Motivation All Theory

  • 52,944 views
Uploaded on

this is all motivational theory collection like ALL IN ONE usefulll to each and every business tycons.....

this is all motivational theory collection like ALL IN ONE usefulll to each and every business tycons.....

More in: Business , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Excellent presentation, you have make it wonderfully. you must have work hard to do this, thanks friend
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • very good ppt,can you please send these ppts on my mail id kalyan.hrfc@gmail.com please...!!!!!!
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • wonderful. will be grateful to u if you could send me the full ppt at akt3012@yahoo.co.in
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • please send me this presentation on my e-mail that is umarsuleman436@gmail.com
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • i am also like this effort. welldone dear God bless you
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
52,944
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3

Actions

Shares
Downloads
3,582
Comments
9
Likes
34

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. MOTIVATION
  • 2. What are we going to cover
    What is motivation
    Nature / characteristics of motivation
    Classification of motivation
    What are motives
    Classification of motives
    Theories of Work Motivation
    Maslow's theory of need hierarchy
  • 3. What are we going to cover
    Theories of Work Motivation
    Herzberg's two-factor theory
    Mc Gregor’s theory
    Vroom’s Expectancy theory
    Porter Lawler model
    Morale - Definition
    Relationship with productivity
    Morale Indicators
  • 4. What is motivation?
    Motivation is a Latin word, which means to move.
    It is the willingness of an individual to respond to organisational requirements.
    Koontz O’Donnell defines it as “ a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs wishes & similar forces that induce an individual or a group of people at work.”
  • 5. What is motivation?
    It can also be defined as “a willingness to expend energy to achieve a goal or a reward. It is a force that activates dormant energies & sets in motion the action of people. It is the function that kindles a burning passion for action among the human beings of an organisation.”
    Performance = Ability x Motivation
  • 6. What is motivation?
    It is a process which starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.
    Needs: are created when there is a deprivation or deficiency. Here, a physiological or psychological imbalance exists.
    Drives or motives: Drives are deficiencies with direction. They are action oriented & provide a thrust towards achieving an incentive or goal.
  • 7. What is motivation?
    Incentive orgoal: Attaining an incentive will restore the balance. After achieving the goal, needs & drives will be reduced.
    Needs Drives Incentive or motives or Goal
  • 8. Nature / characteristics of motivation
    Unending process: human wants keep changing & increasing.
    A psychological concept: deals with the human mind.
    Whole individual is motivated: as it is based on psychology of the individual.
  • 9. Nature / characteristics of motivation
    Motivation may be financial or non-financial: Financial includes increasing wages, allowance, bonus, perquisites etc.
    Motivation can be positive or negative: positive motivation means use of incentives - financial or non-financial. Egs. of positive motivation: confirmation, pay rise, praise etc. Negative motivation means emphasizing penalties. It is based on force of fear. Eg. demotion, termination.
  • 10. Nature / characteristics of motivation
    Motivation: motivation & job satisfaction are different. Motivation is goal-oriented behaviour. Job satisfaction is the outcome of job performance.
  • 11. Classification of motivation
    Positive and negative
    Financial and non – financial
    Extrinsic and intrinsic:
    Extrinsic motivation is available only after completion of the job. Eg. increase in wages, rest periods, holidays etc.
    Intrinsic motivation is available at the time of performance of a job. Eg. praise, recognition, delegation of authority & responsibility.
  • 12. What are motives?
    A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates, or moves & directs, channels behaviour towards goals.
  • 13. Classification of motives
    Motives can be classified as:
    Primary motives
    General motives
    Secondary motives
  • 14. Classification of motives
    Primary motives:
    Also called physiological / biological / unlearned motives. 2 criteria for the motive to be primary are that they should be unlearned & physiological.
    Eg. hunger, thirst, sleep, avoidance of pain, sex & material concern.
    Primary motives tend to reduce the tension or stimulation.
  • 15. Classification of motives
    General motives:
    Are ones which are unlearned but are not physiologically based.
    These needs induce the person to increase the amount of stimulation.
    Eg. curiosity, manipulation, activity & affection
  • 16. Classification of motives
    Secondary motives:
    These are the most important w.r.t. the study of O.B.
    A motive must be learned in order to be a secondary one.
    These drives are closely tied to the learning concepts, such as motives for power, achievement, affiliation referred to as n Pow, n Ach, n Aff.
    Security & status are also secondary motives.
  • 17. Classification of motives
    Examples of key secondary needs:
    Need for Achievement:
    Doing better than competitors
    Attaining a difficult goal
    Solving a complex problem
    Need for power:
    Controlling people & activities
    Being in a position of authority over others
    Defeating an opponent
  • 18. Classification of motives
    Need for affiliation:
    Being liked by many people
    Working with people who are friendly & co-operative
    Participating in pleasant social activities
    Need for security:
    Having a secure job
    Having protection against illness & disability
    Avoiding tasks or decision with a risk of failure & blame
  • 19. Classification of motives
    Need for status:
    Working for the right company in the right job
    Having a degree from the right university
    Having the right privileges
  • 20. Theories of Work Motivation
    Maslow's theory of need hierarchy:
    Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist, viewed the motivation of human beings as arising from levels of hierarchy of needs.
    According to him, each one of us is a ‘wanting’ being.
  • 21. Theories of Work Motivation
    His basic assumptions were:
    All human needs cannot be satisfied, because, if one need is satisfied, another arises.
    A satisfied need does not motivate behaviour. eg. need for food motivates only till one gets food.
  • 22. Theories of Work Motivation
    Some needs are innate (natural / inherent) eg. the need for food & water; while some are acquired from social experiences eg. need for social esteem.
    Human beings attempt to satisfy their needs in a specific order, based on hierarchy.
  • 23. Theories of Work Motivation
    Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    Self actualization needs
    Esteem needs
    Social needs
    Safety & security needs
    Physiological needs
  • 24. Theories of Work Motivation
    Maslow explained each level of hierarchy as follows:
    Physiological needs:
    These are necessary to sustain life. They include food, water, clothing, shelter.
    These needs have the highest potency for motivation.
    A person who lacks these will be motivated by these.
  • 25. Theories of Work Motivation
    Safety needs:
    When physiological needs are reasonably satisfied, safety needs begin to manifest themselves.
    These needs include protection from physical dangers, such as fire or accident.
    Economic security, security of income against contingencies such as sickness, injury, non-hostile working atmosphere are also safety needs.
  • 26. Theories of Work Motivation
    Social needs:
    When physiological & safety needs are reasonably satisfied, social needs become important motivators.
    Man is a social being & wants to receive & give acceptance, friendship & affection.
    He feels the need for belonging, for being an accepted member of a formal or an informal group.
  • 27. Theories of Work Motivation
    Esteem needs:
    When the first three needs are essentially satisfied, esteem needs become dominant.
    The person must feel important & must also receive recognition from others, as that recognition supports the feelings of personal worth.
    Thus feelings of self-esteem, self-confidence, prestige & power are produced which are related to enhancing competence, knowledge & achievement.
  • 28. Theories of Work Motivation
    Self actualization needs:
    At the summit of the hierarchy is the need to realize one’s potentialities so as to satisfy what Maslow referred to as ‘the desire to become everything that one is capable of becoming.’
    Thus the person becomes interested in self-fulfillment, self-development, & creativity in the broadest sense of the term.
  • 29. Theories of Work Motivation
    Criticisms of Maslow’s theory:
    Hierarchy cannot be regarded as rigid. For some people, the levels may not be clearcut & may tend to overlap.
    Some individuals may lack ambition & may remain at the primary levels of the hierarchy concerned only with physiological & safety needs.
  • 30. Theories of Work Motivation
    The order suggested by Maslow may not be applicable to everybody.
    A single need cannot motivate an individual. There may be several & that too in combinations, existing.
    Hence the theory may not have universal validity.
  • 31. To be continued …..
    Theories of Work Motivation
    Herzberg's two-factor theory
    Mc Gregor’s theory
    Vroom’s Expectancy theory
    Porter Lawler model
    Morale - Definition
    Relationship with productivity
    Morale Indicators
  • 32. Motivation
  • 33. What are we going to cover
    Theories of Work Motivation – contd.
    Herzberg's two-factor theory
    Mc Gregor’s theory
    Vroom’s Expectancy theory
    Porter Lawler model – also imp, not written in syll.
    Morale - Definition
    Effects of Morale
    Relationship of morale with productivity
    Morale Indicators
  • 34. Theories of Work Motivation
    Herzberg's two-factor theory:
    Frederick Herzberg, in the late 1950s conducted a study on motivation. He and his associates used semi-structured interviews to elicit from 200 engineers & accountants in Pittsburgh area, the factors which satisfy or dissatisfy the workers.
  • 35. Theories of Work Motivation
    His study revealed that factors responsible for job satisfaction are quite different from those responsible for job dissatisfaction.
    Certain factors give job satisfaction, but absence of these does not mean job dissatisfaction. It only means no job satisfaction.
    Similarly, certain factors cause job dissatisfaction, but absence of these does not mean job satisfaction. It only means no job dissatisfaction.
  • 36. Theories of Work Motivation
    According to Herzberg, motivational factors are responsible for job satisfaction; and Hygiene or Maintenance factors are responsible for job dissatisfaction.
  • 37. Theories of Work Motivation
    Motivational factors:
    The presence of these factors motivates workers & at the same time, absence of these does not cause dissatisfaction.
  • 38. Theories of Work Motivation
    Hygiene or Maintenance factors:
    The presence of these factors maintains motivation at zero level, but absence of these factors causes serious dissatisfaction.
