Open source jura CBS (03 11-2010)

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Slides for presentation at CBS on 14 March 2011. See http://bit.ly/ecJu8f

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Open source jura CBS (03 11-2010)

  1. 1. Open Source jura Advokat Martin von Haller Grønbæk Partner, Bender von Haller Dragsted CBS - 14-03-2011 2mandag den 4. april 2011
  2. 2. – Attorney-at-law, Bender von Haller Dragsted – Co-founder, Open Source Vendors Ass. (OSL) – Editorial board IFOSSLR – Co-founder, Creative Commons DK – Co-founder, Danish Internet Society Chapter – Legal advisor to Umbraco and Composite – Experience with GPL enforvement in Denmark 2mandag den 4. april 2011
  3. 3. Martin von Haller Grønbæk – http://www.bvhd.dk – http://www.openlife.dk – http://www.vonhaller.dk – http://www.linkedin.com/in/vonhaller – http://www.23hq.com/mhg – http://www.slideshare.net/vonhaller – http://www.facebook.com/vonhaller – mhg@bvhd.dk – martin@groenbaek.net – groenbaek@gmail.com 3mandag den 4. april 2011
  4. 4. Martin von Haller Grønbæk –Legal500: “At IT boutique Bender von Haller Dragsted, Martin von Haller Grønbæk is the Danish expert on open source and emerging issues around Web 2.0 and internet law.” 4mandag den 4. april 2011
  5. 5. Agenda • Historien bag FLOSS • Varemærker og OSS • Ophavsret og OSS • Patenter og OSS • OSS Licenser • Copykeft • Business models • Cases 3mandag den 4. april 2011
  6. 6. mandag den 4. april 2011
  7. 7. http://vodpod.com/watch/ 46377-revolution-os-1hr-25- mins 7mandag den 4. april 2011
  8. 8. Free Software • Hacker culture • Richard Stallman • Free Software Foundation • Software should be free • GNU “GNU is not Unix” • BSD and ATT 8mandag den 4. april 2011
  9. 9. Linus, Tux and Linuxmandag den 4. april 2011
  10. 10. Linux and Open source • Linus Torvalds – Linux released under the GPL v2 • Eric Raymonds – Cathedral and the Bazaar • Bruce Perens – Open Source Initiative 10mandag den 4. april 2011
  11. 11. mandag den 4. april 2011
  12. 12. Bruce Perensmandag den 4. april 2011
  13. 13. • 2002 OSS and Microsoft – Steve Balmer: “Copyright cancer”, “communism” • 2004 – SCO, Patent threaths, “Beware of infectious GPL” • 2006 – Umbraco • 2008 – Peaceful co-existence, Novell deal • 2009 – Contributions to Linux • 2010 – Composite • 2013 – Winux? 13mandag den 4. april 2011
  14. 14. Communisme ?mandag den 4. april 2011
  15. 15. Communism ?mandag den 4. april 2011
  16. 16. Cancer?mandag den 4. april 2011
  17. 17. • 1998 OSS Business – Netscape • 1999 – Cygnus • 2000 – VA Linux, RedHat • 2005 – IBM, SUN • 2006 – Purple Scout, Redpill Linpro • 2008 – MySQL sold to SUN (2009: to Oracle) Symbian • 2010 – (almost) All Fortune500 companies use OSS 17mandag den 4. april 2011
  18. 18. Begreber • Free software • Open source software • Copyleft • Free Software Foundation • Open Source Initiative • Free Libre Open Source Software 18mandag den 4. april 2011
  19. 19. Free vs. Openmandag den 4. april 2011
  20. 20. FLOSSmandag den 4. april 2011
  21. 21. Free Software ideologi • “All software should be free” • Du får fire friheder • Du skal sikre disse friheder for andre • Når du videredistribuere fri software, sikre software disse friheder til næste led 21mandag den 4. april 2011
  22. 22. “Free not as in free beer but as in freedom”mandag den 4. april 2011
  23. 23. Open source initiativemandag den 4. april 2011
  24. 24. Open Source principerne • Ret til at distribuere • Adgang til kildekolde • Ret til af lave afledede værker • Opretholdelse af kodens “integritet” • 5-10: Ikke-diskrimination – Kommerciel anvendelse – Ikke begrænsninger i andre aftaler – Ingen geografiske begrænsninger – Patenter 24mandag den 4. april 2011
  25. 25. Overhold principperne! Ellers lad være med at kalde det OSSmandag den 4. april 2011
  26. 26. Giv æren til den, som dentilkommermandag den 4. april 2011
  27. 27. Ophavsret ● The programmer or the producer owns the software ● Property rights are limited ● Copyright is limited in time ● The user is a user not an owner ● The license is an agreement not a law ● The license grants positively defined user rights. ● All residual rights belongs to the licensor ● Without copyright no licensesmandag den 4. april 2011
