Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Foreign Affairs: The Most Popular Countries in Debating Motions
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Foreign Affairs: The Most Popular Countries in Debating Motions


Published on

A presentation on foreign affairs for SSE Riga Debate Society. Credits to Jordan Anderson.

A presentation on foreign affairs for SSE Riga Debate Society. Credits to Jordan Anderson.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Foreign Affairs: The Most Popular Countries in Debating Motions
  • 2. Outline• Somalia• North Korea• Iran• Afghanistan• Israel & Palestine• …and a bit on PakistanCredits to: Jordan Anderson
  • 3. Somalia
  • 4. Somalia• Used to be functioning – Up to 1950s – an Italian colony – 1950s-80s – a dictatorship (but a functioning one!)• Status Quo – UN/US forces pulled out in early 1990s (“Black Hawk Down”) – several groups competing for power
  • 5. Pirates• Many are former fishermen – After state failed, had to turn to piracy – Part of moral blame is on Western Fishing Corporations• Wrongdoings – Attacking civilians – Hijacking Saudi oil tankers – Kidnapping tourists from neighboring countries
  • 6. Al-Shabaab (“The Youth”)• A militant Islamist group• Goal: set up an Islamic state with Sharia laws• Has ties with Al-Qaeda• Love-hate relationship with pirates – Cooperation against transitional government – But mutual blackmail and conflicts
  • 7. Transitional Federal Government• Small Western- and African Union-backed government• Controlling only parts of Mogadishu
  • 8. Somaliland• A de-facto independent state – Secession after the collapse of Somalia• Established a decent governance; maintains law & peace• Not recognized by any country
  • 9. Motions• THW invade Somalia Proposition  Opposition  Stop piracy  Turn to guerilla war  Restore law & order  Turn to religious war  Long-term economic growth  Attract other Islamist  Smash Al-Shabaab (training militias base of Al-Qaeda)  Piracy “is morally  Functioning government acceptable” CAN be built  Western Fishing Companies• THW covertly fund pirates & Al-Shabaab to fight each other
  • 10. North Korea
  • 11. North Korea• Split after WW2• Nuclear weapons – Not many, but exist – However, launching capabilities are extremely poor• China sort of supports NK
  • 12. Motions• THW assassinate Kim Jong-un – and his family Proposition  Opposition  Entire regime based on a  Army and generals will family heritage struggle for power  Moral justification  Civil war or NK vs. SK war  All are guilty• THW allow North Korea to have nukes Proposition  Opposition  Control & transparency  Very risky & unstable  Remove fear of invasion -> NK  NK may invade SK / sell nuclear less paranoid R&D to other bad countries  Balance of powers (US-CN-NK)  Spiral of countries getting nukes
  • 13. Iran
  • 14. Iran• 1979 – Islamic Revolution• Ayatolla – religious leader – Also adopts all the laws – Elements of democracy• Since 1980s – IR supports foreign terrorist groups• Status Quo – “Arab spring” among urban youth – Nukes; originally obtained “because Iraq had them” – Want to be dominant power; counter Israel
  • 15. Terrorist groups• Currently Iran funds: – Hezbollah (Lebanon)  Make Lebanon Islamic – Hamas (Palestine)  Destroy Israel• Possible reasons – Genuinely anti-Israeli – Use conflicts to distract attention from Iran – Provoke sanctions (by denying Holocaust etc.) to profit from the black market (e.g. satellite dishes)
  • 16. Motions• THW allow Iran to have nukes• THW invade Iran Proposition  Opposition  Similar to Libya  Religious insurgency  Opposition to regime  Big country that hates NATO• THW give Iran money / security technology Proposition  Opposition  Want security -> get it  “Blame West” policy  Help incumbents’ vested interests in the black market
  • 17. Afghanistan
  • 18. Afghanistan• Best times – kingdom up to 1980s• 1979 – Soviet invasion; pretty much destroyed the state• Mujahedeen drove Soviets out – but Somalia-style lawless little states were created• In the beginning the Taliban acted against Mujahedeen – Wanted to impose law & order
  • 19. Status Quo• NOT ideological war, rather Taliban insurgence – Personal (clan) grievances – Political factions – Lack of centralized administration• Pashtuns – majority of AF’s population; mountaineers – Not everyone, but most of the Taliban is Pashtun – No national identity, no will for central government• NATO forces & Karzai regime – deeply corrupt – Corruption is often the only way to control some provinces
  • 20. Motions • THW include the Taliban Proposition  Opposition  Different factions , each wants  The new regime will impose many peace & order things against Human Rights  Can buy them off  Hard to negotiate – no clear leader  The only way for a valid  Have to accept their ways to make democracy money, i.e. poppies and heroin • THW get (the hell) out of Afghanistan now  Proposition  Opposition  Everyone failed ruling them  Worse than SQ (poppies + Al- Qaeda)  Extremely hard to fight  Moral responsibility to current  Mountains allies  Tribal rules to help everyone  Counter-plan: more intelligent funding! (e.g. Soviets in 1980s)
  • 21. Israel & Palestine
  • 22. Israel & Palestine• Jewish migration began as early as in 1920s – Zionists moving to British Mandate of Palestine• 1948 – War of Independence• 1973 – October War• 1982 – peace agreement with Egypt• 1987 and 2000 – Intifadas (internal uprisings against Israel)
  • 23. Status Quo• Israel – Jewish state• West Bank – 100+ Israeli settlements – 300,000+ Israelis – 1,000,000+ Arabs• Jerusalem – a divided city• Golan Heights – 20,000+ Israelis• Gaza Strip – under blockade by IL army – HAMAS opposes that
  • 24. Motions• THBT the West should stop ALL funding until they come to peace  Proposition  Opposition  A huge part of IL budget, esp.  Hamas is funded by IR; if it wins military, is US-funded over Palestine, no more peace  Meanwhile, Palestine depends  IL will develop a “siege mentality” on US/EU support  US/EU support is merely helicopters etc. – IL still can oppress others • THW remove settlements Proposition  Opposition  IL as a whole is not quite legitimate  Territory captured in war  Geneva convention’s aim was to  Under Geneva convention, a prevent ethnic cleansing  Removing settlers is ethnic state is not allowed to settle cleansing its citizens there  People are already there, it is intrinsically bad to drive them out
  • 25. Pakistan
  • 26. Pakistan• Both PK and IN want Kashmir• Problems with Islamist militants• Both are nuclear nations – Threat of nukes being stolen is real• Pakistani intelligence has links with Al-Qaeda• North-West inhabited by Pushtuns – Problems with AF
  • 27. Thank you for your attention! Q&A