    In other words, presence of these factors prevents dissatisfaction.
    Maintaining motivation at zero level thus prevents negative motivation, hence they are called maintenance factors.
  • 39. Theories of Work Motivation
    Motivators Hygiene factors
    Achievement Co. policy & admn.
    Work itself Interpersonal relations
    Recognition Supervision
    Responsibility Money
    Advancement Job security
    Possibility of growth Status
    Working conditions
  • 40. Theories of Work Motivation
    Herzberg’s framework is compatible with Maslow’s need hierarchy. Maslow’s lower order needs are analogous to Herzberg’s hygiene factors & his upper level needs correspond to Herzberg’s motivators.
    Herzberg’s theory was also challenged by the thought that there exists a tendency of people to attribute good results to their own effort & blame others for poor results.
  • 41. Theories of Work Motivation
    Douglas Mc Gregor’s X & Y theory:
    Theory X :
    This theory assumes that most people prefer to be directed, are not interested in assuming responsibility & want safety above all.
    Accompanying this philosophy is the belief that work is inherently distasteful to most people & people are motivated by money & the threat of punishment.
  • 42. Theories of Work Motivation
    Managers who accept Theory X assumptions, attempt to structure, control & closely supervise their subordinates.
    Theory Y:
    This theory assumes that people are not by nature lazy & unreliable. Man can be self-directed & creative at work, if properly motivated.
  • 43. Theories of Work Motivation
    Managers who accept this theory, attempt to help their employees mature, by exposing them to progressively less control, allowing them to assume more self-control.
    Employees are able to achieve the satisfaction of social esteem & self-actualization needs with this kind of environment.
  • 44. Theories of Work Motivation
  • 45. Theories of Work Motivation
  • 46. Theories of Work Motivation
  • 47. Theories of Work Motivation
  • 48. Theories of Work Motivation
    Vroom’s Expectancy theory:
    The model is built around the concepts of valence, instrumentality & expectancy & is commonly called VIE theory.
    By valence, Vroom means the strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome.
  • 49. Theories of Work Motivation
    Valence is positive when a person prefers attaining the outcome to not attaining it.
    Valence is zero when the individual is indifferent towards the outcome.
    Valence is negative when a person prefers not attaining the outcome to attaining it.
  • 50. Theories of Work Motivation
    Another major input into the valence is the instrumentality of the first level outcome in obtaining a desired second level outcome.
    Eg. person would be motivated towards superior performance because of the desire to be promoted. The superior performance (first level outcome) is seen as being instrumental in obtaining a promotion (second level outcome).
  • 51. Theories of Work Motivation
    Another important variable is Expectancy. It relates efforts to first level outcomes; while instrumentality relates first level & second level outcomes.
    So, expectancy is the probability (ranging from 0 to 1) that a particular action or effort will lead to a particular first level outcome.
    Instrumentality refers to the degree to which a first level outcome will lead to a desired second level outcome.
  • 52. Theories of Work Motivation
    Strength of motivation to perform a certain act will depend on the algebraic sum of the products of the valences of outcome (which include instrumentality) times the expectancies.
    Motivational force F:
    F = ∑ Valence x Expectancy
  • 53. Theories of Work Motivation
    VIE theory
    Instrumentalities
    Expectancy
    Second level
    First level outcomes
    outcomes
    Outcome 1 a
    Outcome 1
    Outcome 1 b
    Motivational
    Force F Outcome 2 a
    Outcome 2 Outcome 2 b
    Outcome 2 c
  • 54. Theories of Work Motivation
    Eg. of VIE theory
    Instrumentalities
    Expectancy
    that the Second level
    workersFirst level outcomes
    will achieve outcomes
    the orgnal Personal goals
    goals Production i.e. money,
    standard recognition,
    Motivation i.e. the security
    Of organisational
    workers goal
  • 55. Theories of Work Motivation
    This model can clarify the relationship between individual & organisational goals. Eg. suppose workers are given a certain standard of production.
    By measuring the worker’s output, mgt can determine how imp. their personal goals are, the instrumentality of the organisational goal in attaining their personal goals & the worker’s expectancies that their effort & ability will accomplish the organisational goals.
  • 56. Theories of Work Motivation
    If the output is below standard, it may be that workers do not give high importance to the second level outcome;
    or they may not see the first level outcome being instrumental in achieving the second level outcome;
    or they may think that their efforts will not accomplish the first level outcome.
    Anyone or a combination of these possibilities will result in low motivation, according to Vroom.
  • 57. Morale
  • 58. What is Morale?
    The dictionary meaning is mood & spirit. High morale means an enthusiastic, confident feeling with respect to individual or group achievement.
    In employment, morale refers to the participative attitudes towards achievement of organisational objectives. It means team spirit & togetherness of people for a common purpose.
  • 59. What is Morale?
    It is defined as the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently (i.e. tirelessly, patiently) & consistently (again & again) in the pursuit of a common purpose.
  • 60. What is Morale?
    It consists of 3 different aspects:
    Feeling of being accepted by one’s work group
    Sharing common goals with one’s group
    Having confidence in the desirability of these goals.
  • 61. What is Morale?
    Individual & group morale:
    An individual’s morale is related with knowing one’s expectations & living up to them.
    It reflects the individual’s attitude towards life.
    Group morale reflects the group feeling – a group assessment of conditions – esprit de corps (team spirit)
  • 62. Effects of Morale
    Relationship of morale with productivity:
    There are various schools of thought on this concept.
    Some believe that high morale is related to high productivity & vice-versa.
    Some believe that morale is not related to productivity.
  • 63. Effects of Morale
    Miller & Form have given 4 combinations of morale & productivity:
    High productivity – high morale
    Low productivity – high morale
    High productivity – low morale
    Low productivity – low morale
  • 64. Effects of Morale
    High productivity – high morale: this situation occurs when group goals (pride in work group, group recognition) & individual goals (freedom on work, good wages, job interest) are satisfied leading to high motivation, high productivity & high morale.
  • 65. Effects of Morale
    Low productivity – high morale: individual goals only are satisfied. Individual behaviour is determined by informal groups causing restriction of output, where supervisors lack technical & administrative skills & where workers lack adequate skills.
  • 66. Effects of Morale
    High productivity – low morale: in this situation, supervisor is only able to increase productivity through his skills or planning ability by use of penalty (loss of pay or loss of job) rather than motivating the workers.
    Low productivity – low morale: occurs when opposite factors to situation 1 arise.
  • 67. Morale Indicators
    Organisation itself: goals, public reputation, organisational structure
    Nature of work: routine or specialised, stress
    Level of satisfaction: is determined by – opportunity for advancement, job security, opportunity to learn, use new ideas, co-operation of fellow employees, working hours, recognition, communication.
  • 68. Morale Indicators
    Supervision received: high rate of turnover indicates a poor leadership.
    Perception of the self: Morale of employees who lack self-confidence or who suffer from a poor physical or mental health is generally low.
    Employee’s perception of past awards & future opportunities for rewards: whether fair, satisfactory
  • 69. Morale Indicators
    Employee’s age: Earlier belief was that there exists a U shaped relation between age & morale – initially high, then low & again high.
    But, today it is believed that there is a direct relationship – high morale with high age, because of stability, serious attitude towards work, reliability, less absenteeism, sense of responsibility.
  • 70. Morale Indicators
    Employee’s educational level & occupational level:
    Inverse relation exists between educational level & morale. Higher the education, less satisfaction – because employee compares his attainment with others.
    But a high educational level gives the opportunity to be high in the ladder, hence satisfaction must be derived by the individual.
  • 71. Morale Indicators
    Occupational level: also influences morale. Eg. executives are more satisfied than managers, managers are more satisfied than the subordinates etc.
  • 72. To sum up…..
    A manager’s success depends on how well he can motivate his subordinates & boost their morale to give their best & also keep them satisfied.
    Motivation is one of the key tools for the success of any enterprise.
  • 73. McClelland Achievement Motivation Theory
  • 74. What is Motivation?
    The word 'motivation' comes from the Latin word meaning 'to move‘
    External motivation: bonus, work conditions (getting the office with the window)
    An inner (self-motivation) or outer drive to meet a need or goal
  • 75. Why is Motivation Important?
    It is one of the three key elements in performance
    Performance = f {Ability x Motivation x Opportunity}
    Ability refers to a natural talent to do something mental or physical
    Motivation is not a stable individual characteristic. Motivation is not a trait.
    Opportunity refers to the different situations that workers may find themselves in.
  • 76. McClelland's Achievement Motivation
    McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory is based upon the idea that people have an achievement need. An achievement need is the need to be successful and to receive recognition for your success.
  • 77. 3 characteristics of people
    Need for Achievement - doing innovative, new, interesting and challenging things.
    Need for Affiliation - the need for feedback / contact with others.
    Need for Power - the need for responsibility, or to be responsible for others.
  • 78. McClelland's experiment
    -- The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) --
    It consisted of showing individuals a series of pictures and asking them to give brief descriptions of what was happening in the pictures. The responses were analysed in terms of the presence or absence of certain themes. The themes McClelland and his associates were looking for revolved around the following motivators: achievement, affiliation and power.
  • 79. THEMATICAPPERCEPTION TEST
    The Thematic Apperception Test or TAT is amongst the most widely used, researched, and taught psychological tests
    TAT was developed by the American psychologist Henry A. Murray and Christina D. Morgan at during the 1930s to explore the underlying dynamics of personality, such as internal conflicts, dominant drives and interests and motives.
