1 Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio Yvonne Perez BA of Psychology, 2010
Personal Statement Throughout my years of my growing life, I have grown into a woman with interests in Psychology after facing many obstacles of family issues and problems. Family life was not always as perfect as one would like it to be. Growing up in a family where my mother’s family such as her parents and siblings could not get along and is a very dysfunctional family. I would always experience the fighting and the yelling, very traumatizing as child because of the hostility that would come out of it. After experiencing that, my own immediate family was quite hostile as well and very problematic. Being the youngest of the family, I witnessed everything. Having two older sisters and an older brother was quite an eye opener in life. Two sisters who gave my parents such a hard time with running away, drugs, abuse and bad relationships and the hardship my parents went through. Having seen all this has made me a strong, determined individual with the knowledge of life and being able to develop relationships with people who are need and be effective in pursuing their needs. Even as a grown woman, things such as these go on in my family. One would think people would learn from their mistakes and change their lives, but growing up in a family such as mine, I’ve come to realize that there is a reason why people do the things that they do in life. This has been an inspiration of mine to conquer and understand why people do or think they way they do.
Cont…Personal Statement Psychology is a mentor for me personally and has inspired me to change and grow as a person. Dr. Laura happens to be an inspiration as well. As I sit in classes and learn, I’ve come to realize the adaptability I have to connect well with others and understand things. Acknowledging my self-management skills after going through numerous pitfalls in family life has given me great communication skills and interpersonal skills to be able to learn and influence others. Undergrad school has prepared me in the direction where I feel more stability and assurance of what I want to accomplish in life. It has prepared my path to set the example and help those in need. Being that in my immediate family, both of my sisters at one point were inadequate to take care of their children and make disastrous decisions which at one point made my sister lose two children for a year and a half. My mother took care of them and went through various counseling visits, therapy and all of the above. Years later, I’ve come to realize what the effects of poor parenting skills, drugs, physical abuse, and selfishness can do to children. This brings me to my strengths and passion for the youth. I inspire to focus on youth who are troubled, in the foster care system, delinquents and children who have experienced unfortunate of events in their lives, including reaching out to families as well, which I believe is important to reach out to and work together with so that families can overcome what has happened, change and live better lives.
Cont… Personal Statement Family and children are our future and family is the foundation of what children depend on and who they learn from. I have decided in pursuing an entry level career as a residential youth counselor to serve the community. Being that I have been a child advocate for San Bernardino County, I understand the concepts and what the best interest of a child is. I have the experience to connect with youth, holding great relationships, and providing resources to help them look forward in life. I will pursue a higher education and my next step is to go for Marriage and Family Therapy. Life so far has prepared me in many ways to ensure that family and children get the assistance they need in their best interest.
Resume Yvonne Perez Objective
To obtain a Residential Youth Counselor/Specialist position to enable me to use my strong organizational skills, educational background, and ability to work well with people. I want to help children and families in need so that they can progress and grow together.
Bilingual English/Spanish with the ability to translate, read, and write.
Advanced in Microsoft/Excel/Data entry/inventory/filing/Internet
BA in Psychology
Type 70 wpm
Preparing agendas, scheduling meetings, maintaining files and records, expense reports.
Skilled at learning new concepts quickly while working well under pressure
Work well without supervision
Leadership skills and ability to manage large groups.
Cont… Resume Employment History 03/09 - Current Think Together- Rancho Cucamonga, CA Program Leader
In charge of 22 fourth and fifth graders
Aids and guides youth with homework, arts & crafts, and outdoor activities.
Teach enrichment activities.
Help youth by encouraging problem solving skills, and enhance their creative thinking and social skills.
Aided youth to make choices and feel confident in their decisions within themselves.
12/07-10/08 Westaff- Riverside, CA Receptionist
Provided great customer service skills in a professional manner
Answered phones and taking messages
Completed various tasks such as Data Entry, edit inventory, complete purchase orders, filing, produced expense reports and manage deliveries.
Cont… Resume 07/07-09/07 View Financial Group- Ontario, CA Telemarketer
Made about 100 phone calls a day offering financial services to homeowners.
Provided information to Homeowners about loans, refinancing, lowering their monthly mortgage payments.
Took messages and made contact with loan officers
Attempt to acquire new customers over the phone.
03/06- 10/06 Napa Auto Parts- Fontana, CA Cashier/Puller
Answered heavy phone calls
Utilized computer to help customers find parts
Charge customers for merchandise, accept different forms of payments and process them.
Must count drawer down to make sure all transactions are accurate.
Took phone orders and put it on will call
Provided effective customer service and good communication skills.
Cont… Resume Education Argosy University – San bernardino, ca Bachelor’s of Arts in Psychology, 2010 GPA: 3.50/3.88 Everest college – Ontario, ca Associate’s Degree in Criminal Justice, 2008 GPA: 3.50/4.0
Volunteer: CASA Volunteer for San Bernardino County (Court Appointed Special Advocate) October 2009- April 2010 Responsibilities: Meet with youth every month, build a relationship, advocate for their needs and write reports for the Judge to review. Smart Kids (Afterschool Work Program), Fontana CA Jan. 2008 to Apr. 2008 Responsibilities: Assist with homework, arts & crafts, and outdoor activities. Encourage problem solving skills, and enhance their creative thinking and social skills. Aide youth to make choices and feel confident in their decisions within themselves.