  28. 28. Open source og varemærkermandag den 4. april 2011
  29. 29. Open source og patentermandag den 4. april 2011
  30. 30. Patents • “A set of exclusive rights granted by a state to an inventor or his assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention” • FSF: “a patent on any performance of a computer realised by means of a computer program" • Licensor shall not restrict use by patents (downstream) • OSS licensee shall not claim patents against licensor or sublicensee (upstream and downstream) 30mandag den 4. april 2011
  31. 31. Patent trollsmandag den 4. april 2011
  32. 32. Licenses • Academic or permissive licenses – Apache License v2 – MIT License – New BSD license • Copyleft, reciprocal or hereditary licences – Weak copyleft • Artistic license v1 • Eclipse Public License • Mozilla Public License v.1.1 – Strong copyleft • GNU GPL v1-3 • GNU LGPL v1-3 32mandag den 4. april 2011
  33. 33. Copyleft - the basics • You don’t have to redistribute or distribute • (Exception: “written offer valid for any third party” in GPL, v. 2) • Comply or cease use, or call back distribution • Make combined program, including modifications and otherwise closed code available under GPL (or compatible licens) 33mandag den 4. april 2011
  34. 34. mandag den 4. april 2011
  35. 35. GPLmandag den 4. april 2011
  36. 36. Derivative work • A work based on one or more pre- existing works • Improvement, translation, correction • Not collective work • Modifications are copyrighted themselves • Very few court cases • GPL: Combinations 36mandag den 4. april 2011
  37. 37. Combination • Combination of code into a whole • NB: All combinations are permitted and “private” combinations have no restrictions • Mechanism of communication • Semantics of the communication • Output not covered • (Exc: GPL program copies text into output) • Output of language interpreter • (Exc: “bindings” interpreter to program) • Library is under GPL, program is not • Program is under GPL, module is not 37mandag den 4. april 2011
  38. 38. Combination cont. • CMS Templates – Exc: Javascript calls • Microsoft Visual C++ (or Visual Basic) DLLs • Plug-ins under a GPL program – dynamically linked plug-ins – fork and exec to invoke plug-ins • System library exception • Aggregate work is not combined work • Linking exception • LGPL allows linking to closed applications – Java archive files 38mandag den 4. april 2011
  39. 39. Distribution • GPL v2: Distribution • GPL v3: Propagation and Conveyance • In soft- and hardware • ASP loophole og network exception • Affero Public License • Contractors on/off-site • Outsourcing • Mergers and Acquisitions • Let recipient download the GPL’ed code 39mandag den 4. april 2011
  40. 40. Escapes • Make deal with licensor • Replace code • Work around • GPL v3, sec. 8 – Termination notice • NDA: Developer can agree not to release changes at all • NDA: Developer can agree only to release changes to customer 40mandag den 4. april 2011
  41. 41. Enforcement • The GPL is enforceable! – Germany 2004: Netfilter/Iptables; 2006: D-Link – US 2007: BusyBox; 2008: Jacobsen vs. Katzer – SCO • Copyright holder • Injunction • GPL-VIOLATIONS.ORG 41mandag den 4. april 2011
  42. 42. Damages • Compensation under copyright • No penal damages or stipulated damages • Economic loss suffered by licensor • Rule of thumb: 2 x license fee • Legal fees 42mandag den 4. april 2011
  43. 43. Tivo • Anti-Tivoization – Hardware restrictions – Cryptography – Tivo, OLPC – GPLv3 (not business distribution) 43mandag den 4. april 2011
  44. 44. Business models • Dual licensing – Warranties – Copyleft exemptions • Services – Warranties – Support and maintenance – Consultancy – Accesories • Marketing and distribution • Hardware sales 44mandag den 4. april 2011
  45. 45. The Mindstorm storymandag den 4. april 2011
  46. 46. LEGO goes open source 1 May 2006. LEGO press release Hackers, Get Ready! LEGO Group Announces Open Source Firmware, Developer Kits for LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT Consumer-directed robotics experience creation to enter “NXT” phase with open firmware, Software, Hardware and Bluetooth Developer Kits to launch in Augustmandag den 4. april 2011
