Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Metadata on the radioactive contaminationof environmental objects on the territoriesof russia and the ussr
Metadata on the radioactive contaminationof environmental objects on the territoriesof russia and the ussr
Metadata on the radioactive contaminationof environmental objects on the territoriesof russia and the ussr
Metadata on the radioactive contaminationof environmental objects on the territoriesof russia and the ussr
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Metadata on the radioactive contaminationof environmental objects on the territoriesof russia and the ussr

86

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
86
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Atomic Energy, Vol. 101, No. 2, 2006METADATA ON THE RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATIONOF ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTS ON THE TERRITORIESOF RUSSIA AND THE USSR S. M. Vakulovskii, E. G. Kozlova, UDC 504.054+551.510.72+550.378+ V. M. Kim, and V. N. Yakhryushin +556.531.4+551.464 A unique data archive, accumulated at the Taifun Scientific and Industrial Association in 1954–2005, on the radioactive contamination of the environment on the territory of the USSR and Russia is presented. The archive contains data on the yearly total β activity of atmospheric fallout on the underlying surface, the total volume β activity in the atmosphere at the ground, the results of measurements of the 90Sr and 137Cs content in samples combined over one month or quarter, atmospheric aerosols and fallout on individual points, the volume activity of tritium and 90Sr in water, rivers, lakes and seas, and the radionuclide contamination density of the territories of populated points as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The first powerful nuclear explosions conducted in the atmosphere at test sites on this planet in 1952–1954 causedradioactive contamination of environmenal objects – air, water, and soil. It became obvious by this time that there is a needto organize a branched system of observation points for observing the changing radiation conditions in order to assess thedamaging consequences of the nuclear explosions. In the USSR, systematic daily observations of the atmospheric fallout ofthe radioactive products of nuclear explosions onto the underlying surface began in March 1954 at 120 meteorological sta-tions. Up to 1954, the measurements of the volume activity of the radioactive products of nuclear explosions in the atmo-sphere and the fallout of these products were performed randomly and sporadically. The Central Institute of Forecasting of the Hydrometeorological Service provided the synoptic support for the nucle-ar weapons tests on test areas in the USSR. In addition to forecasting the transport of radioactive clouds, formed as a resultof nuclear explosions, in the atmosphere operational information on the results of daily observations of β and γ radiation onthe meteorological sites was provided to the Central Institute of Forecasting. Since 1958, the work on studying the globalradioactive contamination of environmental objects by the products of nuclear explosions was focused on the Obninsk testarea of the Institute of Applied Geophysics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, which later became the Taifun Scientific andIndustrial Association. The number of points where observations were conducted on the radiation conditions, as part of the governmentalservice for radiation monitoring of the environment on the territory of the USSR, gradually increased and reached a peak atthe end of the 1980s after the Chernobyl accident. The radiation monitoring service performed the following types of obser-vations: • measurement of the γ-ray exposure dose rate on location at 2467 observation points; • measurement of the intensity of β radiation on the underlying surface at 600 points; • samples of radioactive aerosols were obtained from the atmospheric layer near the ground at 89 points (at three of these points the volume activity of 85Kr was determined over a period of several years); Taifun Scientific and Industrial Association. Translated from Atomnaya Énergiya, Vol. 101, No. 2, pp. 149–152,August, 2006. Original article submitted December 28, 2005.602 1063-4258/06/10102-0602 ©2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
  • 2. TABLE 1. Metadata on Radioactive Contamination of the Atmosphere Volume activity of radionuclides in the atmosphere near the ground Radionuclide fallout on the underlying surface Data format Sum of β-emitting 137 90 Sum of β-emitting 137 90 Cs Sr Cs Sr radionuclides radionuclides Resource Daily data in the Results of measurements of combined Daily data in the Results of measurements of combined description form of tables,* monthly or quarterly samples for form of tables,* monthly or quarterly samples for sepa- (paper medium) presented in separate sites, presented in the form presented in rate sites or territories, contaminated monthly of protocols or notes in working monthly zones, and individual daily samples, brochures logs** brochures presented in the form of protocols or notes in working logs*** Region of 1960–1991 USSR, since 1991 Russia 1954–1991 USSR, since 1991 Russia observations Number of 8 up to 1964, 90 in 1991 – for the USSR, 100 up to 1957, 500 in 1991 – for the USSR, observational 45–50 – for Russia 400 for Russia sites Volume of More than 19000 More than 3000 More than 3000 More than 200000 More than 15000 More than 5000 resource tables (sheets) tables (sheets) tables (sheets) tables (sheets) tables (sheets, tables (sheets) protocols) Electronic media Daily data for None Daily data for None 1994–2004 1994–2004 * A detailed description of the tables is presented in [5]. ** For 137Cs, there are results of measurements of daily samples for separate sites; the results are presented in form of protocols or notes in working logs.