Reflection Over my year and a half here at Argosy University, I have been successful of every class. I have learned a great deal of things in Psychology in both informative and of myself. The experience I have had here has made me grow as a person and realize a lot about myself which has allowed me to make some changes in my personal life and in some for my personality for the better. Overall, I have learned what kind of therapies I am interested in practicing when I start studying for my Marriage and Family Therapist degree. I am most interested in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Solution Focused Therapy. I have also learned great techniques of how to interview people and talking to people. In doing so, I have also learned how to watch the way I say things and any gestures that are included in the way I talk, as people of different cultural backgrounds might take it offensive. Overall, I have learned lots of important things that will lead me to success. As for experiences, one class that was difficult for me was Psychology in gender. In that class, I had to develop a project week by week, creating my own business in helping people and plan it out very well. This experience was quite tough as it required lots of time, work and writing. I really applied my critical thinking skills and problem solving skills. It’s been great here at Argosy University. My strengths would be my cognitive abilities and my knowledge in psychology, applied psychology, and interpersonal effectiveness. My weaknesses would be somewhat of research skills. I am well at it but not as great as I can be. It will take more practice.
Table of Contents Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy Ethical Issues Why should Ashley’s parents and doctors decide to have their daughter to never grow up? Ought to be easier to care for her? Should using hormones and surgery be an option to keep a human as a child? Is it reasonable to believe Ashley’s parents acted on behalf of convenience? If so, why? Should decisions such as these be decided upon morally? Why or why not? Should removing breasts ought to be done solely on the risk factor of sexual abuse although it is a natural thing to happen for most women, and should all women have to do this if they are if fear? My Position My position on the case of Ashley is being against Ashley’s parents for making the decisions that they made. Especially, since Ashley was at such a young age and had to face all that she did by that time. It’s a horrific thing to go through for her age. I feel as though her parents tried to justify their decision through God and used excuses of inconvenience for themselves. For example, in one article it states, “If she remains small then her parents can move her easily from place to place. By remaining small she can interact more with the rest of the family who can take her around the home and to outside events. She won’t have to deal with monthly periods. She may have a lower risk of getting raped and pregnant.” (Caplan, A. 2007) To me, this shows the proof of how much better life would be for the two “professional” parents to take care of Ashley. The parents obviously would not have to “suffer” or “struggle” with her as they are caring for her. I also believe that it is wrong to say that by removing Ashley’s breasts, it would prevent her from being raped or molested. How and why would they assess the event? Research Skills Communication Skills: Oral and Written Ethics and Diversity Awareness Foundations of Psychology Applied Psychology Interpersonal Effectiveness
It brings the question to society of whether or not women should all get their breasts removed to lower the risks of being sexually assaulted? I believe that if they are taking care of their daughter the way they are supposed to then nothing should be of a worry but since you have two professional parents working and busy with their lives, it’s obviously out of the question for them to do what they have to do to take care of her themselves. They obviously have to rely on others to help them take care of her and that is why they feel as though they are putting their daughter at risk in the hands of others. This statement from the article also supports and proves how the parents made this decision based on convenience, “Ashley's doctors, Daniel Gunther and Douglas Diekema, wrote in their paper for the October issue of the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine that the treatment would remove one of the major obstacles to family care and might extend the time that parents with the ability, resources and inclination to care for their child at home might be able to do so." (FoxNews.com. 2007) I strongly do not believe that this was a morally right decision that Ashley’s parents made. My reasons and justifications of this is relied solely on the fact that Ashley’s parents are two working professional parents whose lives are probably taken up by their careers and do not have the time to take care of their own daughter, so they limit the risks of anything possibly happening to their daughter so that they have no guilt by having Ashley undergo these ridiculous surgeries. In this statement in the article it proves my reasons and justifications, “By keeping Ashley small, they can bathe her, move her about in a stroller and help her avoid developing bed sores. With no breasts she may be a less tempting target for any future male caregivers.” (Caplan, A. 2007) In this article, it goes over what might be the Peter Pan issue with Ashley and staying small forever. Using this theory, it’s morally wrong to make the decision for anyone to stay a certain size forever and to remove the things that they did.
What should have happened is that, I believe that we as humans have the right to remain being who we are and for what God have made us. This just so happened to be a case in which God tested these parents and they couldn’t handle on their own that they needed the convenience of surgeries to make things better. Overall, I have stated the wrong things that have happened to Ashley. The fact that they removed her breasts to prevent sexual assault, and made the decision to keep her as a child is wrong. Opposing Arguments The arguments that can be used against me on my position would be the fact that Ashley has a condition that does not allow her to talk, swallow, or walk that she does not have the capacity to make a decisions on her own. However, how would they know how she feels and no one questions that concern for her? In one article it states this opposing argument, “Afflicted with severe brain impairment known as static encephalopathy, she cannot walk, talk, keep her head up in bed, or even swallow food. Her parents argued that “keeping her small” were the best way to improve the quality of her life, not to make life more convenient for them.” (FoxNews.com. 2007) George Dvorsky, a director of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, countered: “If the concern has something to do with the girl’s dignity being violated, then I have to protest by arguing that the girl lacks the cognitive capacity to experience any sense of indignity.” (The Times. 2007) This is another argument that can be used against my position, the fact that Ashley lacks the cognitive capacity to experience any sense of indignity.