  • 80. It uses a standard series of 31 provocative yet ambiguous pictures about which the subject must tell a story.
    A subject is asked questions such as: What dialogue might be carried on between characters? How might the "story" continue after the picture shown?
    For this reason, the TAT is also known as the 'picture interpretation technique'.
  • 81. Today, the TAT is widely used as a tool for research around areas of psychology such as dreams, fantasies and what motivates people to choose their occupation.
    Sometimes it is used in a psychiatric context to assess disordered thinking, in forensic examinations to evaluate crime suspects or to screen candidates for high-stress occupations.
  • 82. THE NEXT FEW SLIDES WILL CONTAIN SOME PICTURES.
    THEIR MEANING WILL DIFFER FROM PERSON TO PERSON AS THEY WILL BE INTEPRETED ACOORDING TO INDIVIDUAL PERCEPTION
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 85.
  • 86.
  • 87. Achievement
    The need for achievement is characterised by the wish to take responsibility for finding solutions to problems, master complex tasks, set goals, get feedback on level of success.
  • 88. THE NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT (N-ACH)
    The n-ach person is 'achievement motivated' and therefore:
    seeks achievement,
    attainment of realistic but challenging goals,
    advancement in the job.
    There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, accompained with a need for a sense of accomplishment.
  • 89. Affiliation
    The need for affiliation is characterised by a desire to belong, an enjoyment of teamwork, a concern about interpersonal relationships, and a need to reduce uncertainty.
  • 90. THE NEED FOR AFFILIATION (N-AFFIL)
    The n-affil person is 'affiliation motivated',
    He has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people.
    The affiliation driver produces motivation and need to be liked and held in popular regard.
    These people are team players.
  • 91. Power (Influence)
    The need for power is characterised by a drive to control and influence others, a need to win arguments, a need to persuade and prevail.
  • 92. THE NEED FOR AUTHORITY AND POWER (N-POW)
    The n-pow person is 'authority motivated'. This driver produces a need to be
    influential,
    effective
    to make an impact.
    There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail.
    There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige.
  • 93. TYPES OF POWER
    A persons need for power is of two types
    PERSONAL POWER
    Those who need Personal Power want to direct others, which is often perceived as undesirable.
  • 94. INSTITUTIONAL POWER
    Persons who need Institutional power or Social Power want to organise the efforts of others to further the goals of the organisation.
    Managers with high need for institutional power tend to be more effective managers as compared to those with high Personal Power.
  • 95. Need for Achievement and Entrepreneurship
    McClelland further described the profile of an entrepreneur as someone high in achievement motivation and low in power motivation, while good managers have high power motivation and low achievement motivation.
  • 96. Direction
    What Is Motivation?
    Intensity
    Persistence
  • 97. Why Rewards Often Fail to Motivate
    • Too much emphasis on monetary rewards
    • 98. Rewards lack an “appreciation effect”
    • 99. Extensive benefits become entitlements
    • 100. Counterproductive behavior is rewarded
    • 101. Too long a delay between performance and rewards
    • 102. Too many one-size-fits-all rewards
    • 103. Use of one-shot rewards with a short-lived motivational impact
    • 104. Continued use of demotivating practicessuch as layoffs, across-the-boardraises and cuts, and excessive executive compensation
  • Contingent Consequences in Operant Conditioning
    Positive or Pleasing
    Negative or Displeasing
    PunishmentBehavioral outcome:Target behavior occursless often.
    Positive ReinforcementBehavioral outcome:Target behavior occursmore often.
    Negative ReinforcementBehavioral outcome:Target behavior occursmore often.
    Punishment (Response Cost)Behavioral outcome:Target behavior occursless often.
    (no contingent consequence)
    ExtinctionBehavioral outcome:Target behavior occurs less often
    Nature of Consequences
    ContingentPresentation
    Behavior-Consequence Relationship
    ContingentWithdrawal
  • 105. Schedules of Reinforcement
    Schedule Description
    Continuous Reinforcer follows every response(CRF)
    IntermittentReinforcer does not follow every response
    Fixed ratio (FR)A fixed number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs.
    Variable ratio (VR)A varying or random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs.
    Fixed interval (FI)The first response after a specific period of time has elapsed is reinforced
    Variable interval (VI)The first response after varying or randomperiods of time have elapsed is reinforced.
  • 106. Maslow’s
    Hierarchy
    of Needs
    Self
    Esteem
    Social
    Safety
    Physiological
  • 107. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
    Hygiene Factors
    Motivational Factors
    Job Satisfaction
    0
    High
    High
    Job Dissatisfaction
  • 118. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
    Existence
    Growth
    Relatedness
  • 119. The Theory
    of Needs
    David
    McClelland
    Need for
    Achievement
    (nAch)
    Need for
    Power
    (nPow)
    Need for
    Affiliation
    (nAff)
  • 120. Intrinsic
    Motivators
    Extrinsic
    Motivators
    Cognitive Evaluation
  • 121. The Job Characteristics Model
    Outcomes
    Critical
    psychological
    states
    Core job
    characteristics
    *High internal work motivation*High growth satisfaction*High general job satisfaction*High work effectiveness
    *Experienced meaningfulness of the work*Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work*Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities
    *Skill variety*Task identity*Task significance*Autonomy*Feedback from job
    Moderators
    1. Knowledge and skill
    2. Growth need strength
    3. Context satisfactions
  • 122. Approaches to Job Design
    1. The Mechanistic Approachfocuses on identifying the most efficient way to perform a job. Employees are trained and rewarded to perform their jobs accordingly.
    2. Motivational Approachesthese techniques (job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment, and job characteristics) attempt to improve employees’ affective and attitudinal reactions and behavioral outcomes.
    3. Biological and Perceptual- Motor ApproachesBiological techniques focus on reducing employees’ physical strain, effort, fatigue, and health complaints. The Perceptual-Motor Approach emphasizes the reliability of work outcomes by examining error rates, accidents, and workers’ feedback about facilities and equipment.
  • 123. Skills and Best Practices: Applying the Job Characteristics Model
    Diagnose the level of employee motivation and job. satisfaction and consider redesigning jobs when motivation ranges from low to moderate.
    Determine whether job redesign is appropriate in a given context.
    Redesign jobs by including employees’ input.
  • 124. Equity Theory
    Ratio
    Comparison*
    Employee’s
    Perception
    Outcomes A
    Inputs A
    Outcomes A
    Inputs A
    Outcomes A
    Inputs A
    Outcomes B
    Inputs B
    Outcomes B
    Inputs B
    Outcomes B
    Inputs B
    <
    Inequity (Under-Rewarded)
    =
    Equity
    >
    Inequity (Over-Rewarded)
    *Where A is the employee, and B is a relevant other or referent.
  • 125. $2
    1 hour
    $4
    2 hours
    = $2 per hour
    = $2 per hour
    Negative and Positive Inequity
    A. An Equitable Situation
    Other
    Self
  • 126. B. Negative Inequity
    Self
    Other
    $2
    1 hour
    $3
    1 hour
    = $2 per hour
    = $3 per hour
    Negative and Positive Inequity (cont)
  • 127. $2
    1 hours
    $3
    1 hour
    = $1 per hour
    = $3 per hour
    Negative and Positive Inequity (cont)
    C. Positive Inequity
    Other
    Self
  • 128. Organizational Justice
    Distributive Justice:The perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed.
    Procedural Justice:The perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions.
    Interactional Justice:The perceived fairness of the decision maker’s behavior in the process of decision making.
  • 129. Distributive
    Justice
    Procedural
    Justice
    Amount and
    Allocation
    of Rewards
    Perceived
    Fairness of the
    Distribution Process
    Research into Equity
  • 130. Equity Sensitivity
    Equity Sensitivity is an individual’s tolerance for negative and positive equity.
  • Motivation TheoriesAre Culture Bound
    Need for
    Achievement
    Hierarchy
    of Needs
    Equity Theory
  • 133. 1. Effort-performance relationship
    2. Performance-rewards relationship
    3. Rewards-personal goals relationship
    Expectancy Theory
    Individual
    Effort
    Individual
    Performance
    Organizational
    Rewards
    1
    2
    3
    Personal
    Goals
  • 134. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Concepts
    Expectancy:Belief that effort leads to a specific level of performance
    Instrumentality:A performance  outcome perception.
    Valence:The Value of a reward or outcome
  • 135. Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory
    Determine the outcomes employees value.
    Identify good performance so appropriate behaviors can be rewarded.
    Make sure employees can achieve targeted performance levels.
    Link desired outcomes to targeted levels of performance.
    Make sure changes in outcomes are large enough to motivate high effort.
    Monitor the reward system for inequities.
  • 136. Organizational Implications of Expectancy Theory
    Reward people for desired performance, and do not keep pay decisions secret.
    Design challenging jobs.
    Tie some rewards to group accomplishments to build teamwork and encourage cooperation.
    Reward managers for creating, monitoring, and maintaining expectancies, instrumentalities, and oucomes that lead to high effort and goal attainment.
    Monitor employee motivation through interviews or anonymous questionnaires.
    Accommodate individual differences by building flexibility into the motivation program.
  • 137. Goal-Setting Theory
    Specificity
    Challenge
    Feedback
    Participation
    Commitment
    Self-efficacy
    Characteristics
    Culture
  • 138. Insights from Goal-Setting Research
    • Difficult Goals Lead to Higher Performance.- Easy goals produce low effort because the goal is too easy to achieve.- Impossible goals ultimately lead to lower performance because people begin to experience failure.
    • 139. Specific Difficult Goals Lead to Higher Performance for Simple Rather Than Complex Tasks.- Goal specificity pertains to the quantifiability of a goal.- Specific difficult goals impair performance on novel, complex tasks when employees do not have clear strategies for solving these types of problems.
    • 140. Feedback Enhances The Effect of Specific, Difficult Goals.- Goals and feedback should be used together.
  • Insights from Goal-Setting Research(continued)
    • Participative Goals, Assigned Goals, and Self-Set Goals Are Equally Effective.- Managers should set goals by using a contingency approach. Different methods work in different situations.
    • 141. Goal Commitment and Monetary Incentives Affect Goal-Setting Outcomes.- Difficult goals lead to higher performance when employees are committed to their goals.- Difficult goals lead to lower performance when employees are not committed to their goals.- Goal based incentives can lead to negative outcomes for employees in complex, interdependent jobs requiring cooperation.