  47. 47. Background ● Mindstorms robots launched in 1998 ● The best-selling LEGO product ever ● Huge Mindstorm community ● LEGO was and is not a software company ● Only minor upgrades to the firmware ● Several parallel Mindstorms OS’smandag den 4. april 2011
  48. 48. Challenges ● LEGO was not comfortable with “openness” ● LEGO has been and is extremely reliant on strong IPRs ● ”You dont give away IPRs for free” ● Turbulent period for LEGO in general ● Third party software includedmandag den 4. april 2011
  49. 49. Solution ● Embrace User driven innovation ● Open source as the enabler ● Third party permission for redistribution under an OS license ● Choice of license − ”Genuine” open source licence − Permissive (Academic) or Copyleft (reciprocal license)mandag den 4. april 2011
  50. 50. The OS license choice ● Mozilla Public license v. 1.1 ● Weak copyleft ● Modification is limited altering the files ● “I did not understand GPL v.2” ● LEGO was only concerned with modifications of the actual files 50mandag den 4. april 2011
  51. 51. The “beauty” of the solution! • Huge press coverage and goodwill • Large number of downloads of code • Much more “intelligence” in the bricks • Convincing strategy towards competitors • Option to “close” the code again • Many more bricks sold! 51mandag den 4. april 2011
  52. 52. Dual licensingmandag den 4. april 2011
  53. 53. CASE: MySQL Dual-licensing • The software company perspective • The same code is licensed under two different licences: – MySQL Community Server: GPL v. 2 with FOSS exception – MySQL Enterprise: Commercial license 53mandag den 4. april 2011
  54. 54. Owners prerogative ● The owner can decide to release under any and as many terms she likes ● Dual licensing is only possible for owners own modfications ● Or assigned modifications ● Control is necessary to mitigate liability ● ”Closing in” the code againmandag den 4. april 2011
  55. 55. Copyright and control • MySQL has exclusive copyright to the code • MySQL controls and certifies the code • The GPL does not give any rights to use MySQLs trademarks 55mandag den 4. april 2011
  56. 56. Why pay? • Certification of the code • Warranties • Maintenance and support • Copyleft exemption 56mandag den 4. april 2011
  57. 57. Still not convinced? • MySQL AB was in 2008 bought by Sun Microsystem, Inc. for approximately USD $1 billion in total consideration 57mandag den 4. april 2011
  58. 58. CASE: NITA • Danish National IT and Telecom Agency • eFaktura (eInvoice) • Electronic invoices to, from and between public agencies • Core service: UDDI registry for webservice to identify senders and receivers 58mandag den 4. april 2011
  59. 59. Challenges • Two applications provided by NITA to user (e.g. ERP vendors) • API between users’ ERPs and UDDI WS • Reference implementation integrating API with ERP • NITA wanted to release the application under an OS license 59mandag den 4. april 2011
  60. 60. Goals • Satisfying the politicians • Wide adoption of UDDI • Community based improvement of the API • Many vendors should integrate API into their ERP 60mandag den 4. april 2011
  61. 61. Solutions • API – Copyleft – Mozilla public license v. 1.1 (maybe EUPL v. 1.1) • Reference implementation – Permissive licence – FreeBSD license 61mandag den 4. april 2011
  62. 62. Thanks for listening! Also available at http://www.slideshare.net/vonhaller/mandag den 4. april 2011
  63. 63. Creative Commons - some rights reserved Advokat Martin von Haller Grønbæk Partner, Bender von Haller Dragsted CBS - 14-03-2011mandag den 4. april 2011
  64. 64. Agenda Behovet for CC Varme emner Forholdet til CC International ophavsret CC og biblioteker CC licenserne Support Free Eksempler på Culture and Open anvendelse Content!mandag den 4. april 2011
  65. 65. Personalia IT-Lawyer, partner at Bender von Haller Dragsted Advises a.o on open source and content licensing Co-founder of Forening for Dansk Internet Handel (FDIH), Open Source Leverandør Foreningen (OSL), Danish Chapter of Internet Society (ISOC DK), DK- Hostsmaster A/S and ... Creative Commons DK Board member of several SME IT companies Member of the Danish IT-security committee Openness fanatic! “in the kingdom of the blind, the one-eyed is king”mandag den 4. april 2011