According to the medical doctor who was working with Ashley's parents, the treatments were not significantly harmful and the benefits would outweigh any future negative side effects both for Ashley and her parents, who in his estimation were motivated only by love for their daughter. Adding to the amalgam of thorny questions already inherent in what is at heart an ethical debate, Daniel Gunther - the pediatric endocrinologist who has overseen Ashley's treatment - remarked that the ensuing debate about Ashley's treatment reminded him of a quote from Isaac Asimov: "Never let your sense of morals get in the way of doing what's right." (Guanipa, M. A., 2007) This quote from Isaac Asimov got to me. In a sense it’s true but in this case I don’t think so. Ethical Analysis #1 How would a virtue ethicist such as Aristotle OR Hobbes respond to this event? What sort of questions would they ask? In addition to being exclusively self-interested, Hobbes also argues that human beings are reasonable. They have in them the rational capacity to pursue their desires as efficiently and maximally as possible. Their reason does not, given the subjective nature of value, evaluate their given ends, rather it merely acts as “Scouts, and Spies, to range abroad, and find the way to the things Desired” (Lloyd, S.A., 2008) With this being said, I believe that Hobbes would see the acts and decisions of Ashley’s parents as reasonable and that they made their decision out of self-interest which proves my point of view. Hobbes would ask about the reasons they based their decisions on? He would evaluate their given ends and see if it was rational or not.
Ethical Analysis #2 How would Kant, or a duty ethicist, respond to this event? What sort of questions would they ask? Moral philosophy should say something about the ultimate end of human endeavor, the Highest Good, and its relationship to the moral life. In the Critique of Practical Reason, Kant argued that this Highest Good for Humanity is complete moral virtue together with complete happiness, the former being the condition of our deserving the latter. Unfortunately, Kant noted, virtue does not insure wellbeing and may even conflict with it. Further, there is no real possibility of moral perfection in this life and indeed few of us fully deserve the happiness we are lucky enough to enjoy. Reason cannot prove or disprove the existence of Divine Providence, nor the immortality of the soul, which seem necessary to rectify these things. Nevertheless, Kant argued, an unlimited amount of time to perfect ourselves (immortality) and a commensurate achievement of wellbeing (insured by God) are “postulates” required by reason when employed in moral matters. (Johnson, R., 2008) With this being said, the highest good for humanity is complete moral virtue together with complete happiness. I agree with this, I think that Kant would not find this moral due to his beliefs. The questions he would ask is how happiness contributes to the decisions that Ashley’s parents made.
Ethical Analysis #3 How would Mill or a Utilitarian respond to this event? What sort of questions would they ask? That an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness—not just the happiness of the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected by it. Such a theory is in opposition to egoism, the view that a person should pursue his own self-interest, even at the expense of others, and to any ethical theory that regards some acts or types of acts as right or wrong independently of their consequences. Utilitarianism also differs from ethical theories that make the rightness or wrongness of an act dependent upon the motive of the agent; for, according to the Utilitarian, it is possible for the right thing to be done from a bad motive. (West, H.R., 2000)
Research Skills What are the effects of Foster Care placement on young children’s mental health? The effects of foster care placement on young children’s mental health can be harsh. I know that there are serious traumatic effects mentally on children who grow up in foster care placements. There are several factors that serve on why they are affected. First being what they have been through already with their parents to be taken away and then become a foster child. Whatever they have been through can cause them to change the way they think, become delinquents, depressed, abuse drugs, and do the same things they seen when they were at home. These factors are important to take into consideration and overview them with care. On top this, I know that once being placed in Foster care it can be detrimental and the process of adjustment is not easy. I speak of this because I am a Child Advocate for San Bernardino County. I have been assigned a teen who has gone through unusual and unfortunate circumstances in their life. I am not able to disclose any information due to laws and privacy. However, it’s important to address the effects that these children have mentally. There are several factors which leads children to become placed in foster care. These factors because of parents drug abuse, mental abuse, physical abuse, and lack of parenting, meaning not being able to provide for children. Substance abuse and the drug culture accounts for the majority of young children placed in foster care. Attachment disruptions are also what cause developmental issues for children’s mental health. Out-of-home placement is typically associated with numerous disruptions in attachment relationships. These losses and lack of permanence undermine a child’s attempt to form a secure attachment with a primary caregiver. The more changes in care givers young children in foster care experience the more likely they are to exhibit oppositional behavior, crying, and clinging. Disruptions in attachment relationships can lead to Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood, a disorder in which the child exhibits severe disturbances in relationships with caregivers. I believe that the research was exploratory and explanatory. The reasons for my findings are because these studies clearly show the amount of work that was put in and give statistical value. With the information given by the studies and articles, I was able to find valuable information explaining the effect on children’s mental health while being in the foster care system and able to give evidence as well to support it. The participants were children from ages five to seventeen years old. The socioeconomic status was considered and their race did not have anything to do with the study. They just studied children in general. Infants were also considered in these studies since there are many of them as well.
“More than 500, 000 children are in foster care in the United States. Most of these children have been the victims of repeated abuseand prolonged neglect and have not experienced a nurturing, stableenvironment during the early years of life. Such experiences arecritical in the short- and long-term development of a child'sbrain and the ability to subsequently participate fully in society.Children in foster care have disproportionately high rates ofphysical, developmental, and mental health problems and often have many unmet medical and mental health care needs. Pediatricians, as advocates for children and their families,have a special responsibility to evaluate and help address theseneeds.” (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2000) Once children are placed in a foster care, they can either be lucky or not. The reason I say so is because not everyone runs their foster home the same. You have foster parents who care for the children that they are taking care of and there are some who do the minimum to help these children. Unfortunately, this is reality and there are people like this in the world. We have to consider what these children may go through if they do happen to be placed in a not so good placement. Imagine what effects it has on the child from already being taken away from their parents, going through what they had already gone through, then having to be living under a roof with unfamiliar people. I believe it’s traumatic and stressful. There are a great number of children who go through the foster care system every day. Among these children, there are several complications such as the effects on children’s mental health, physically, and developmental problems. In my hypothesis, children who are placed in the foster care system suffer from mental health issues such as depression, anxiety and problematic behaviors. In one article, it explains the factors leading to placement in Foster care and the attachments disruptions among young children in foster care.