  • Guidelines for Writing “SMART” Goals
    Specific
    Measurable
    Attainable
    Results oriented
    Time bound
  • 142. An Integrative Model of Motivation
    High
    nAch
    Equity
    Comparison
    OO
    IA IB
    Ability
    Opportunity
    Performance
    Appraisal Criteria
    Personal
    Goals
    Individual
    Performance
    Individual
    Effort
    Organization
    Rewards
    Reinforcement
    Performance
    Appraisal
    System
    Dominant
    Needs
    Goals Direct
    Behavior
  • 143. Special Motivation Issues
    Professionals
    Contingent workers
    Diversified workforce
    Low-skilled service workers
    Highly repetitive tasks
  • 144. MOTIVATION
  • 145. What is motivation ?
    It is a result of interaction between the individual and the situation
    The word “Motivation” has been derived from a Latin word “movere” meaning “to move”.
    Stephen Robbins defines motivation as “the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal”
  • 146. What is motivation ?
    Intensity –
    Direction –
    Persistence –
    How hard?
    Where are the efforts going ?
    How long?
  • 147. What is motivation ?
    According to Fred Luthans “ motivation is a process that starts with physiological and psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive”
    Needs : are created where there is physiological or psychological imbalance.
    Drives : or motives are set up to alleviate needs
    Incentives : are anything that will alleviate a need & reduce the drive.
  • 148. Types of motives
    Primary Motives
    General Motives
    Secondary Motives
  • 149. Primary Motives
    Primary Motives are unlearned and physiologically based.
    These motives not necessarily take precedence over general and secondary motive.
    E.g. Hunger, thirst, avoidance of pain, maternal concerns and physical needs.
  • 150. General Motives
    General Motives are unlearned but not physiologically based.
    Unlike primary motives, they induce the amount of stimulation.
    E.g. Curiosity, manipulation, activity and affection.
  • 151. Secondary Motives
    Secondary Motives are learned and not physiologically based.
    E.g. Power, achievement, affiliation security and status.
  • 152. Secondary Motive – Power motive
    Need for power
    Influencing people to change their attitudes or behavior
    Controlling people and activities
    Being in a position of authority over others.
    Gaining control over information & resources
    Defeating an opponent or enemy.
  • 153. Secondary Motive – Achievement motive
    Need for achievement
    Doing better than competitors
    Attaining or surpassing a difficult goal
    Solving a complex problem
    Carrying out a challenging assignment successfully
    Developing a better way to do something.
  • 154. Secondary Motive – Affiliation motive
    Need for affiliation
    Being liked by many people
    Being accepted as a part of the group / team
    Maintaining harmonious relations and avoiding conflicts
    Participating in pleasant social activities.
  • 155. Secondary Motive – Security motive
    Need for security
    Having a secure job
    Being protected against loss of income
    Having protection against illness or disability
    Avoiding tasks or decisions with a risk of failure and blame.
    Security is basically based on fear or loss of something.
  • 156. Secondary Motive – Status motive
    Status is defined as “relative ranking” that a person holds in the group, organization or society.
    Status may be high or low
  • 157. Secondary Motive – Status motive
    Need for status
    Having the right car and clothes
    Working for the right job and right company
    Having a degree from the right university
    Living in the right neighborhood and having the membership of the right club
    Having executive privileges.
  • 158. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  • 159. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Theory.
    Herzberg’s two-factor theory.
    Victor Vroom’s theory.
    Porter and Lawler’s theory.
  • 160. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
    It is based on the following propositions;
    Man is a wanting being
    Satisfied need is not a motivator
    The needs of a man has hierarchy or importance.
  • 161. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
    Self
    Actualization
    Lower
    order needs
    Higher order needs
    Esteemneeds
    Social Needs
    Safety Needs
    Physiological Needs
  • 162. Few weaknesses
    It states that lower level people are able to satisfy lower order needs and higher level people are able to satisfy higher order needs
    It ignores the fact that an act may be motivated by several needs and not any single need.
  • 163. Fredrick Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory
    He conducted a motivational study on 200 accountants and engineers
    He made use of critical incident method for analyzing data
    Questions :
    When did you feel particularly good about your job?
    When did you feel exceptionally bad about your job ?
  • 164. Frederick Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory
    The good feelings = Job experience / job content
    The bad feelings = Job surroundings / job context
    Job content factors = Motivators
    Job context factors = Hygiene
  • 165. Hygiene Factors Motivators
    Company policy and administration
    Supervision
    Salary
    Interpersonal relationships
    Working conditions.
    Achievement
    Recognition
    Work itself
    Responsibility
    Advancement.
    Hygiene factors prevent dissatisfaction, but do not
    lead to satisfaction.
  • 166. Few weaknesses
    There is always a question regarding the samples used by Herzberg
    Low-complexity job workers
    Age
    The varied situations may affect preferences for motivators.
  • 167. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy theory of motivation
    • Expectancy theory argues that the strength of the tendency to act in a certain way depends on
    • 168. the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and
    • 169. on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
    • 170. An employee will be motivated to exert high level of effort when
    • 171. he/she believes that the effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards such as a bonus, salary increments or promotion;
    • 172. and that the rewards will satisfy the employee’s personal goals.
  • Vroom’s Expectancy theory
    This theory focuses on three relationships;
    Valence : Effort – performance
    Expectancy : Performance – reward
    Instrumentality : Rewards – personal goals
    Let us see the applicability
    If I give a max. effort, will it be recognized in my performance appraisal?
    If I get a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational rewards?
    if I am rewarded, are the rewards the ones that I find personally attractive?
  • 173. Weakness
    Like other theories, this too is a model that helps managers understand certain aspects of motivation, but
    it does not give practical solutions to solve motivational problems.
  • 174. EXTRINSIC
    INTRINSIC
  • Value of
    reward
    Abilities
    Perceived
    Equitable
    rewards
    Intrinsic
    rewards
    Effort
    Performance
    (accomplish
    -ments)
    Satisfaction
    Extrinsic
    rewards
    Perceived
    effort-reward
    probability
    Role
    perception
  • 182. Chapter 4
    Motivating
    Self and Others
  • 183. Theories of Motivation
    What is motivation?
    How do needs motivate people?
    Are there other ways to motivate people?
    Do equity and fairness matter?
    How can rewards and job design motivate employees?
    What kinds of mistakes are made in reward systems?
  • 184. What is Motivation?
    Motivation
    The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
  • 185. Theory X and Theory Y
    Theory X
    Theory Y
  • 186. Motivators
    Intrinsic
    Extrinsic
  • 187. Needs Theories of Motivation
    Basic idea:
    Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    Motivation-Hygiene theory
    Alderfer’s ERG theory
    McClelland’s Theory of Needs
  • 188. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    Physiological
    Safety
    Social
    Esteem
    Self-actualization
  • 189. Exhibit 4-1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    Self-
    actualization
    Esteem
    Social
    Safety
    Physiological
  • 190. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    Hygiene factors - necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment
    Extrinsic factors; context of work
    Motivators - the sources of satisfaction
    Intrinsic factors; content of work
  • 191. Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers
    Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from Frederick Herzberg, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?” Harvard Business Review 81, no. 1 (January 2003), p. 90. Copyright © 1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College; all rights reserved.
  • 192. Criticisms of Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    The procedure that Herzberg used is limited by its methodology
    The reliability of Herzberg’s methodology is questioned
    Herzberg did not really produce a theory of motivation
    No overall measure of satisfaction was used
    The theory is inconsistent with previous research
  • 193. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
    Existence
    Relatedness
    Growth
  • 194. McClelland’s Theory of Needs
    Need for Achievement
    Need for Power
    Need for Affiliation
  • 195. Exhibit 4-4 Summarizing the Various Needs Theories
    Alderfer
    Herzberg
    Maslow
    McClelland
    Self-Actualization
    Need for Achievement
    Growth
    Motivators
    Esteem
    Need for Power
    Relatedness
    Affiliation
    Hygiene
    Need for Affiliation
    Factors
    Security
    Existence
    Physiological
  • 196. Summary: Hierarchy of Needs
    Maslow
    Herzberg
    Alderfer
    McClelland
  • 197. Summary: Impact of Theory
    Maslow
    Herzberg
    Alderfer
    McClelland
  • 198. Summary: Support and Criticism of Theory
    Maslow
    Herzberg
    Alderfer
    McClelland
  • 199. Process Theories of Motivation
    Look at the actual process of motivation
    Expectancy theory
    Goal-setting theory
  • 200. Expectancy Theory
    The theory that individuals act depending on whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to them.
  • 201. Expectancy Relationships
    The theory focuses on three relationships:
    Effort-performance relationship
    Performance-reward relationship
    Rewards-personal goals relationship
  • 202. Exhibit 4-5 How Does Expectancy Theory Work?
    My professor offers me $1 million if I memorize the textbook by tomorrow morning.
    Expectancy
    Instrumentality
    Valence
    Effort Performance Link
    Performance Rewards Link
    Rewards Personal Goals Link
    No matter how much effort
    My professor does not look
    There are a lot of wonderful things
    I put in, probably not possible
    like someone who has $1 million
    I could do with $1 million
    to memorize the text in 24 hours
    E=0
    I=0
    V=1
    Conclusion: Though I value the reward, I will not be motivated to do this task.
  • 203. Exhibit 4-6 Steps to Increasing Motivation, Using Expectancy Theory
    Improving Instrumentality
    Improving Expectancy
    Improving Valence
    Increase the individual