*** At the present time, the average 90Sr fallout over the country is below the threshold of sensitivity of radiochemical analysis (<0.3 Bq/(m2·yr)), so that the data refer mainly to the contaminated zones, for example, the 100-km zone of the Mayak Industrial Association and the early period of observa- tions (1954–1980). • samples of radioactive fallout (flux of radioactive aerosols from the atmosphere on the underlying surface) were obtained at 527 points; • samples of precipitation, river and sea water were obtained at 47, 62, and 6 points, respectively, to determine the tritium content; • samples of fresh and sea water were obtained at 140 and 37 points, respectively, to determine the 90Sr content. As a rule, the soil samples were obtained at 55 meteorological stations during survey expeditions on the territory ofthe USSR or separate regions of the USSR and only during a period of 2 yr (1965–1966). Expedition surveys of the radioac-tive contamination of seas and separate regions of the world oceans and the troposphere were made using various airborneapparatus (probes, aircraft, helicopters) outfitted with dosimetric equipment. At the present time, the governmental radiation monitoring service is measuring the γ-ray exposure dose rate at 1305sites, samples of radioactive aerosols and fallout are being taken at 51 and 407 sites, respectively, samples of precipitationand river water are being taken at 30 and 15 sites, respectively, to determine the content of tritium, and samples of fresh andsea water are being taken at 43 and 8 sites, respectively, to determine the 90Sr content [1]. The radiometric, γ-spectrometric,and radiochemical analyses of samples of environmental objects are being conducted at 40 radiometric laborotories of theradiation monitoring service. The Institute of Experimental Meteorology, which is part of the Taifun Association, has been providing since 1964the scientific-methodological support of the work and the acquisition, processing, analysis, and generalization of the infor-mation, entering the radiation monitoring network, on the radiation conditions on the territorial and regional levels. Over the 603
  • 3. TABLE 2. Metadata on the Radioactive Contamination of Water Volume activity of 3H in river water Volume activity of 90Sr in rivers Volume activity of 90Sr in Data format (mainly estuaries) and lakes coastal sea water Description of resource Results of measurements of water samples, presented in the form of protocols or notes in working logs Region of observations 1972–1991 USSR, 1961–1991 USSR, 1963–1991 USSR, since 1991 – Russia since 1991 – Russia since 1991 – Russia Number of observational sites 10–25 rivers – for the USSR, 10–60 – for USSR, 5–20 – for USSR, 11 rivers – for Russia 44 – for Russia 7 – for Russia Volume of resource More than 400 sheets (40 tables) More than 1000 sheets More than 200 sheetstime that Taifun has been in operation, unique material has been accumulated on the radioactive contamination of variousobjects in the environment: the atmosphere, water, and soil (Tables 1 and 2). These information arrays consist of sheets (print-ed and handwritten) of paper, bound in journals, containing monthly tables of observations, working logs with notes of mea-surement results on each individual sample, reports, and information bulletins. Since 1961, the Taifun Association has presented the generalized and analyzed data in yearly reviews (reports)“Contamination of the environment on the territory of the USSR by radioactive products from nuclear explosions” (later“Contamination of the environment on the territory of the USSR by technogenic radioactive products”) and Appendices,where tables, which did not appear in the main text of the reviews, of data obtained from measurements of the levels ofradioactivity of objects in the environment, were presented. Since 1986, the information has been presented in yearbooks onthe radiation conditions on the territory of the USSR [2] and since 1991 in yearbooks on the radiation conditions on the ter-ritory of Russia and contiguous countries [3, 4]. The reviews added to them and the yearbooks are presented in the form oftables of monthly weighted-mean values for separate regions (Transpolar, North, Center, southern region of the European ter-ritory, Western Siberia, the north, the southern region of Eastern Siberia, the European and Asian territories of the country)and for the country as a whole. In connection with the development of nuclear power, attention is now also being devoted to the radiation monitor-ing of the environment in regions containing industrial objects which present a radiation hazard. After atmospheric nucleartests were stopped this direction became definitive and the main content of the yearbooks published on the radiation condi-tions in the country. The Taifun Association possesses a large volume of primary information on the radioactive contamination of vari-ous objects in the environment, for the period May–July 1986, resulting from the Chernobyl accident: • the results of γ-spectrometric analysis of daily samples of aerosols (approximately 130 spectra) and fallout for 49 cities in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia, primarily, from 25–26 April to 10–20 May (approximately 450 spectra); • the volume activity and fallout of all β-emitting radionuclides every 1.4 days and more after sampling (results of radiochemical analyses of 90Sr content are available for some sites); • radionuclide composition of water samples and bottom deposits of rivers in Ukraine and Belarus and the cascade of the Dnepr reservoir at the end of April and beginning of May (approximately 1000 samples). In addition, the results of primary measurements of the radioisotopic composition of samples are available. Thesemeasurements were performed by the institutions of the Ministry of Defense: soil – 2390, aerosols collected in the air layernear the ground using stationary air-filtering setups – 148; aerosols collected using filters placed on aircraft – 232, fallout –506, biosamples – 46, plant samples – 582. An electronic data bank containing the data on radioactive contamination by 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu of the soil in pop-ulated points of Russia which were affected by the Chernobyl accident was subsequently created at Taifun. In January 2005,the data bank contained more than 100,000 results of measurements of samples obtained at 12344 populated points. The data604
  • 4. bank is growing daily. A report “Data on the radiation contamination of populated points of the Russian Federation byCs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239, and Pu-240” is also published yearly.REFERENCES1. V. M. Kim, E. G. Kozlova, I. N. Kuznetsova, et al., Review of the Results of Operations of the Hydrometeorological Service Office in 2004 on the Implementation of Radiation Monitoring on the Territory of the Russian Federation, Obninsk (2005).2. K. P. Makhon’ko (ed.), Yearbook on Radiation Conditions on the Territory of the USSR in 1986, Obninsk (1987).3. K. P. Makhon’ko (ed.), Yearbook on the Radiation Conditions on the Territory of Russia and Contiguous Countries in 1991, Obninsk (1992).4. S. M. Vakulovskii (ed.), Yearbook on the Radiation Conditions on the Territory of Russia and Contiguous Countries in 2004, Gidrometeoizdat, St. Petersburg (2005).5. K. P. Makhon’ko (ed.), Instructions for Hydrometeorological Stations and Posts, No. 12, Observations of Radioactive Contamination of the Environment, 2nd edition, revised and enlarged, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad (1982). 605

×