Foreign Affairs: The Most Popular Countries in Debating Motions
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Foreign Affairs: The Most Popular Countries in Debating Motions



A presentation on foreign affairs for SSE Riga Debate Society. Credits to Jordan Anderson.

A presentation on foreign affairs for SSE Riga Debate Society. Credits to Jordan Anderson.



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Foreign Affairs: The Most Popular Countries in Debating Motions Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Foreign Affairs: The Most Popular Countries in Debating Motions
  • 2. Outline• Somalia• North Korea• Iran• Afghanistan• Israel & Palestine• …and a bit on PakistanCredits to: Jordan Anderson
  • 3. Somalia
  • 4. Somalia• Used to be functioning – Up to 1950s – an Italian colony – 1950s-80s – a dictatorship (but a functioning one!)• Status Quo – UN/US forces pulled out in early 1990s (“Black Hawk Down”) – several groups competing for power
  • 5. Pirates• Many are former fishermen – After state failed, had to turn to piracy – Part of moral blame is on Western Fishing Corporations• Wrongdoings – Attacking civilians – Hijacking Saudi oil tankers – Kidnapping tourists from neighboring countries
  • 6. Al-Shabaab (“The Youth”)• A militant Islamist group• Goal: set up an Islamic state with Sharia laws• Has ties with Al-Qaeda• Love-hate relationship with pirates – Cooperation against transitional government – But mutual blackmail and conflicts
  • 7. Transitional Federal Government• Small Western- and African Union-backed government• Controlling only parts of Mogadishu
  • 8. Somaliland• A de-facto independent state – Secession after the collapse of Somalia• Established a decent governance; maintains law & peace• Not recognized by any country
  • 9. Motions• THW invade Somalia Proposition  Opposition  Stop piracy  Turn to guerilla war  Restore law & order  Turn to religious war  Long-term economic growth  Attract other Islamist  Smash Al-Shabaab (training militias base of Al-Qaeda)  Piracy “is morally  Functioning government acceptable” CAN be built  Western Fishing Companies• THW covertly fund pirates & Al-Shabaab to fight each other
  • 10. North Korea
  • 11. North Korea• Split after WW2• Nuclear weapons – Not many, but exist – However, launching capabilities are extremely poor• China sort of supports NK
  • 12. Motions• THW assassinate Kim Jong-un – and his family Proposition  Opposition  Entire regime based on a  Army and generals will family heritage struggle for power  Moral justification  Civil war or NK vs. SK war  All are guilty• THW allow North Korea to have nukes Proposition  Opposition  Control & transparency  Very risky & unstable  Remove fear of invasion -> NK  NK may invade SK / sell nuclear less paranoid R&D to other bad countries  Balance of powers (US-CN-NK)  Spiral of countries getting nukes
  • 13. Iran
  • 14. Iran• 1979 – Islamic Revolution• Ayatolla – religious leader – Also adopts all the laws – Elements of democracy• Since 1980s – IR supports foreign terrorist groups• Status Quo – “Arab spring” among urban youth – Nukes; originally obtained “because Iraq had them” – Want to be dominant power; counter Israel
  • 15. Terrorist groups• Currently Iran funds: – Hezbollah (Lebanon)  Make Lebanon Islamic – Hamas (Palestine)  Destroy Israel• Possible reasons – Genuinely anti-Israeli – Use conflicts to distract attention from Iran – Provoke sanctions (by denying Holocaust etc.) to profit from the black market (e.g. satellite dishes)
  • 16. Motions• THW allow Iran to have nukes• THW invade Iran Proposition  Opposition  Similar to Libya  Religious insurgency  Opposition to regime  Big country that hates NATO• THW give Iran money / security technology Proposition  Opposition  Want security -> get it  “Blame West” policy  Help incumbents’ vested interests in the black market
  • 17. Afghanistan
  • 18. Afghanistan• Best times – kingdom up to 1980s• 1979 – Soviet invasion; pretty much destroyed the state• Mujahedeen drove Soviets out – but Somalia-style lawless little states were created• In the beginning the Taliban acted against Mujahedeen – Wanted to impose law & order
  • 19. Status Quo• NOT ideological war, rather Taliban insurgence – Personal (clan) grievances – Political factions – Lack of centralized administration• Pashtuns – majority of AF’s population; mountaineers – Not everyone, but most of the Taliban is Pashtun – No national identity, no will for central government• NATO forces & Karzai regime – deeply corrupt – Corruption is often the only way to control some provinces
  • 20. Motions • THW include the Taliban Proposition  Opposition  Different factions , each wants  The new regime will impose many peace & order things against Human Rights  Can buy them off  Hard to negotiate – no clear leader  The only way for a valid  Have to accept their ways to make democracy money, i.e. poppies and heroin • THW get (the hell) out of Afghanistan now  Proposition  Opposition  Everyone failed ruling them  Worse than SQ (poppies + Al- Qaeda)  Extremely hard to fight  Moral responsibility to current  Mountains allies  Tribal rules to help everyone  Counter-plan: more intelligent funding! (e.g. Soviets in 1980s)
  • 21. Israel & Palestine
  • 22. Israel & Palestine• Jewish migration began as early as in 1920s – Zionists moving to British Mandate of Palestine• 1948 – War of Independence• 1973 – October War• 1982 – peace agreement with Egypt• 1987 and 2000 – Intifadas (internal uprisings against Israel)
  • 23. Status Quo• Israel – Jewish state• West Bank – 100+ Israeli settlements – 300,000+ Israelis – 1,000,000+ Arabs• Jerusalem – a divided city• Golan Heights – 20,000+ Israelis• Gaza Strip – under blockade by IL army – HAMAS opposes that
  • 24. Motions• THBT the West should stop ALL funding until they come to peace  Proposition  Opposition  A huge part of IL budget, esp.  Hamas is funded by IR; if it wins military, is US-funded over Palestine, no more peace  Meanwhile, Palestine depends  IL will develop a “siege mentality” on US/EU support  US/EU support is merely helicopters etc. – IL still can oppress others • THW remove settlements Proposition  Opposition  IL as a whole is not quite legitimate  Territory captured in war  Geneva convention’s aim was to  Under Geneva convention, a prevent ethnic cleansing  Removing settlers is ethnic state is not allowed to settle cleansing its citizens there  People are already there, it is intrinsically bad to drive them out
  • 25. Pakistan
  • 26. Pakistan• Both PK and IN want Kashmir• Problems with Islamist militants• Both are nuclear nations – Threat of nukes being stolen is real• Pakistani intelligence has links with Al-Qaeda• North-West inhabited by Pushtuns – Problems with AF
  • 27. Thank you for your attention! Q&A