    s belief that
    Improve the ability of the
    Make sure that the reward is
    performance will lead to reward
    individual to perform
    meaningful to the individual

    Observe and recognize performance

    Make sure employees have skills

    Ask employees what rewards they

    Deliver rewards as promised
    for the task
    value

    Indicate to employees how previous

    Provide training

    Give rewards that are valued
    good performance led to greater

    Assign reasonable tasks and goals
    rewards
  • 204. Goal-Setting Theory
    The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance.
    Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended.
    Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best.”
  • 205. How Does Goal Setting Motivate?
    Goals:
    Direct attention
    Regulate effort
    Increase persistence
    Encourage the development of strategies and action plans
    Chapter 4, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 4-177
    Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  • 206. Goals Should Be SMART
    For goals to be effective, they should be SMART:
    Chapter 4, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 4-178
    Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  • 207. Exhibit 4-7 Locke’s Model of Goal Setting
    Chapter 4, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 4-179
    Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
    Directing attention
    Regulating effort
    Goals
    T
    ask
    motivate
    performance
    by . . .
    Inc
    r
    easing persistence
    Encouraging the development
    of strategies and action plans
    Source: Adapted from E. A. Locke and G. P. Latham, A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1980). Reprinted by permission of Edwin A. Locke.
  • 208. Contingency Factors in Goal Setting
    Self-efficacy
    An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
    Chapter 4, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 4-180
    Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  • 209. Management by Objectives
    A program that encompasses
    Specific goals
    Participative decision-making
    Explicit time period
    Performance feedback
  • 210. XYZ Company
    Overall
    Organizational
    Objectives
    Divisional
    Objectives
    Consumer Products
    Division
    Industrial Products
    Division
    Departmental
    Objectives
    Sales
    Production
    Marketing
    Develop
    Customer
    Service
    Research
    Individual
    Objectives
    Cascading
    Objectives
  • 211. Responses to the Reward System
    Equity Theory
    Fair Process
  • 212. Equity Theory
    Main points
    Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities.
    Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what others receive.
  • 213. Exhibit 4-7 Equity Theory
    Ratio of Output to Input
    Person 1’s
    Perception
    Person 1
    Inequity, underrewarded
    Person 2
    Person 1
    Equity
    Person 2
    Person 1
    Inequity, overrewarded
    Person 2
  • 214. Responses to Inequity
    Change Inputs
    Change Outcomes
    Adjust Perceptions of Self
    Adjust Perceptions of Others
    Choose a Different Referent
    Leave the Field
  • 215. Fair Process and Treatment
    Historically, equity theory focused on:
    Distributive justice
    However, equity should also consider
    Procedural justice
  • 216. Fair Process and Treatment
    Distributive Justice
    Procedural Justice
    Interactional Justice
  • 217. Motivators
    Intrinsic
    Extrinsic
  • 218. Four Key Rewards to Increase Intrinsic Motivation
    Choice
    Competence
    Meaningfulness
    Progress
  • 219. Exhibit 4-9 Building Blocks for Intrinsic Rewards
    Leading for Competence
    Leading for Choice
    • Knowledge
    • Delegated authority