In this article, the reasons for taking a child out of the home can be physical abuse, drug abuse, etc. This is done to offer physical protection to children but we need to realize that mentally this is tormenting for children at the same time. In a study in this article, in a study comparing home and out-of-home placements of infants born to substance-abusing mothers, there was a seven percent death rate and a four percent rate of abuse and neglect in the home placements compared to none of these events in the infants placed in kinship or foster care placements. (Cardi, M., Ryan, S., & Troutman, B., 2000) “These losses and lack of permanence undermine a child’s attempt to form a secure attachment with a primary caregiver. The more changes in caregiver’s young children in foster care experience the more likely they are to exhibit oppositional behavior, crying, and clinging. Disruptions in attachment relationships can lead to Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood, a disorder in which the child exhibits severe disturbances in relationships with caregivers.” (Cardi, M., Ryan, S., & Troutman, B., 2000) In another study, “the first large-scale studies of the mental health issues of foster children in the United States reported frequent diagnoses of anxiety and/or depression among those in foster care. In this sample, N=585 behavior problems were present in 46% of children discharged from foster care at 1 year, and among 54% remaining in foster care for 5 years or longer. In response to the varying prevalence rates cited in past studies and general methodological problems related to the use of nonstandardized instruments, investigators have sought to assess foster children with norm-referenced measures of behavior problems completed by a parent or parental figure. Rates of behavior problems and clinically significant symptoms measured by the Child Behavior Checklist are reported as up to 2.5 times higher for children in foster care than for those of samples thought to share demographic characteristics but not entering protective custody.” (Carlson, E.A., Egeland, B., & Lawrence, C.R., 2006)
“The estimated 826,000 children currently served by the child welfare/child protective services systemhereafter termed child welfare are more susceptible to poor health outcomes than any other subpopulation of youth in the United States. These children are removed from their homes when parents are unable to care for them due to prenatal drug/alcohol exposure, abuse, neglect, and/or violence.” (Ganger, W., Gordon, J.N., Leslie, L.K., Meneken, L., Michelmore, K.L., & Premji, K., 2005) “To date, most research examining the needs of children in child welfare has focused on children placed in out-of-home care with nonrelatives’ caregivers. Studies assessing the physical health of these children suggest that nearly all eighty-seven to ninety-five percent enter out-of-home care with at least one physical health problem and that a majority fifty to sixty percent enter with multiple physical needs.” “Studies indicate that developmental delays are also extremely common among children younger than the age of five years in out-of-home care, with estimated rates of children exhibiting some developmental delay ranging from thirteen to sixty-two percent,compared with the prevalence of delay in the general pediatric population four to ten percent.” “Mental health problems among children in out-of-home care are similarly pervasive, having been detected in forty-eight to eighty percent of these children, compared with the ten percent community-based rate; these problems include high rates of co-morbidity up to fifty percent with other psychological disturbances.”Research suggests that there are worse child welfare outcomes for children with health or developmental problems. (Ganger, W., Gordon, J.N., Leslie, L.K., Meneken, L., Michelmore, K.L., & Premji, K., 2005)
I believe that the research was exploratory and explanatory. The reasons for my findings are because these studies clearly show the amount of work that was put in and give statistical value. With the information given by the studies and articles, I was able to find valuable information explaining the effect on children’s mental health while being in the foster care system and able to give evidence as well to support it. The participants were children from ages five to seventeen years old. The socioeconomic status was considered and their race did not have anything to do with the study. They just studied children in general. Infants were also considered in these studies since there are many of them as well.
Communication Skills Abuse of children, spouses, and elders has taken place in American families. In what specific ways can family members and friends help with this problem of abuse? The specific ways in which family members and friends can help with the problem of abuse is first of all, reporting it. Many people because of fear are afraid to report the abuse that they face. Talk to the person in private and let him or her know that you’re concerned. Point out the things you’ve noticed that make you worried. Tell the person that you’re there, whenever he or she feels ready to talk. Reassure the person that you’ll keep whatever is said between the two of you, and let him or her know that you’ll help in any way you can. (Segal, J. & Smith, M., 2010) I think that the most obvious ways that family and friends can do to help this problem is remain aware of symptoms that express abuse and talk to the victim. We can also prevent it by educating ourselves and others. We need to be there for the victims and let them know we are there for them, not to be fearful, and there is help but you can’t make them feel rushed or anything like that. It’s really important to comfort them and have empathy towards the way that they feel. How can the three major sociological perspectives (i.e., social functionalism, social conflict, and symbolic interaction) be used to conceptually explain this abuse? With symbolic interactions, I believe that face to face interaction with the victim of any abuse is important. This way you can express empathy and an open ear to the victim. I think when you are face to face with the victim and speaking to him/her about what is going on, don’t pressure the victim because remember the victim is probably in fear and easily intimidated and the least thing you want is for them to feel the way they do with you as they do in front of their abuser. Face to face interaction will clearly work as an intervention and to be able to educate the victim about abuse and what you can do. There are certain ways to approach the victim and there are dos and don’ts when talking to the victim which are:
Do: Ask if something is wrong. Express concern. Listen and validate. Offer help. Support his or her decisions. Don’t: Wait for him or her to come to you. Judge or blame. Pressure him or her. Give advice. Place conditions on your support. (Segal, J. & Smith, M., 2010) I believe that with social functionalism, victims isolate themselves from others including family and friends. Victims become depressed and in fear and often do not function well around others. Mechanical solidarity is a form of social cohesion that arises when people in a society maintain similar values and beliefs and engages in similar types of work. (CliffNotes.com, 2010) I think this fits in with victims of abuse due to what they go through. The conflict theory is a big factor in this problem for abuse because it’s how the elite control the poor and the weak.
