First Generation ( 1G ) -> Analog -> Simplest type to wireless data -> Average rate between 4800 to 9600 bps -> Based on FDMA Generations In Wireless Communication
Generations In Wireless Communication Second Generation ( 2G ) -> Digital -> GSM (Global system for mobile communication) -> Based on TDMA -> Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data transfer - SMS - “short message service” - E-mail -> 2.5G networks, such as GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service)
Generations In Wireless Communication Third Generation ( 3G ) -> Promise faster communications services (Including voice, fax and Internet) -> Increased spectrum efficiency -> Based on CDMA & TD-SCDMA -> Supports 144 Kbps bandwidth, with high speed movement (e.g. vehicles), 384 Kbps (e.g. on campus) & 2 Mbps for stationary (e.g.in building ) -> 3G systems are referred to as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe and International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT2000) worldwide.
Generations In Wireless Communication
Introduction To 4G -> Known as Beyond 3G / Fourth Generation Technology -> MAGIC - Mobile multimedia - Anytime anywhere - Global mobility support - Integrated wireless solution - Customized personal service -> A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at higher data rates than previous generations. -> 4G : Convergence of High Speed Internet & Mobility -> 3GPP is currently standardizing LTE Advanced as future 4G standard. LTE Advanced will be standardized as part of the Release 10 of the 3GPP specification this year.
Technologies Used Smart Antenas for Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) IPv6 VoIP OFDM Software Defined Radio (SDR) System
Smart Antennas • Beam radio signals directly at a user to follow the user as they move • Allow the same radio frequency to be used for other users without worry of interference • Can’t keep up transmission speeds while device is moving fast (i.e. in a car) - Only 32Mb/s at 62mph (vs100Mb/s) • Seamless handoff between towers/access points • One transmit antenna, two receive antennas - Allows connection to two access points at once
IPv6 -> IPv6 support is essential in order to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. -> By increasing the number of IP addresses, IPv6 removes the need for Network Address Translation (NAT), a method of sharing a limited number of addresses among a larger group of devices, although NAT will still be required to communicate with devices that are on existing IPv4 networks. -> In the context of 4G, IPv6 also enables a number of applications with better multicast, security, and route optimization capabilities. -> With the available address space and number of addressing bits in IPv6, many innovative coding schemes can be developed for 4G devices and applications that could aid deployment of 4G networks and services.
IPv6 -> Mobile IPv6 have been proposed to reduce the handoff Mobile latency and the number of lost packets. -> The field “Traffic Class” and “Flow Label” in IPv6 header enables the routers to secure the special QoS for packet series with marked priority.
Software-Defined Radio (SDR) -> SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA). -> Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards, the final form of a 4G device will constitute various standards. This can be efficiently realized using SDR technology, which is categorized to the area of the radio convergence.
Mobile VoIP • “Voice Over Internet Protocol” • Allows only packets (IP) to be transferred eliminating complexity of 2 protocols over the same circuit • All voice data will be wrapped up in a packet - Lower latency data transmission (faster transmission) • Samples voice between 8,000 & 64,000 times per second and creates stream of bits which is then compressed and put into a packet. • Increases battery life due to greater data compression
OFDM • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing • Allows for transfer of more data than other forms of multiplexing (time, frequency, code, etc) • Simplifies the design of the transmitter & receiver • Allows for use of almost the entire frequency band -No gaps to prevent interference needed • Currently used in WiMax(802.16) and WiFi(802.11a/g) • The frequencies are spaced so that the signals do not interfere with each other (no cross talk) • Parallel Data Transmission -Allows for the sending of multiple signals simultaneously from the same antenna (or wire) to one device
17 Design Objectives New service platform Rapid deployment of new services Easy development of new services Seamless connection and handoff between heterogeneous access system Information bit rate: 100Mbps (peak rate in mobile environment) and 1Gbps (peak rate in indoor environment) System capacity: 10 times that of 3G Cost: 1/10 to 1/100 per bit Base station network: all IP Transmission delay time: 50 ms or less
18 Applications Virtual Presence: This means that 4G provides user services at all times, even if the user is off-site. Virtual Navigation: 4G provides users with virtual navigation through which a user can access a database of the streets, buildings etc. Tele-Geo processing Applications: This is a combination of GIS (Geographical Information System) and GPS (Global Positioning System) in which a user can get the location by querying.
19 Applications Tele-Medicine and Education: 4G will support remote health monitoring of patients. For people who are interested in life long education, 4G provides a good opportunity. Crisis management: Natural disasters can cause break down in communication systems. In today’s world it might take days or 7 weeks to restore the system. But in 4G it is expected to restore such crisis issues in a few hours.
Features • Support for interactive multimedia, voice, streaming video, Internet, and other broadband services • Fully IP based mobile system • High speed, high capacity, and low cost‐per‐bit • Global access, service portability, and scalable mobile services • Seamless switching, and a variety of Quality of Service • Better scheduling and call‐admission‐control techniques • Ad‐hoc and multi‐hop networks • Better spectral efficiency • Seamless network of multiple protocols and air interfaces (since 4G will be all‐IP, 4G systems to be compatible with all common network technologies, including 802.11, WCDMA, Bluetooth, and Hyper LAN). • Interoperability with existing wireless standards • An all IP, packet switched network
4G In India In India, the government hopes to raise around $9 billion from the 3G and BWA auctions, foreign telephone-companies are eager to unfurl a new technology — TD-LTE —which is akin to 4G technology. US-based Qualcomm and Sweden's Ericson aim on TD-LTE, hoping that it will help them to gain market in India, the world's fastest growing mobile market. Qualcomm is to participate in the broadband wireless access (BWA) spectrum auction. If it does secure its bid in the auction, India could well become the first country after China to roll out TD-LTE. TD-LTE, or Time Division Long Term Evolution, caters to peak download speeds of 100 Mbps on mobile phones, compared to the 20 Mbps for 3G and 40 Mbps for WiMax. LTE brings to the table additional spectrum, more capacity, lower cost, and is essential to take mobile broadband to the mass market.
22 CONCLUSION As the history of mobile communications shows, attempts have been made to reduce a number of technologies to a single global standard. 4G seems to be a very promising generation of wireless communication that will change the people’s life in the wireless world. 4G is expected to be launched by 2010 and the world is looking forward to the most intelligent technology that would connect the entire globe.