    T
    rust in workers
    • Positive feedback
    • Security (no punishment) for honest mistakes
    • Skill recognition
    • Challenge
    • A clear purpose
    • Information
    • High, non-comparative standards
    Leading for Progress
    Leading for Meaningfulness
    • A collaborative climate
    • A noncynical climate
    • Clearly identified passions
    • Milestones
    • An exciting vision
    • Celebrations
    • Access to customers
    • Relevant task purposes
    • Whole tasks
    • Measurement of improvement
    Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher. From Intrinsic Motivation at Work: Building Energy and Commitment. Copyright © K. Thomas. Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA. All rights reserved. www.bkconnection.com.
  • 220. Variable-Pay Programs
    A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance.
    Individual-based
    Group-based
    Organizational-based
  • 221. Exhibit 4-11 Comparing Various Pay Programs
  • 222. Designing Motivating Jobs
    Job Characteristic Model (JCM) is a model that identifies five core job dimensions and their relationship to personal and work outcomes.
    Job Enrichment
  • 223. JCM – Core Job Dimensions
    Skill variety
    Task identity
    Task significance
    Autonomy
    Feedback
  • 224. JCM – Critical Psychological States
    Experienced meaningfulness
    Experienced responsibility for outcomes
    Knowledge of the actual results
  • 225. Exhibit 4-12 – Examples of High and Low Job Characteristics
    Skill Variety
    Task Identity
    Task Significance
    Autonomy
    Feedback
  • 226. Exhibit 4-13 The Job Characteristics Model
    Core job
    Personal and
    Critical
    dimensions
    work outcomes
    psychological states
    Skill variety
    Experienced
    High internal
    Task identity
    meaningfulness
    work motivation
    Task significance
    of the work
    High-quality
    Experienced
    work performance
    responsibility
    Autonomy
    for outcomes
    High satisfaction
    of the work
    with the work
    Knowledge of the
    Low absenteeism
    Feedback
    Source: J. R. Hackman, G. R. Oldham, Work Design (excerpted from pages 78-80). Copyright © 1980 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Reprinted by permission of Addison-Wesley Longman.
    actual results of
    and turnover
    the work activities
    Employee growth-
    need strength
  • 227. Beware the Signals That Are Sent By Rewards
    Often reward systems do not reflect organizational goals:
    Individuals are stuck in old patterns of rewards and recognition.
    Organizations don’t look at the big picture.
    Management and shareholders focus on short-term results.
  • 228. We hope for:
    • Teamwork and collaboration
    • 229. Innovative thinking and risk taking
    • 230. Development of people skills
    • 231. Employee involvement and empowerment
    • 232. High achievement
    • 233. Long-term growth
    • 234. Commitment to total quality
    • 235. Candor
    But we reward:
    • The best individual team members
    • 236. Proven methods and no mistakes
    • 237. Technical achievements and accomplishments
    • 238. Tight control over operations, resources
    • 239. Another year’s efforts
    • 240. Quarterly earnings
    • 241. Shipment on schedule, even with defects
    • 242. Reporting good news
    Exhibit 4-10Management Reward Follies
  • 243. Why Do Managers Engage in Reward Follies?
    Stuck in old patterns of rewards and recognition
    Don’t look at the big picture
    Focus on short-term results
  • 244. Caveat Emptor: Apply Motivation Theories Wisely
    Motivation Theories Are Culture-Bound
    Canada and US rely on extrinsic rewards more than other countries.
    Japan and Germany rarely use individual incentives.
    China is more likely to give bonuses to everyone.
  • 245. Can We Just Eliminate Rewards?
    Alfie Kohn suggests that organizations should focus less on rewards, more on creating motivating environments:
    Abolish Incentives.
    Re-evaluate Evaluation.
    Create Conditions for Authentic Motivation.
    Encourage Collaboration.
    Enhance Content.
    Provide Choice.
  • 246. Putting It All Together
    What we know about motivating employees in organizations:
    Recognize individual differences.
    Employees have different needs.
    Don’t treat them all alike.
    Spend the time necessary to understand what’s important to each employee.
    Use goals and feedback.
    Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them.
    Link rewards to performance.
    Check the system for equity.
  • 247. Summary and Implications
    What is Motivation?
    Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward reaching the goal.
    How do needs motivate people?
    All needs theories of motivation propose a similar idea: individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation.
  • 248. Summary and Implications
    Are there other ways to motivate people?
    Process theories focus on the broader picture of how someone can set about motivating another individual. Process theories include expectancy theory and goal- setting theory (and its application, management by objectives).
    Do equity and fairness matter?
    Individuals look for fairness in the reward system. Rewards should be perceived by employees as related to the inputs they bring to the job.
  • 249. Summary and Implications
    5. How can rewards and job design motivate employees?
    Recognition helps employees feel that they matter. Employers can use variable-pay programs to reward performance. Employers can use job design to motivate employees. Jobs that have variety, autonomy, feedback, and similar complex task characteristics tend to be more motivating for employees.
    6. What kinds of mistakes are made in reward systems?
    Often reward systems do not reward the performance that is expected. Also, reward systems sometimes do not recognize that rewards are culture-bound.
  • 250. Summary
    Need Theories
    Be aware that individuals differ in their levels and types of needs
    Goal Setting Theory
    Clear and difficult goals lead to higher levels of employee productivity.
    Expectancy Theory
    Offers a relatively powerful explanation of employee productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.
  • 251. Summary
    Equity Theory
    Strongest when predicting absence and turnover behaviours.
    Weakest when predicting differences in employee productivity.
    Cognitive Evaluation Theory
    When you give extrinsic rewards for behaviour that had been previously intrinsically rewarded this can result in a decrease in the overall level of motivation.
  • 252. Chapter 4
    Motivating
    Self and Others
  • 253. Motivating Self and Others
    Questions for Consideration
    1. What is motivation?
    2. How do needs motivate people?
    3. Are there other ways to motivate people?
    4. Do equity and fairness matter?
    5. Are there tips for motivating people for different goals?
    6. How do you motivate for individual differences?
    7. What kinds of mistakes are made in reward systems?
    8. Do motivational theories work the same in every country?
    9. Could rewards be overrated?
  • 254. What is Motivation?
    Motivation
    The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
    Intensity: how hard a person tries
    Direction: where effort is channeled
    Persistence: how long effort is maintained
  • 255. Theory X and Theory Y
    Theory X
    The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment if they are to perform.
    Theory Y
    The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction and self-control.
  • 256. Motivators
    Intrinsic
    A person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction.
    Extrinsic
    Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards.
  • 257. Needs Theories of Motivation
    Basic idea:
    Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation
    Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    Herzberg’s two factor theory (motivation-hygiene theory)
    Alderfer’s ERG theory
    McClelland’s theory of needs
  • 258. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    Physiological
    Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs
    Safety
    Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm
    Social
    Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
  • 259. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    Esteem
    Includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention
    Self-actualization
    The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfilment
  • 260. Exhibit 4-1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    Self-
    actualization
    Esteem
    Social
    Safety
    Physiological
  • 261. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    Hygiene factors - necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment
    Extrinsic factors; context of work
    Company policy and administration
    Unhappy relationship with employee's supervisor
    Poor interpersonal relations with one's peers
    Poor working conditions
  • 262. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    Motivators - the sources of satisfaction
    Intrinsic factors; content of work
    Achievement
    Recognition
    Challenging, varied or interesting work
    Responsibility
    Advancement
  • 263. Exhibit 4-2 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
    Traditional view
    Dissatisfaction
    Satisfaction
    Herzberg's view
    Motivators
    No Satisfaction
    Satisfaction
    Hygiene Factors
    Dissatisfaction
    No dissatisfaction
  • 264. Criticisms of Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    The procedure that Herzberg used is limited by its methodology
    The reliability of Herzberg’s methodology is questioned
    Herzberg did not really produce a theory of motivation
    No overall measure of satisfaction was used
    The theory is inconsistent with previous research
  • 265. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
    Existence
    Concerned with providing basic material existence requirements
    Relatedness
    Desire for maintaining important interpersonal relationships
    Growth
    Intrinsic desire for personal development
  • 266. McClelland’s Theory of Needs
    Need for Achievement
    The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed
    Need for Power
    The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
    Need for Affiliation
    The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
  • 267. Exhibit 4-4 Summarizing the Various Needs Theories
    Alderfer
    Herzberg
    Maslow
    McClelland
    Self-Actualization
    Need for Achievement
    Growth
    Motivators
    Esteem
    Need for Power
    Relatedness
    Affiliation
    Hygiene
    Need for Affiliation
    Factors
    Security
    Existence
    Physiological
  • 268. Summary: Hierarchy of Needs
    Maslow: Argues that lower-order needs must be satisfied before one progresses to higher-order needs.
    Herzberg: Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be dissatisfied. They will not lead to satisfaction, however. Motivators lead to satisfaction.
    Alderfer: More than one need can be important at the same time. If a higher-order need is not being met, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases.
    McClelland: People vary in the types of needs they have. Their motivation and how well they perform in a work situation are related to whether they have a need for achievement, affiliation, or power.
  • 269. Summary: Impact of Theory
    Maslow: Enjoys wide recognition among practising managers. Most managers are familiar with it.
    Herzberg: The popularity of giving workers greater responsibility for planning and controlling their work can be attributed to his findings. Shows that more than one need may operate at the same time.
    Alderfer: Seen as a more valid version of the need hierarchy. Tells us that achievers will be motivated by jobs that offer personal responsibility, feedback, and moderate risks.
    McClelland: Tells us that high need achievers do not necessarily make good managers, since high achievers are more interested in how they do personally.
  • 270. Summary: Support and Criticism of Theory
    Maslow: Research does not generally validate the theory. In particular, there is little support for the hierarchical nature of needs. Criticized for how data were collected and interpreted.
    Herzberg: Not really a theory of motivation: Assumes a link between satisfaction and productivity that was not measured or demonstrated.
    Alderfer: Ignores situational variables.
    McClelland: Mixed empirical support, but theory is consistent with our knowledge of individual differences among people. Good empirical support, particularly on needs achievement.
  • 271. Process Theories of Motivation
    Look at the actual process of motivation
    Expectancy theory
    Goal-setting theory
  • 272. Expectancy Theory
    The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
  • 273. Expectancy Relationships
    The theory focuses on three relationships:
    Effort-performance relationship
    The perceived probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.
    Performance-reward relationship
    The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to a desired outcome.
    Rewards-personal goals relationship
    The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and are attractive to the individual.
  • 274. Exhibit 4-5 How Does Expectancy Theory Work?
    My professor offers me $1 million if I memorize the textbook by tomorrow morning.
    Expectancy
    Instrumentality
    Valence
    Effort Performance Link
    Performance Rewards Link
    Rewards Personal Goals Link
    No matter how much effort
    My professor does not look
    There are a lot of wonderful things
    I put in, probably not possible
    like someone who has $1 million
    I could do with $1 million
    to memorize the text in 24 hours
    E=0
    I=0
    V=1
    Conclusion: Though I value the reward, I will not be motivated to do this task.
  • 275. Exhibit 4-6 Steps to Increasing Motivation, Using Expectancy Theory
    Improving Instrumentality
    Improving Expectancy
    Improving Valence
    Increase the individual