Ethics & Diversity Awareness Week 8: Final Project Dwayne is a Native American who was raised with many beliefs and cultural values. He is now faced with an assignment in class that does against his culture and beliefs. He finds it difficult to participate and to complete the project due to this. I don’t think that he should get in trouble for this. I believe that everyone should be respected based off of their beliefs and cultural values. It’s clear to see that the perspective on learning that is most influential in this scenario is nurture. The reason I say this is because his culture and heritage is what is setting him back from doing this project. It’s against his nurture and the way he was raised. The indicators that support the identification that I have explained are the cultural influences. Culture is the behavior, patterns, beliefs and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation. Culture is the result of interaction among groups of people and their environments over many years. Cultural beliefs are unstated and unconscious because children absorb such beliefs through many lessons within their homes. (Argosy University, 2010) It’s clear to see that Dwayne has very strong beliefs. The way he has been shown and taught on their survival and their way of living is important to their cultural because they needed to do what they needed to do to survive. In a sense, this case is one as though its nature vs. nurture. My reasoning for this is, is because nature meaning by the animals that are being discussed in the project that the teacher Maria is having them work on and how she wants them to come up with a plan to protect the polar bears and repopulate them. Nature obviously plays a big role in this situation which then gets accompanied by nurture in Dwayne’s case. In this project, they are trying to protect nature and the polar bears. In nurture, Dwayne is trying to protect his heritage and respect his people due to their strong beliefs and their culture. What is the boy to do?
There are two social influences that come to bear on Dwayne. One is social class and the other is ethnicity. With social class, it affects Dwayne and the people around him. How will others in class now view him or think of him due to what his culture has done to polar bears due to mode of survival. Ethnicity is effective on Dwayne because of his background and culture. There are two cultural influences that come to bear on Dwayne. One is individualistic values and the second is beliefs. With individualistic values, Dwayne has kept was he see’s most sacred to him because what he has been taught. In beliefs, Dwayne is held back from completing his work in school. That can affect him negatively and hopefully does not hold him back from succeeding. Dwayne being a Native American and his beliefs are influenced by is traditional and cultural values that propound that certain species are essential to the survival of groups of Native American people.
Foundations of Psychology Cognitive Therapy First, I want to briefly define cognitive therapy which is an insight focused therapy that emphasizes recognizing and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. It is a psychological education model of therapy. I strongly agree with the theoretical rationale of cognitive therapy that the way people feel and behave is determined by how they perceive and structure their experience. I believe it’s true because people have different ways of thinking and how they handle situations. You can have a person who is negative and defensive which in a circumstance they may react aggressively because they took something that was said or done the whole opposite way then what was really meant. I agree because I know people like that and in my head I think, what in the world is wrong with you thinking that way. That’s not the way you were supposed to take it. There is times where I have to actually sit there and explain what I really meant and explain to them that they took it wrong. When it comes to selective abstraction, I can also agree that I have done that myself. I have that in me but not so much. However, it’s been called to my attention that I can be that way and now I am working with myself to catch and stop it. I believe it is great that this therapy helps clients to have realistic thinking. I believe it’s very effective for a therapist to help a client change their dysfunctional emotions and behaviors to modify inaccurate and dysfunctional thinking. I think it’s a problem which impacts a person greatly and negatively to this way. These people need to become positive and have an open mind about many things. Cognitive therapy is a great way to help people for self discovery. This therapy is perfect to help clients and they also will learn how to become their own therapist. I believe that it is a great way to deal with depression. Knowing what I know now and people in my family who are depressed, this can really help them because I know their capabilities. I like the fact that this therapy has both cognitive techniques and behavioral techniques which are effective tools for the client. Identifying and examining clients beliefs is great. I love how therapists include skills such as role playing, training, behavioral rehearsal and exposure therapy. I also agree with what the book says about the cognitive behavioral approach focuses on family interaction patterns. How a cognitive inference can evoke emotion and behavior, and emotion and behavior can likewise influence cognition in a reciprocal process that sometimes serves to maintain they dysfunction of the family unit. I always thought those family relationships and all affected people as individuals a certain way as a person and how the family is. When I read that the schemata given in the book has a major impact on how the individual thinks, feels, and behaves in the family system. Overall, I really like this therapy as well. If I were a counselor, I would want to use this on people who are depressed. It seems to be effective, well, I really think so. It gets to the point; the client learns a lot themselves and becomes successful afterward. They become positive. This therapy has really inspired me. Reading this information is helping realize things about myself and learning great aspects in which I know I can change some things about myself.
I like the fact that this therapy has both cognitive techniques and behavioral techniques which are effective tools for the client. Identifying and examining clients beliefs is great. I love how therapists include skills such as role playing, training, behavioral rehearsal and exposure therapy. I also agree with what the book says about the cognitive behavioral approach focuses on family interaction patterns. How a cognitive inference can evoke emotion and behavior, and emotion and behavior can likewise influence cognition in a reciprocal process that sometimes serves to maintain they dysfunction of the family unit. I always thought those family relationships and all affected people as individuals a certain way as a person and how the family is. When I read that the schemata given in the book has a major impact on how the individual thinks, feels, and behaves in the family system. Overall, I really like this therapy as well. If I were a counselor, I would want to use this on people who are depressed. It seems to be effective, well, I really think so. It gets to the point; the client learns a lot themselves and becomes successful afterward. They become positive. This therapy has really inspired me. Reading this information is helping realize things about myself and learning great aspects in which I know I can change some things about myself.