  66. 66. Digital indhold Formand for bestyrelsen i Saxo.com Danmarks største Internet boghandel Fremtidens platform for digitalt indhold for produktion markedsføring og salg distribution Deling!mandag den 4. april 2011
  67. 67. – http://www.bvhd.dk – http://openlife.dk – http://www.vonhaller.dk – http://www.linkedin.com/in/vonhaller – http://www.23hq.com/mhg – http://www.slideshare.net/vonhaller – http://www.facebook.com/vonhaller – mhg@bvhd.dk – martin@groenbaek.net – groenbaek@gmail.commandag den 4. april 2011
  68. 68. mandag den 4. april 2011
  69. 69. #1 Åbent indholdmandag den 4. april 2011
  70. 70. #1 Free Culturemandag den 4. april 2011
  71. 71. Mennesker kommunikerer!mandag den 4. april 2011
  72. 72. EMRK art 10, Stk. 1. Enhver har ret til ytringsfrihed. Denne ret omfatter meningsfrihed og frihed til at modtage eller meddele oplysninger eller tanker, uden indblanding fra offentlig myndighed og uden hensyn til landegrænser. Denne artikel forhindrer ikke stater i at kræve, at radio-, fjernsyns- eller filmforetagender kun må drives i henhold til bevilling.mandag den 4. april 2011
  73. 73. Envejs kommunikationmandag den 4. april 2011
  74. 74. Censurmandag den 4. april 2011
  75. 75. Propagandamandag den 4. april 2011
  76. 76. Forbruger af informationermandag den 4. april 2011
  77. 77. (Relativ) passiv modtagermandag den 4. april 2011
  78. 78. Ny teknologi ændrer verdenenmandag den 4. april 2011
  79. 79. Det store gennembrudmandag den 4. april 2011
  80. 80. Demokratisering af adgang til at modtage og afgive informationmandag den 4. april 2011
  81. 81. ReadWrite webmandag den 4. april 2011
  82. 82. Post dotcommandag den 4. april 2011
  83. 83. Web 2.0mandag den 4. april 2011
  84. 84. “Participatory culture”mandag den 4. april 2011
  85. 85. ReMixmandag den 4. april 2011
  86. 86. MashUpsmandag den 4. april 2011
  87. 87. eFolkloremandag den 4. april 2011
  88. 88. Kulturelt og kreativt overskudmandag den 4. april 2011
  89. 89. Innovation og økonomimandag den 4. april 2011
  90. 90. Demokratimandag den 4. april 2011
  91. 91. Ophavsret er nødvendig og rigtigmandag den 4. april 2011
  92. 92. Men ophavsret en er en del af den sociale kontraktmandag den 4. april 2011
  93. 93. Ophavsret skal fremme innovation og vækstmandag den 4. april 2011
  94. 94. Er der behov for beskyttelse?mandag den 4. april 2011
  95. 95. Tanker behøver som udgangspunkt ingen beskyttelsemandag den 4. april 2011
  96. 96. Manifestationen er sårbarmandag den 4. april 2011
  97. 97. Give incitament til at skabemandag den 4. april 2011
  98. 98. Regulering af økonomimandag den 4. april 2011
  99. 99. Er der et markedsvigt?mandag den 4. april 2011
  100. 100. Ikke redistributionmandag den 4. april 2011
  101. 101. Kaldor-Hicksmandag den 4. april 2011
  102. 102. Marginal samfundsnytte ved øget reguleringmandag den 4. april 2011
  103. 103. Ophavsret skal fremme innovation og vækstmandag den 4. april 2011
  104. 104. Ikke forhindre innovationmandag den 4. april 2011
  105. 105. Ikke beskytte særinter essermandag den 4. april 2011
  106. 106. Ikke kriminalisere en hel generationmandag den 4. april 2011
  107. 107. Der findes ikke et 11. budmandag den 4. april 2011
  108. 108. Menneskeret står over ophavsretmandag den 4. april 2011
  109. 109. Ophavsretten skal genfinde sin balancemandag den 4. april 2011
  110. 110. Lobbyisterne ejer lovgivningsprocessenmandag den 4. april 2011
  111. 111. Balancen må genfindes gennem markedet for indholdmandag den 4. april 2011
  112. 112. Fleksibitet Transperans Tilgængelighedmandag den 4. april 2011
  113. 113. Fair licenser!mandag den 4. april 2011
  114. 114. mandag den 4. april 2011
  115. 115. mandag den 4. april 2011
  116. 116. Licenses Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by- nc-nd) Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike (by-nc- sa) Attribution Non-commercial (by-nc) Attribution No Derivatives (by-nd Attribution Share Alike (by-sa) Attribution (by)mandag den 4. april 2011