    s belief that
    Improve the ability of the
    Make sure that the reward is
    performance will lead to reward
    individual to perform
    meaningful to the individual

    Observe and recognize performance

    Make sure employees have skills

    Ask employees what rewards they

    Deliver rewards as promised
    for the task
    value

    Indicate to employees how previous

    Provide training

    Give rewards that are valued
    good performance led to greater

    Assign reasonable tasks and goals
    rewards
  • 276. Goal-Setting Theory
    The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance.
    Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended.
    Specific goals increase performance
    Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals
    Feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback.
    Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best.”
    The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus.
  • 277. Management by Objectives
    A program that encompasses
    Specific goals
    Participative decision-making
    Explicit time period
    Performance feedback
  • 278. Responses to the Reward System
    Equity Theory
    Fair Process
  • 279. Equity Theory
    Main points
    Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities.
    Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what others receive.
  • 280. Exhibit 4-7 Equity Theory
    Ratio of Output to Input
    Person 1’s
    Perception
    Person 1
    Inequity, underrewarded
    Person 2
    Person 1
    Equity
    Person 2
    Person 1
    Inequity, overrewarded
    Person 2
  • 281. Equity Comparisons
    Self-inside
    Self-outside
    Other-inside
    Other-outside
  • 282. Responses to Inequity
    Change Inputs
    Change Outcomes
    Adjust Perceptions of Self
    Adjust Perceptions of Others
    Choose a Different Referent
    Leave the Field
  • 283. Fair Process and Treatment
    Historically, equity theory focused on:
    Distributive justice
    However, equity should also consider
    Procedural justice
  • 284. Fair Process
    Distributive Justice
    Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
    Procedural Justice
    Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
    Interactional Justice
    The quality of the interpersonal treatment received from another
  • 285. Motivating to Show People Matter
    Employee Recognition Programs
    Programs that use multiple sources and recognizes both individual and group accomplishments.
    Linking Programs and Reinforcement Theory
    Consistent with reinforcement theory, rewarding a behaviour with recognition immediately following that behaviour is likely to encourage its repetition.
    Employee Recognition Programs in Practice
    In contrast to most other motivators, recognizing an employee’s superior performance often costs little or no money, making them highly attractive to industry.
  • 286. Variable Pay Programs
    A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organizational measure(s) of performance.
    Individual-based
    Piece-rate wages, bonuses
    Workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.
    Group-based
    Gainsharing: an incentive plan where improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated.
  • 287. Variable Pay Programs
    Organizational-based
    Profit-sharing: organization wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability.
    Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs): company-established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits.
  • 288. Exhibit 4-8 Comparing Various Pay Programs
  • 289. Variable-Pay Programs
    Linking variable-pay plans and expectancy theory
    Evidence supports the importance of this linkage, especially for operative employees working under piece-rate systems.
    Group and organization wide incentives reinforce and encourage employees to sublimate personal goals for the best interests of their department or organization.
  • 290. Rewards for Other Types of Performance
    Commissions beyond sales
    Customer satisfaction and/or sales team outcomes, such as meeting revenue or profit targets.
    Leadership effectiveness
    Employee satisfaction, or how the manager handles his or her employees.
    New goals
    All employees who contribute to specific organizational goals, such as customer satisfaction, cycle time, or quality measures.
  • 291. Rewards for Other Types of Performance
    Knowledge workers in teams
    Performance of knowledge workers and/or professional employees who work on teams.
    Competency and/or skills
    Abstract knowledge or competencies—for example, knowledge of technology, the international business context, customer service, or social skills.
  • 292. Motivating Specific Groups
    Professionals
    Contingent workers
    Low-skilled service workers
    Unionized employees
    Public sector employees
  • 293. Motivating Professionals
    How are “professionals” different?
    Receive a great deal of “intrinsic” satisfaction from their work.
    Strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise
    Well paid/ Chief reward is work itself.
    Value support
    More focused on work as central life interest.
  • 294. Motivating Professionals
    How do we motivate professionals?
    Provide challenging projects
    Give them autonomy in follow interests and structure work.
    Reward with educational opportunities.
    Recognize their contributions.
  • 295. Motivating Contingent Workers
    No simple solutions to motivating contingent workers.
    Contingent or temporary workers have little or no job security/stability, therefore they don’t identify with the organization or display the commitment of permanent employees.
    Contingent or temporary workers are typically provided with little or no health care, pensions, or similar benefits.
  • 296. Motivating Contingent Workers
    Greatest motivating factor is the opportunity to gain permanent employment.
    Motivation is also increased if the employee sees that the job he or she is doing for the firm can develop salable skills.
  • 297. Motivating Low-Skilled Service Workers
    Many 15- to 24-year-olds have “McJobs” with pay levels near minimum wage
    To motivate
    Employees want more respect
    Make jobs more appealing
    Raise pay levels
    Find unusual ways to motivate:
    Flexible work schedules
    Broader responsibility for inventory, scheduling, and hiring
    Creation of a “family” atmosphere among employees
  • 298. Motivating Unionized Employees
    Constraints of contract affect some forms of rewards
    Some unions against pay-for-performance
    Additional ideas
    Create better work environments
    Show appreciation
    Provide opportunities for training and advancement
    Listen to employees concerns
  • 299. Motivating Public Sector Employees
    Special challenge
    Much work is service-oriented, harder to measure productivity
    Hard to link rewards to performance
    What to do
    Goal setting helps
    Goal difficulty and goal specificity help improve motivation
  • 300. We hope for:
    • Teamwork and collaboration
    • 301. Innovative thinking and risk taking
    • 302. Development of people skills
    • 303. Employee involvement and empowerment
    • 304. High achievement
    • 305. Long-term growth
    • 306. Commitment to total quality
    • 307. Candor
    But we reward:
    • The best individual team members
    • 308. Proven methods and no mistakes
    • 309. Technical achievements and accomplishments
    • 310. Tight control over operations, resources
    • 311. Another year’s efforts
    • 312. Quarterly earnings
    • 313. Shipment on schedule, even with defects
    • 314. Reporting good news
    Exhibit 4-10Management Reward Follies
  • 315. Why Do Managers Engage in Reward Follies?
    Stuck in old patterns of rewards and recognition
    Stick to rewarding things that can be easily measured
    Don’t look at the big picture
    Subunits compete with each other
    Focus on short-term results
  • 316. Cross-Cultural Differences in Motivation
    Canada and US rely on extrinsic rewards more than other countries
    Japan and Germany rarely use individual incentives
    Japan emphasizes group rewards
    China more likely to give bonuses to everyone
  • 317. Exhibit 4-11 Snapshots of Cultural Differences in Motivation
    Japan:
    Sales
    representatives preferred being
    members of a successful
    team with shared goals and values, rather than financial r
    ewards.
    Russia:
    Cotton mill employees given either valued extrinsic rewards
    (
    North American T
    -shirts with logos, childr
    en