Applied Psychology Self-Actualization Abraham Maslow has given us the several characteristics of self actualization. I will start off with realistic. Self actualized people are realistically oriented, meaning that they have more perception of reality and in all areas of life. People who are realistic will feel unthreatened and unfrightened. A person who is realistic is also being logical and efficient. Acceptance is also another characteristic. You must accept yourself and others. Accepting others include accepting them the way that they are. People who accept themselves also hold no regret or apology. They see human nature as is. Spontaneous is another characteristic of self actualization. Being spontaneous in their life, thoughts and impulses and they are also unhampered by convention. Problem centering includes people who focus on others problems rather than just themselves. Being problem centered would have the characteristic in people to have a mission in life with a lot of energy and people with this feel as if their mission is the reason for existence. Detachment, means alone but not lonely. They are self starters, responsible for themselves and their own behavior. Autonomy, meaning they rely on their inner self for satisfaction. They are independent from love and respect. And last, continued freshness of appreciation is another characteristic. They do not have a stereotyped appreciation of people and things. They are open. They appreciate the basic good in life; moment to moment living is thrilling, transcending and spiritual. They live in the present moment. I believe that being a self actualized person is wonderful. I believe that it’s not that easy to be a self actualized person. The reason that I think that is because everyone is different. People think and perceive things differently. Not everyone is on the same page. Many people struggle with finding themselves or may have barriers in their lives to where they can’t accomplish or it may be difficult to find them.
However, for me, I believe anything is possible but it’s up to yourself of whether or not you want to make things possible. I believe that if work with myself I may become self actualized. I believe I carry some characteristics of self actualization; however, there are things I need to work on as well. The person who I am writing about who I believe comes close to self actualization is Cesar Chavez. Cesar Chavez was a civil rights activist and his hard work led to improvements for labor workers. He was a leader. He encouraged Mexican Americans to register and vote and made speeches in worker rights. The characteristics I seen in him was being realistic. He had a good perception of reality, knew what he was doing and was aware of the struggle ahead but paid no mind to it. It didn’t stop him at all. He also had acceptance. He accepted himself and others for whom and what they were. So he fought for what was right. He was also problem centered. He fought for all Mexican Americans’ to get their right to register and vote, to improve labor unions and workers rights. Autonomy was also another characteristic Cesar Chavez had. He was stable during the hard knocks that he faced. He was self contained and a leader. He accomplished many things in life. And thanks for him having characteristics of self actualization which made him a leader, a success and helped his people out.
Interpersonal Skills What are the effects of Foster Care Placement on young Children’s Mental Health? Argosy University Psy302 Yvonne Perez 06.30.10
More than 500,000 children are in foster care in the United States. Most of these children have been the victims of repeated abuseand prolonged neglect and have not experienced a nurturing, stableenvironment during the early years of life. Such experiences arecritical in the short- and long-term development of a child'sbrain and the ability to subsequently participate fully in society. Children in foster care have disproportionately high rates ofphysical, developmental, and mental health problemsand often have many unmet medical and mental health care needs. The Problem…
1) The implications and consequencesof abuse, neglect, and placement in foster care on early braindevelopment. 2) The importance and challenges of establishinga child's attachment to caregivers. 3) The importance of consideringa child's changing sense of time in all aspects of the fostercare experience. 4) The child's response to stress. 5) Additionalaspects are parental roles and kinship care, parent-childcontact, permanency decision-making, and the components of comprehensiveassessment and treatment of a child's development and mental healthneeds. Developmental Issues…
Factors leading to Foster Care
Substance abuse and the drug culture account for the majority of young children placed in foster care
These children are removed from their homes when parents are unable to care for them due to prenatal drug/alcohol exposure, abuse, neglect, and/or violence.
The losses and lack of permanence undermine a child’s attempt to form a secure attachment with a primary caregiver.
The more changes in caregivers young children in foster care experience the more likely they are to exhibit oppositional behavior, crying, and clinging.
Disruptions in attachment relationships can lead to Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood, a disorder in which the child exhibits severe disturbances in relationships with caregivers.
The Effects of Foster Care PlacementCardi, M., Ryan, S., & Troutman, B. (2000)
Risk of Unresponsive Care
Care that provides for the infant’s basic physical needs but is relatively insensitive or unresponsive to the infant’s attachment signals and emotional needs can lead to an insecure infant-caregiver attachment.
Although early insecure attachment relationships are not pathological, they place children at risk for subsequent emotional and interpersonal difficulties.
The type of out-of-home placement most likely to interfere with the development of healthy attachment in infants and toddlers is placement in a group care setting.
During the 1930s and 1940s, there were detailed observations of the deleterious effects of group care on the physical and emotional health of young children. Although the events of the 1980s and1990s have been less dramatic than the events leading to the out-of-home placement of children in the 1930s and 1940s, the number of "displaced" children has again led to the placement of young children in group care settings. 13 to 18% of children placed in group settings in California from 1988 to1995 were under age six. The minimum staffing ratio for infants in California group care is one adult to ten infants and there is a high staff turnover rate. Thus, it seems highly unlikely that babies placed in group care will receive consistent, responsive care in these settings and make good attachments.
