education and Training, Aanganwadi Training Centres o District assignment relating to social sectors o District assignment relating to revenue, relief and rehabilitation, and regulatory functions 62. Phase II Training: The extension of duration by four weeks, excluding the period proposed for the study tour to ASEAN countries/China, could be used to deepen the experiential learning expected from this Phase. It is desirable to have more structured processes for enhancing that learning. There should be as few lectures as possible and the modules as well as seminars should be in an interactive mode. Guidelines should be issued to the guest speakers for the modules and seminars such that their inputs are presented in a way that enhances interactivity and, experiential learning by OTs. Development of appropriate cases and simulation matter would enhance the experiential learning. The assessment during Phase II to be tightened and made more inclusive of both the theoretical and practical inputs. 63. Additional Modules and Seminars: The highly popular and effective Sub-divisional Officer [SDO] Seminar may be replicated for the Chief Executive Officer, Zilla Parishad, District Collector, and Municipal Commissioner. There should be balance between topics relating to revenue and regulatory administration, and of social and human development. Following is an illustrative list of modules/seminars that may be organized in respect of social and human development o National Rural Health Mission o National Employment Guarantee Act o Challenge of Universal Elementary Education and Universal Literacy o Social Security o Right to Food xx
  29. 29. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 o Convergence of Services o Delivery of Urban Services o Managerial and Participatory Methods for Enhancing the Effectiveness and Quality of Basic Service Delivery o Livelihood Issues o Self Help Groups as Vehicles for Empowerment and Development o Enterprise Development o Microfinance Training of Officers Promoted or Appointed by Selection to the IAS [Chapter 6] 64. As on January 1 2006, about 20.9 % of the IAS officers in position are those promoted to the IAS. In keeping with the objectives of the National Training Policy, 1999 the training of these officers requires greater attention. Unlike the induction training of directly recruited IAS officers, there is no fixed training calendar for the training of officers who are promoted. Training is organized as and when sufficient numbers of candidates are available. It would appear that while the trainees themselves are very keen, States are sometimes reluctant to depute officers to training at LBSNAA. The rules should be amended, if necessary, so that confirmation of promotion is contingent upon satisfactory completion of training. It would also be desirable to have a regular schedule for training of these officers. Induction training should not be seen as training of regular recruits 65. Whatever might have been the past practice, the importance of developing a nuanced training frame for officers promoted to the IAS cannot be stressed enough. An analysis of the profile of these officers brings out that the training needs of officers promoted to IAS vary widely, and that therefore one size does not fit all. For the purpose of training, these officers can be classified into four categories, they being: o Officers of the State Civil Service/ Probationary Deputy Collectors who get promoted to the IAS in 7-8 years, and who would have at least fifteen years of service as IAS officers. They can be expected to rise to the highest positions in their state cadres. These officers would have rich knowledge of revenue laws and district administration, and hence may not require any training inputs except in regard to the best practices and innovations o Similar category of officers who get promoted towards the fag end of their service. o Non- revenue Officers who get promoted to the IAS early in their career, and who would have at least fifteen years of service as IAS officers. Like the first category of officers they can be expected to rise to fairly high positions in their state cadres. These officers would not have much idea about revenue laws and district administration o Similar officers who are promoted towards the fag end of their service. xxi
  30. 30. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 66. The following training pattern is suggested: o it is advantageous to train all officers of a particular year of allotment together, so that they acquire a feeling of solidarity and all-India perspective. The present induction training with some modifications would constitute the core of training. Modifications are needed particularly in regard to the changing role of government and of the service. o The core may be adequate for officers of the third and fourth category. o The level of competencies and skills that officers of the first and third category should acquire at the end of the induction training should be the same as that of the induction training of direct recruits. In designing the training, the experience and background of the officers should be factored in. This means that there should be add-ons to supplement the core. For the third category of officers at LBSNAA it might be necessary for LBSNAA to provide the trainees a broad overview of district administration and revenue law. This should be supplemented by State-specific training in the ATIs and districts. As with induction training of directly recruited IAS officers, the induction training of these two categories of officers should include a study tour of ASEAN countries/China. Self Development and Lifelong Learning [Chapter 7] 67. Induction Training a Preparation for Lifelong Learning: No induction training, however well designed and however well transacted, can equip an OT for all the events and challenges he would face in the first ten years of service, not to speak of the 35 odd years of service ahead of him. Institutional arrangements should be put in place to assist the officers to learn-on-the job, to deepen their knowledge of the competencies and hone their skills. 