    s sweatpants, tapes of
    North American music, etc.) or praise and rewards were more productive.
    However
    , rewards did not help for those who worked on
    Satur
    days.
    China:
    Bonuses often given to everyone, r
    egar
    dless of individual
    pr
    oductivity
    .
    Many employees expect jobs for life, rather than jobs based
    on performance.
    M
    exico
    :
    Employees pr
    efer i
    mmediate feedback on their work. Therefore
    daily r
    ewar
    ds for exceeding quotas ar
    e pr
    efer
    re
    d.
    Canada and the United States:
    Managers
    re
    ly mor
    e h
    eavily on extrinsic
    motivators.
    Japan and Germany:
    Firms rarely give rewards
    based on individual
    performance.
  • 318. Are Rewards Overrated? Cognitive Evaluation Theory
    Allocating extrinsic rewards for behaviour that had been previously intrinsically rewarded tends to decrease the overall level of motivation.
  • 319. Abolishing Rewards
    Alfie Kohn suggests that organizations should focus less on rewards, more on creating motivating environments
    Abolish incentives
    Re-evaluate evaluation
    Create conditions for authentic motivation
    Collaboration
    Content
    Choice
  • 320. Summary
    Need Theories
    Be aware that individuals differ in their levels and types of needs
    Goal Setting Theory
    Clear and difficult goals lead to higher levels of employee productivity.
    Expectancy Theory
    Offers a relatively powerful explanation of employee productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.
  • 321. Summary
    Equity Theory
    Strongest when predicting absence and turnover behaviours.
    Weakest when predicting differences in employee productivity.
    Cognitive Evaluation Theory
    When you give extrinsic rewards for behaviour that had been previously intrinsically rewarded this can result in a decrease in the overall level of motivation.
  • 322. Implications
    Recognize Individual Differences
    Employees have different needs.
    Don’t treat them all alike.
    Spend the time necessary to understand what’s important to each employee.
    Use Goals and Feedback
    Allow Employees to Participate in Decisions That Affect Them
  • 323. Implications
    Link Rewards to Performance
    Employees must perceive a clear linkage.
    Check the System for Equity
  • 324. OB at Work
  • 325. For Review
    1. What are the implications of Theories X and Y for motivation practices?
    2. Identify the variables in expectancy theory.
    3. Relate goal-setting theory to the MBO process. How are they similar? Different?
    4. What are the pluses and minuses of variable-pay programs from an employee’s viewpoint? From management’s viewpoint?
  • 326. For Review
    5. What is an ESOP? How might it positively influence employee motivation?
    6. What motivates professional employees?
    7. What motivates contingent employees?
    8. Explain cognitive evaluation theory. How applicable is it to management practice?
    9. What can firms do to create more motivating environments for their employees?
  • 327. For Critical Thinking
    1. Identify three activities you really enjoy. Next, identify three activities you really dislike. Using the expectancy model, analyze why some activities stimulate your effort while others don’t.
    2. Identify five different criteria by which organizations can compensate employees. Based on your knowledge and experience, is performance the criterion most used in practice? Discuss.
  • 328. For Critical Thinking
    3. “Recognition may be motivational for the moment but it doesn’t have any staying power. Why? Because they don’t take recognition at Safeway or The Bay!” Do you agree or disagree? Discuss.
    4. “Performance can’t be measured, so any effort to link pay with performance is a fantasy. Differences in performance are often caused by the system, which means the organization ends up rewarding the circumstances. It’s the same thing as rewarding the weather forecaster for a pleasant day.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Support your position.
    5. Your text argues for recognizing individual differences. It also suggests paying attention to members of diverse groups. Does this view contradict the principles of equity theory? Discuss.
  • 329. OB at Work
  • 330. Breakout Group Exercises
    Form small groups to discuss the following topics:
    1. One of the members of your team continually arrives late for meetings and does not turn drafts of assignments in on time. Choose one of the available theories and indicate how the theory explains the member’s current behaviour and how the theory could be used to motivate the group member to perform more responsibly.
    2. You are unhappy with the performance of one of your instructors and would like to encourage the instructor to present more lively classes. Choose one of the available theories and indicate how the theory explains the instructor’s current behaviour. How could you as a student use the theory to motivate the instructor to present more lively classes?
  • 331. Breakout Group Exercises
    3. Harvard University recently changed its grading policy to recommend to instructors that the average course mark should be a B. This was the result of a study showing that more than 50 percent of students were receiving an A or A- for coursework. Harvard students are often referred to as “the best and the brightest,” and they pay $27 000 (US) for their education, so they expect high grades. Discuss the impact of this change in policy on the motivation of Harvard students to study harder.
  • 332. Exhibit 4-12 2002 Compensation of Canada’s Five Best-Paid CEOs
    2002 Compensation of Canada’s
    Five Best-Paid CEOs
    Rank on share return
    CEO and Company
    2002
    To
    tal Compensation
    past 3 years
    (
    $000’
    s)
    (out of 150)
    1.
    Jozef Straus
    229 122
    148
    JDS Uniphase Corp.
    2.
    Eugene Melnyk
    122 481
    28
    Biovail Corp.
    3.
    G
    erald Schwartz
    49 266
    46
    O
    nex Corp.
    4.
    P
    eter C. Godsoe
    20 365
    40
    Scotiabank
    5.
    Fir
    oz A. Rasul
    19 354
    137
    Ballar
    d Power Systems Inc.
  • 333. Supplemental Material
    Slides for activities I do in my own classroom
  • 334. Exercise on Motivation Theories
    Jesse has been underperforming at work, coming in late, and causing some problems with the other workers. Previously Jesse has been one of your star employees. Using the theory assigned to your group, explain what steps you might take to motivate Jesse to perform better.
    Describe the plan
    Indicate how the plan relates to the theory
  • 335. Theories to Apply
    Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene (Two-Factor) Theory
    Expectancy
    Goal-Setting Theory
    Equity
    Cognitive Evaluation Theory
  • 336. Motivation and Emotion
    Chapter 10
    Internal processes that:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    G
    uide
    A
    ctivate
    S
    ustain
  • 337. Motivation
    Physiological
    Cognitive
    • Expectancy
    • 339. Self-fulfillment
  • Theories of Motivation
    Drive Theory
    Arousal Theory
    Expectancy Theory
    Goal-Setting Theory
    p. 377
  • 340. Drive Theory
    • Biological needs arising within our bodies create unpleasant states of arousal
    • 341. Hunger, thirst, fatigue, etc.
    • 342. Homeostasis- balanced physiological state
    • 343. Motivation is basically a process in which various biological needs PUSH us to actions
  • Drive Theory: An Overview
  • 344. Arousal Theory
    Optimization NOT Minimization
    Arousal: our general level of activation
    May fluctuate
    Biological influences??
    • Sensation seekers
    Yerkes-Dodson law
  • 345. Yerkes-Dodson law
    There is a relationship between, optimal performance and the level of arousal necessary.
  • 346. Expectancy Theory
    Behavior is determined by expectations (desirable outcomes).
    Thoughts about future PULL your behavior.
    Incentives: almost anything we have learned to value.
  • 347. Work Motivation:in the REAL world
  • 348. Goal-Setting
  • Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy
  • 354. Emotions
    Physiological responses
    Subjective feelings
    Expressive reactions
  • 355. How do we respond?
    Cannon – Bard
    • Earliest theory
    • 356. Simultaneous occurrence .
    James – Lange
    • More preferred
    • 357. Interpretations determine emotions
    • 358. Facial feedback hypothesis
  • Why go to scary movies?
    Schacter – Singer
    • Two stage theory
    • 359. Dutton & Aron (1974)
    Opponent-Process
    • Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
  • The Emotional Brain
    Anterior vs. Posterior
    • Pleasant – Unpleasant
    • 360. Arousal
    Right vs. Left
    • Avoidence – withdrawl
    • 361. Positive affect - Rewards
  • Speaking without Words
    1. Nonverbal Cues
    2. Gestures
    3. Body language
  • 362.
  • 363. Thanks For Watching
    Please Share
    Check out more great forwards at
    vparakhiya@rediffmail.com
    vasant_parakhiya@yahoo.com
    Mo. No. :- 94279-13540