The oral approach and situational language teaching


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The oral approach and situational language teaching

  1. 1. The Oral Approach And Situational Language Teaching Presented By Mr. Sisomxay, MA Student in TEFL, 7th Batch At faculty of letters, National university of Laos
  2. 2. Content of this presentation 1. Background Vocabulary control Grammar control 2. The oral approach and situational language teaching Approach Design Procedure 3. Conclusion
  3. 3. 1. Background  The origins of this approach:  British Applied Linguists: Harold Palmer And A.S. Hornby (1920s to 1930s)  Development a more scientific foundation for oral approach to teaching English than the Direct Method.  There are two main contents of this development: Vocabulary control and Grammar control
  4. 4. 1. Background (Cont.)  Vocabulary control:  Two quarters:  Emphasis on Vocabulary  Emphasis on Reading skills  Vocabulary was seen as an essential component of reading proficiency.  Great assistance in reading a foreign language  General Service List of English Words (West,1953)  1st attempts to establish principles of syllabus design in language teaching
  5. 5. 1. Background ( Cont.)  Grammar control:  Focus on the grammatical content of a language course by teaching basic grammatical patterns through an oral approach.  Classify the grammatical structures into sentence patterns (substitution tables )  One universal logic formed the basis of all languages and the teacher’s responsibility was to show how each category of the universal grammar was to be expressed in the foreign language.
  6. 6. 2. The Oral Approach And Situational Language Teaching  This method involved the systematic principles of  Selection by which lexical and grammatical content was chosen,  Gradation by which the organization and sequencing of content were determined,  Presentation by which techniques used for presentation and practice of items in a course.  This was not to be confused with the Direct Method, although it used oral procedures, lacked a systematic basis in applied linguistic theory and practice.
  7. 7.  The main characteristics of the approach: 1. Language Teaching begins with the spoken language. Material is taught orally before it is presented in written form. 2. The target language is the language of the classroom. 3. New language points are introduced and practiced situational. 4. Vocabulary selection procedures are followed to ensure that an essential general service vocabulary is covered. 5. Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple forms should be taught before complex ones. 6. Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is established. 2. The Oral Approach And Situational Language Teaching (Cont. )
  8. 8.  Approach Theory of language underlying Situational Language Teaching can be characterized as a type of British “ structuralism”.  Speech was regarded as the basis of language.  Structure was viewed as being at the heart of speaking ability, and must be linked to the context and situations in which language is used.  'Word order, Structural‘ Words, the few inflexions of English, and Content 'Words will form the material of our teaching” (Frisby 1957:I 34)  In contrast to American linguist, language was viewed as purposeful activity related to goals and situations in the real world. 2. The Oral Approach And Situational Language Teaching (Cont. )
  9. 9.  Approach ( cont.)  Theory of learning is a type of behaviorist habit-learning theory. It addresses primarily the processes rather than the conditions of learning.  There are three processes in learning a language (Palmer):  Receiving the knowledge or materials.  Fixing it in the memory by repetition.  Using it in actual practice until it becomes a personal skill.  French likewise saw language learning as habit formation.  Like the Direct Method, Situational Language Teaching adopts an inductive approach to the teaching of grammar. 2. The Oral Approach And Situational Language Teaching (Cont. )
  10. 10.  Design Objectives is to teach a practical command of the four basic skills of language.  Accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar.  Basic structures and sentence patterns is fundamental to reading and writing skills. The syllabus  Basic to the teaching of English in Situational Language Teaching is a structural syllabus and a world list.  A structural syllabus is a list of the basic structures and sentence patterns of English. 2. The Oral Approach And Situational Language Teaching (Cont. )
  11. 11.  Design ( cont. )  Types of learning and teaching activities  A situational approach to presenting new sentence patterns. o Use of concrete objects, pictures, and realia, and together with actions and gestures.  A drill-based manner of practicing new sentence patterns. o guided repetition and substitution activities, including chorus repetition, dictation, drills, and controlled oral-based reading and writing tasks.  Learner roles: The learner is required simply to listen and repeat what the teacher says and to respond to questions and commands. 2. The Oral Approach And Situational Language Teaching (Cont. )
  12. 12. 2. The Oral Approach And Situational Language Teaching (Cont. )  Design (cont.)  Teacher roles  Serves as a model  Setting up situations  Modeling the new structures for students to repeat  The role of instructional materials is dependent of both a textbook and visual aids.  The textbook should be used “only as a guide to the learning process. The teacher is expected to be master of his textbook”  Visual aids may be produced by the teacher or may be commercially process.
  13. 13.  Procedure  Vary according to the level of the class, but at any level aim to move from controlled to freer practice of structure and from oral use of sentence patterns to their automatic use in speech, reading, and writing.  Example for the pattern being practiced: “There’s a NOUN+ of + (noun) in the box. 2. The Oral Approach And Situational Language Teaching ( Cont. )
  14. 14. Procedure  Please add example of the lesson plan in brief!
  15. 15. Sequence of activity…..
  16. 16. 3. Conclusion  Procedures associated with Situational Language Teaching in the 1950s and 1960s were an extension and further development of well-established techniques.  “P-P-P” lesson model was the essential feature in the 1980s and early 1990s.  Presentation: Introduction of a new teaching item in context.  Practice: Controlled practice of the item.  Production: A freer practice phase.
  17. 17. 3. Conclusion ( cont.)  The principles of Situational Language Teaching:  emphasized mainly on oral practice, grammar, and sentence patterns, and  conformed to the intuitions of many language teachers and offer a practical methodology suited to countries where national EFL/ESL syllabuses continue to be grammatically based.
  18. 18. Thank for your kind attention