Early Brain and Child Development
The nerve connections and neurotransmitter networks that areforming during these critical years are influenced by negativeenvironmental conditions, including lack of stimulation, childabuse, or violence within the family. It is known that emotional and cognitive disruptions in the earlylives of children have the potential to impair brain development.
Response to Psychological Stress
Physical and mental abuse duringthe first few years of life tends to fix the brain in an acutestress response mode that makes the child respond in a hyper vigilant,fearful manner.
The child, rather than running away,may learn to become psychologically disengaged, leading to detachment,apathy, and excessive daydreaming.
Some abused and neglected childrenlearn to react to alarm or stresses in their environment reflexivelywith immediate cessation of motor activity (freeze response).
Older children who have been repeatedly traumatized often sufferfrom posttraumatic stress disorder and automatically freeze whenthey feel anxious, and therefore are considered oppositional ordefiant by those who interact with them.
Effects of Neglect
Poor attachment formation, under stimulation,development delay, poor physical development, and antisocial behavior.
Developmental Issues for Young Children in Foster Care.American Academy of Pediatrics. (2000)
This study employs prospective longitudinal data (N =189) to investigate the effects of foster care on the development of child behavior and psychological functioning taking into account baseline adaptation prior to placement and socioeconomic status at the time of placement.
Comparisons were made among three groups: 1.)children who experienced foster care, 2) those who were maltreated but remained in the home, and 3) children who had not experienced foster care or maltreatment despite their similarly at-risk demographic characteristics.
In the current sample, children placed in out of home care exhibited significant behavior problems in comparison to children who received adequate care, and using the same pre- and post placement measure of adaptation, foster care children showed elevated levels of behavior problems following release from care.
Similarly, children placed into unfamiliar foster care showed higher levels of internalizing problems compared with children reared by maltreating caregivers, children in familiar care, and children who received adequate care giving.
Findings suggest that outcomes related to foster care may vary with type of care and beyond the effects associated with maltreatment history, baseline adaptation, and socioeconomic status.
The Impact of Foster Care on developmentCarlson, E.A., Egeland, B., & Lawrence, C.R. (2006)
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends comprehensive assessments for children entering foster care. These children may be placed with biological parents, kin, or in nonrelatives foster care. It is not known whether health-related needs differ by placement.
Chart abstractions were conducted of child welfare and medical records of 1542 children, ages 3 months to 5 years 11 months, admitted to San Diego’s sole emergency shelter/receiving facility from April 1, 1998, through June 30, 1999, for investigation of alleged maltreatment.
Children were discharged to three placement types: biological parents (28.5%), kinship caregivers (28.4%), or nonrelatives foster parents (43.1%),
Overall, 86.7% of children studied demonstrated physical, developmental, or mental health needs, with more than half displaying two or more problems.
The Physical, Developmental, and Mental Health Needs of Young Children in Child Welfare by Initial Placement TypeGanger, W., Gordon, J.N., Leslie, L.K., Meneken, L., Michelmore, K.L., & Premji, K. (2005)
More than half of the children had a “Suspect” score on the Denver-II; 70.3% of children with “Suspect” scores were found to have delay on a development evaluation. (Suspect= classified for children for developmental delay on the Denver-11) (Denver-11= Denver Developmental Screening Test II)
Almost one tenth of the sample were diagnosed with one or more mental health conditions.
Few differences were found for physical, developmental, or mental health concerns by placement.
Results suggest that young children placed with biological parents or in kinship care have similar needs to those of children placed with foster parents.
This study confirms the importance of comprehensive assessments for young children removed from their homes, regardless of placement. It also illustrates a need for standardized assessment criteria, particularly for developmental and mental health status, and for collaborative care models for all young children entering the child welfare system, regardless of their placement following investigation.
The development of children in foster care can be enhanced with more stable environments in which to grow.
“Ecological theory,” as advanced by renowned developmental psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner, emphasizes the multiple, interdependent “ecologies,” or environmental systems, in which children develop.
In this theory, which has been tested and confirmed by numerous studies, the most important ecologies for children are the “Microsystems”— those ecologies that contain the direct relationships children have with caring adults.
To ensure that children in foster care experience greater stability and optimal developmental outcomes, it is incumbent upon the child welfare system to provide them with supportive Microsystems. In other words, it is essential that the child welfare system provide foster children with protective and nurturing care giving from substitute families when their biological parents cannot provide the safety and stability they need.
Journal Issue: Children, Families, and Foster CareHarden, B.J. (2004)
To conduct my own research study, I would do an exploratory research study.
I would do a comprehensive assessment of the At-Risk children before they are placed in foster care and a comprehensive assessment of children in foster care with consent from the courts.
I would focus on a specific age group from 10 months old to ten years old.
The setting would be of course foster care homes and group homes for those who are not placed yet.
The Comprehensive Assessment will consist of the following for evaluation:
Comprehensive: Appropriate in breadth and depth, assessing physical, behavioral, emotional, cognitive, relational, and environmentaldomains.
Developmental: Age-appropriate using validated instruments that are sensitive to changes in development over time.
Preventive: Anticipatory, focusing on early identification and interventions.
Summative: Able to synthesize and compile results for the purpose of prioritization.
Culturally Sensitive: Sensitive to different values, meanings, and perceptions of importance.
Child-Sensitive: Conducted in settings and in a manner that protects the child's comfort and that controls and limits thestress of the evaluation.
Child Welfare-Sensitive: Consistent with norms, standards, and goals of child welfare.