  117. 117. 117mandag den 4. april 2011
  118. 118. 118mandag den 4. april 2011
  119. 119. All licenses You always retain your copyright Applies worldwide Lasts for the duration of the work’s copyright Is not revocablemandag den 4. april 2011
  120. 120. All licenses allows To copy the work To distribute it To display or perform it publicly To make digital public performances of it (e.g., webcasting) To shift the work into another format as a verbatim copymandag den 4. april 2011
  121. 121. All licenses requires To get your permission to do any of the things you choose to restrict To keep any copyright notice intact on all copies of your work To link to your license from copies of the work Not to alter the terms of the license Not to use technology to restrict other licensees’ lawful uses of the work as a verbatim copymandag den 4. april 2011
  122. 122. Licenses are expressed Commons Deed. A plain-language summary of the license, complete with the relevant icons. Legal Code. The fine print that you need to be sure the license will stand up in court. Digital Code. A machine-readable translation of the license that helps search engines and other applications identify your work by its terms of use.mandag den 4. april 2011
  123. 123. mandag den 4. april 2011
  124. 124. Choose a licensemandag den 4. april 2011
  125. 125. Search for CC materialsmandag den 4. april 2011
  126. 126. CC internationalmandag den 4. april 2011
  127. 127. http://creativecommons.org/projects/ccplusmandag den 4. april 2011
  128. 128. mandag den 4. april 2011
  129. 129. mandag den 4. april 2011
  130. 130. mandag den 4. april 2011
  131. 131. + COMPANY COMMERCIAL LICENSEmandag den 4. april 2011
  132. 132. What works? All digital content Music Audio Text Photos ...and “physical” ie. paperbased works toomandag den 4. april 2011
  133. 133. Biq questions What does “Commercial” mean? What about data and databases? What is a “derivative work”?mandag den 4. april 2011
  134. 134. Open learning and open educational resources Based on CC licenses Projects ODEPO Project. OE Community Site. Educators Licensing Portalmandag den 4. april 2011
  135. 135. “re-useful” Opening and marking research and data for legal reuse — Scholars Copyright Project “one-click” Facilitating the transfer of physical materials for verifying and extending research — Biological Materials Transfer Project “de-fragmentation” Integrating/connecting research, data, materials and services from disparate sources, for permission-free access — NeuroCommons and Health Commonsmandag den 4. april 2011
  136. 136. I choose Edward O. Wilson Photo by Jim Harrison, Feb. 2003 Lead the next scientific revolution. Submit your best work to PLoS Biology. www.plos.orgmandag den 4. april 2011
  137. 137. mandag den 4. april 2011
  138. 138. mandag den 4. april 2011
  139. 139. mandag den 4. april 2011
  140. 140. Collecting societies Exclusive rights Efficient enforcement KODA agreement NC licences are allowed No compensationmandag den 4. april 2011
  141. 141. mandag den 4. april 2011
  142. 142. mandag den 4. april 2011
  143. 143. Public domain Works not covered by copyright Moral rights International challenges CC0 - all rights waivermandag den 4. april 2011
  144. 144. Helt konkret: Staten skal frigive indhold under CC!mandag den 4. april 2011
  145. 145. mandag den 4. april 2011
  146. 146. mandag den 4. april 2011
  147. 147. <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.5/ dk/"><img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0" src="http:// i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nd/2.5/dk/88x31.png" /></a><br /><span xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" property="dc:title">CC presentation at Forskernet</span> by <a xmlns:cc="http:/ / creativecommons.org/ns#" href="http:/ /openlife.dk" Also available at http://www.slideshare.net/vonhaller/mandag den 4. april 2011
  148. 148. Thanks for the attention! mhg@bvhd.dk martin@groenbaek.net http://www.bvhd.dk http://openlife.dkmandag den 4. april 2011

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