Distribution In Open Source Short (05 02 2010)

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The "short" version of my presentation on Distribution in Open Source at ITECHLAW Asia 2010 in Bangalore, 5 February 2010.

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Distribution In Open Source Short (05 02 2010)

  1. 1. Distribution in Open Source Martin von Haller Groenbaek partner, Bender von Haller Dragsted ITECHLAW ASIA 2010 Bangalore, 5 February 2010
  2. 2. •  Attorney-at-law, Bender von Haller Dragsted •  Co-founder, Open Source Vendors Ass. (OSL) •  Editorial board IFOSSLR •  Co-founder, Creative Commons DK •  Co-founder, Danish Internet Society Chapter •  http://www.bvhd.d •  http://www.openlife.dk •  http://www.vonhaller.dk •  http://www.linkedin.com/in/vonhaller •  http://www.23hq.com/mhg •  http://www.slideshare.net/vonhaller •  http://www.facebook.com/vonhaller •  mhg@bvhd.dk •  martin@groenbaek.net •  groenbaek@gmail.com
  3. 3. Goal
  4. 4. F.U.D
  5. 5. FEAR
  6. 6. UNCERTAINTY
  7. 7. DOUBT
  8. 8. Open Source means Business
  9. 9. Business model
  10. 10. 3 questions in 20 minutes
  11. 11. #1 What is distribution?
  12. 12. #2 Why does it matter?
  13. 13. #3 Show me the money!
  14. 14. Open source intro
  15. 15. All about licenses
  16. 16. Not contracts
  17. 17. Comply or don’t use
  18. 18. 4 freedoms (or license rights)
  19. 19. #1 Run  the     object  code
  20. 20. #2 Access source code
  21. 21. #3 Modify the source code
  22. 22. #4 Make and transfer copies
  23. 23. Also user restrictions!
  24. 24. These 4 rights are yours…
  25. 25. …regardless of distribution
  26. 26. No distribution = (almost) No restrictions
  27. 27. Distribution = Restrictions
  28. 28. Copyright notice preservation
  29. 29. License terms preservation
  30. 30. Access to source code
  31. 31. Your patents are affected
  32. 32. Copyleft
  33. 33. Release your own modify code…
  34. 34. …under the same license
  35. 35. Distribution = Copyleft
  36. 36. Most open source caselaw…
  37. 37. …involves distribution
  38. 38. Answer Question 2
  39. 39. Does distribution matter in open source?
  40. 40. YES!
  41. 41. Most restrictions in OS licenses Presupposed Distribution
  42. 42. In particular, Copyleft
  43. 43. Question 1: What is Distribution?
  44. 44. Answers in
  45. 45. Copyright law
  46. 46. Open Source licenses
  47. 47. US Copyright law
  48. 48. "distribute  copies...of  the   copyrighted  work  to  the   public  by  sale  or  other   transfer  of  ownership,   or  by  rental,  lease,  or   lending"  (7  USC  sec>on   106  (3))
  49. 49. Any transfer of a copy
  50. 50. Nordic Countries (and the EU)
  51. 51. Any transfer of a copy
  52. 52. Exception: Private copies
  53. 53. Commercial and non Commercial
  54. 54. The text of the OS Licenses
  55. 55. US-centric by tradition
  56. 56. GPL v2
  57. 57. 70%
  58. 58. “distribute”   “redistribute”  
  59. 59. “physical  act  of   transferring  a   copy”  (sec  1,  3rd   paragraph)
  60. 60. BSD  license   “RedistribuAon”
  61. 61. MIT  License     “Publish,  distribute”
  62. 62. Apache  License,   Version  2.0   “reproduce  and   distribute   copies”  (sec  4)
  63. 63. Eclipse  Public  License  -­‐  v  1.0   “publicly  display,  publicly   perform,  distribute”  (Sec  2,   litra  a)
  64. 64. Answer Question 1
  65. 65. What is distribution?
  66. 66. 3 rules of thumb
  67. 67. #1 Physical  copy     must  be     transferred
  68. 68. #2 The  transferee     must  be     a  third  party
  69. 69. #3 No  disAncAon   between   commercial  or     non-­‐commercial
  70. 70. US vs. EU
  71. 71. All  “public”     transfers  are   distribuAon
  72. 72. Some  “private”   transfers     may  not  be   distribuAon
  73. 73. Grey areas
  74. 74. Employees
  75. 75. Never distribution
  76. 76. Freelancers vs. Contractors
  77. 77. A contractor is a third party
  78. 78. A physical copy of code is transferred
  79. 79. Internal servers
  80. 80. ”Public” vs. ”Private”?
  81. 81. Subsidiaries
  82. 82. Third party
  83. 83. Joint ventures = Distribution
  84. 84. 100% owned subsidiaries
  85. 85. US: ”Unity of Ownership” = Maybe not distribution
  86. 86. EU: ”Private” transfer = Maybe not distribution
  87. 87. Outsourcing
  88. 88. Third party
  89. 89. A physical copy of the code is transferred
  90. 90. US:  DistribuAon
  91. 91. EU:  Probably  a   “private”  transfer
  92. 92. M&A
  93. 93. Only  assets,  not   share,  sale
  94. 94. The  acquiror  is  a   third  party
  95. 95. A  physical  copy  is   transferred
  96. 96. US:  DistribuAon
  97. 97. EU:  DistribuAon
  98. 98. Copyleft is triggered
  99. 99. Problem?
  100. 100. No!
  101. 101. GPL is a hereditary License!
  102. 102. Google?
  103. 103. Heavy user of Open source software
  104. 104. Lots of modifications!
  105. 105. No access to source code 
  106. 106. ASP loophole
  107. 107. GPLv3: Network exception
  108. 108. Functionalities via Network
  109. 109. Browser Internet
  110. 110. A  physical  copy  of   the  code  is  not   transferred
  111. 111. CopyleY  is  not   triggered
  112. 112. Controversy!
  113. 113. Answer Question 3
  114. 114. Business?
  115. 115. Lawyers get paid to explain!
  116. 116. Dual licensing
  117. 117. The licensor’s free choice of licenses
  118. 118. Choice #1 GPL
  119. 119. Copyleft
  120. 120. Hardware company uses GPL’ed software
  121. 121. Makes modifications into hardware
  122. 122. Wants to distribute modifications
  123. 123. … but does not want to release source code!
  124. 124. Trade secrets
  125. 125. Choice #2
  126. 126. License with copyleft exemption
  127. 127. …and with a license fee!
  128. 128. MySQL AB
  129. 129. Database software under GPL v2
  130. 130. ”Commercial” license with no copyleft
  131. 131. …and with warranties and support
  132. 132. Sold to SUN in 2008
  133. 133. More than 1.000.000.000 USD!
  134. 134. All software open sourced!
  135. 135. Open source means business!
  136. 136. Slides at www.slideshare.com/ vonhaller
  137. 137. Thank you!

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