Overall, the existing research suggests that children in foster care have more compromised developmental outcomes than children who do not experience placement in foster care. However, there is considerable variability in the functioning of foster children, and it is difficult to disentangle the multiple preplacement influences on foster children from those that result from the foster care experience itself. Children in foster care are biologically vulnerable to many poor developmental outcomes, due to genetic factors, prenatal substance exposure, and other physical health issues. Many of these children experienced trauma prior to foster care entry, which has been documented to have a major impact on children's outcomes across developmental domains. The high percentages of physical, mental, and developmental health problems detected and the little variation in needs across placement types speak to the need for comprehensive physical, developmental, and mental health screenings for all children removed from their home, regardless of placement setting. Results?
All placement, custody, and long-term planning decisions should be individualized for the child's best interest and shouldmaximize the healing aspects of government-sponsored protectiveservices.
Treatment plans for those in foster care and living with a relative.
There should be in home monitoring to make sure living conditions and environment is supported in psychological, physical, emotional, and developmental needs.
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2000). Developmental Issues for Young Children in Foster Care. Pediatrics. Vol. 06, No. 5, pp. 1145-1150. Retrieved May 21, 2010 from http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;106/5/1145 Cardi, M., Ryan, S., & Troutman, B. (2000). The Effects of Foster Care Placement on Young Children’s Mental Health. Retrieved May 21, 2010 from http://www.medicine.uiowa.edu/icmh/archives/reports/Foster_care.pdf Carlson, E.A., Egeland, B., & Lawrence, C.R. (2006). The Impact of Foster Care on Development. Development and Psychopathology. Vol 18, pp. 57-76. Retrieved May 21, 2010 from http://www.kidscounsel.org/Study%20Impact%20of%20Foster%20Care%20on%20Child%20Dev.pdf Ganger, W., Gordon, J.N., Leslie, L.K., Meneken, L., Michelmore, K.L., & Premji, K. (2005). The Physical Developmental and Mental Health Needs of Young Children in Child Welfare by initial placement type. Retrieved May 21, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1550710/ Harden, B.J. (2004). Safety and Stability for Foster Children: A Developmental Perspective. Journal Issue: Children, Families, and Foster Care. Vol. 14, No. 1. Retrieved May 21, 2010 from http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=40&articleid=133§ionid=872&submit References
Critical Thinking Response to “Our Deepest Fear” Poem This poem is really great. I can relate to this poem because I am sometimes scared to succeed and shine like I know I can. Although I am ambitious and strive to become successful, I still have fear of doing so. I can’t quite understand why. However, this poem is so true though and I have really connected to what it says. Many people’s fear, such as myself is to just let ourselves shine and be the people we are destined to become. We are scared and at times lack confidence of coming out of our shells and being the intelligent, successful people that we know we can be. The third verse (paragraph), I really like what it says. “Playing small in the world does not serve the world”. It’s so true. We need great people who can help others and be greatness in this world. We need leaders, successors and for people to be the people they know they can be to serve the world. This poem is very inspiring to me and is making me realize that I should not be afraid to shine, nor be afraid of what others might think or say. I am my own person and what I can bring to this world and offer to others to help, I will do so. When it says in the poem about “there is nothing enlightened about shrinking, so that other people won’t feel insecure around you”, I completely agree with that as well. I believe that there are people out there who do not let themselves shine or succeed as well as they should because they don’t want to be seen differently. However, differently would be great because they would be acknowledged for the people that they are and their successes and for what they bring towards others and their career. Many people want to just fit in with normal people who don’t become that accomplished in life, those who choose to be that way because they probably feel that if they are more accomplished then their friends, associates or whomever, that they are better than their friends, or that they might feel intimidated by them. Even so, they might feel as if they are leaving friends behind. Sometimes, we need to just think about ourselves, what we want and what we need.
People also don’t want to succeed or shine because people will feel insecure about themselves around them but that’s others fault. Like this poem says that “everyone is meant to shine and has what it takes.” I personally believe that it is up to that person if they want it or not. We all have it in us, why hold back and are afraid. Open up and discover the person that you have within yourself. As we let ourselves shine and become the people we want to become as successors, it may help and motivate others to do the same as well. Here is a good example of why I understand and relate to this poem. When I first started college I loved. I was excited, felt confident and still do, intelligent and feel highly about myself. In the beginning one of my sisters and my brother would tell me remarks like “oh, you think you’re all smarter and better than us now because you go to college”. Let me say this, as a baby in the family, I’m the first to go to college in my immediate family. Remarks as such would get to me here and there. Then, I thought to myself, if they feel that way that’s their problem. I never treated them different or looked down on them just because I’m getting an education and they aren’t. I began to realize that maybe they felt intimidated and are trying to put me down. You know, when someone is doing well, there is always that someone who tries to be negative and bring you down. I didn’t let it get to me. I started trying to explain to them that I’m going to college for me and that I’m not trying to be better than anyone but if you feel that way I’m sorry. I began telling them how great of an experience it is and how exciting it was to continue my education. Sooner than you know it, it motivated my two sisters to begin school and my brother wants to start school soon as well. In conclusion, I relate to this poem and it’s very true that we need to all shine and bring the world what we have to offer.
My Future in Learning Learning is a lifelong process. How do you envision your future as a lifelong learner? I envision my future as a growing active listener. I know that in years to come, I will become more educated as I continue my education. I will be pursuing my MFT in March and depending on how things go, I will then start on my Doctoral Degree. My lifelong future holds so much learning and growing as a person. I anticipate to learn the most I can through success, personally, and about life. I can only hope that what the future holds for me, I learn what I can and take the very best out of everything.
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