68. Interactive Web-Enabled Provision of learning resources on demand: Such a system should be put in place to provide inputs on demand to help them address new problems and challenges which they might face in the field, and to deepen their knowledge of the competencies and hone their skills. The Committee had drawn up an illustrative list of modules, which can be developed. Each of these modules may encompass concepts, techniques and tools, good practices and innovations. Existing portals like the DM’s portal or specially designed portals can be used for dissemination of these m odules. The web-based learning system can be backed by a system of resource persons. A panel of area-specific resource persons can be notified for being accessed by the OTs as well as young officers, when they are in need of advice. These resource persons may be selected through a rigorous selection process to manage the identified distance learning packages and provide all India as well as state specific advice. They may be paid an annual retainership fee plus hourly charges based on the time logged by them on the basis of the advice / counselling rendered, assignments evaluated and other related tasks performed. 69. Linkages between Induction training with Mid-career training: While reviewing the syllabus, the Committee took note of the content of Phase III training that DOPT is introducing this year. However, from a long term perspective and in the interests of greater professionalization, the Committee feels that that the competencies required for senior positions can be imparted only by a much longer duration mid-career programme than what Phases III, IV and V now envisage. There is merit in emulating the tradition in the armed services of separating the preparation for lower level field commands from those of higher command, and going for an extended in-service training of xxii
  31. 31. Report of the Committee to Review Induction Training Syllabus, June 2007 about a year for officers who are seen to be on the fast track to higher positions at institutions like the Defence Services Staff College, Willington and the National Defence College, New Delhi. The DOPT is exploring the possibility of introducing specialization in the service after about ten years of service. A logical consequence of this proposal would be that during his career an IAS officer would be required to participate in two mandatory long duration programs: o the induction training that would focus more on the jobs in the districts that officers would do before specialization o a long duration programme after the choice/allotment of specialization that would be akin to a postgraduate program. It would have: § a core with generic competencies, and policymaking and public management skills, and § electives that provide the competencies and skills needed for each area of specialization. Given that many specializations would open to IAS officers, the strength of the course would very much depend upon the variety of electives offered. 70. Linking Induction/Mid-career Training with the Award of a Post Graduate Degree in Public Policy and Management : Such a long duration mid-career programme would be akin to the professional degree in Public Policy and Systems Management that the Alagh Committee on Civil Services Examinations has recommended. A consortium of institutions can organize such a programme with LBSNAA as the lead institution. The Committee noted that LBSNAA has already tied up with the Indira Gandhi National Open University [IGNOU] for award of a Master’s Degree in Public Policy to the OTs by offering a couple of extra papers over and above the syllabus of the induction training. The State-of-art IT technologies that are being inducted in LBSNAA and the central government education institutions facilitates inter-institutional collaborative offering of courses through the distance mode. It is now possible to simultaneously organize interactive classes at more than one location, with the instructor lecturing or leading a case discussion at a location. The experience gained in organizing Phases III, IV and V training could be also used to develop and transact the long duration mid-career program. Special Training Needs of the North East Cadres [Chapter 8] 71. The problems and training needs of North Eastern cadres are sui generis. Living and working conditions are proverbially different. Excepting for Assam, the other States are small, sparsely populated, with closely-knit tribal societies and informal forms of government, and ways of life considerably different from the other States. They are chronically insurgent- prone, and often the administration is caught in the middle between the army doing its job under the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, and the populace looking to the administration for protection and support. Except the very few who are from that region and posted to that region, the other OTs are unlikely to have visited the region, much less have any knowledge about the region. It takes years of dedicated service before an “outsider” can understand the society, recognize the strengths of the society, and build upon those strengths to develop programmes and forms of delivery that suit the local needs and conditions. 72. Counseling: From the responses received, it would appear that the first reaction of most OTs allotted to these cadres is one of angst and apprehension. Quite a few officers also spoke of their experience in the sub-division, of being gripped by loneliness, even a feeling of being left in the xxiii