Right revelation Nationally as well as internationally, the early 1960s brought a breath of fresh, warming air into Cold War culture. The Cuban missile crisis of 1962, which took the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war, left in its wake an easing of Cold War tensions. When the Soviet Union and China broke their communist alliance and a bloc of nations emerged that were com mitted to neither the Americans nor the Soviets, the threat of a climactic nu clear confrontation lessened.
Right revelution As the Cold War began to thaw, the chilling at mosphere of political conformity that had pervaded the McCarthy era began to dissipate, opening up room for liberals and radicals to express their views can dimly on domestic issues. During the Cold War, opponents of segregation had argued that America s racial divide undermined its position as a model for the "Free World." With John F. Kennedys election as president in 1960, there was a clear mandate for reform.
Right revolution The young president took the reins of government away from anoldergeneration of wartime leaders like Dwight Eisenhower. Kennedy's idealistic rhetoric and his ambitious plans for legislation to end dis crimination and provide federal aid to education seemed to prefigure a new- activist spirit in domestic politics.
The idealism and the unprecedented prosperity of the years flanking 1960 bred "revolutions of rising expectations" among groups previously left on the margins of American society. The two most important social movements of the post-World War II era, the civil rights and women's rights crusades, began as equal-rights movements but evolved into more multifaceted causes. Both were built upon a history of discrimination and protest in the United States. Right revolution
Both movements, he notes, were inspired by the surge of anticolonial protests among people of color following World War II, especially by the philosophy of nonviolent resistance that Mahatma Gandhi had used to lead India to independence from British con trol. In the second essay, Olive Banks finds many parallels between the American and British feminist movements, ranging from their common roots in women's greater participation in the paid work force to their similar evolution toward radical feminism. Right revolution
The world war II begins in 1939 in Europe and expanded to America at the 1941 proved a decisive turning point for United States and indeed for the whole world. The WWII changed America from a nation of provincial innocents, ignorance of the great world into a nation that would often have bear the burdens of rescuing that world. World War II
World War II During the 1930s, Adolf Hitler repudiated the Treaty of Versailles and boldly reasserted Germany's military power. The Nazi leader took Germany out of the League of Nations; formed an alliance with Italy's fascist dictator, Benito Mussolini; and began a series ofterrztorialseizures that culminated with the invasion of Poland in 1939, which plunged Europe into war. Throughout these events the United States stood on the sidelines, and President Roosevelt declared the nation neutral at the outset of World War II. But after France fell to the German onslaught in June 1940, Roosevelt resolved to save England at all costs. Isolationists in Congress had passed Neutrality Acts in the mid-1930s that restricted American trade with belligerents. Now Roosevelt convinced Congress to permit the sale of arms to England on a "cash-and-carry" basis. He arranged to transfer fifty destroyers to Great Britain in exchange for long-term leases on several British bases in the Americas.
World war II It is a commonplace that if Britain and America had stood up to the dictators in the 1930s the Second World War would never have happened. Winston Churchill dubbed it "the unnecessary war," and the first volume of his war memoirs took as its theme "how the English-speaking peoples, through their wisdom, carelessness and good nature, allowed the wicked to rearm." With hindsight it is easy to castigate the leaders of both countries for their blindness to the dangers that threatened them and for a complacency that at times seems almost supine. It is harder to step back, to see the threats as they saw them at the time, and to understand the constraints that made effective Anglo-American cooperation so difficult.
World war II Trade was a major issue. America was becoming increasingly irritated by British discrimination against U.S. products. In 1937, 16 percent of all the goods America exported went to Britain, making her America's most valuable trading partner, but their importance to Britain, who was expanding her trade with the empire, was declining. By 1937 only 11 percent of British imports came from America, whereas 39 percent came from the empire. Roosevelt's secretary o f state, Cordell Hull, was alarmed at the effects of this trend on American farmers and manufacturers. He put the blame on Britain's policy of Imperial Preference, which imposed lower tariffs on imports from the empire than on those from other nations. Hull felt the discrimination was unfair and was convinced that trade barriers and economic nationalism were the root causes of war. The British took a different view. Building up the empire's trade seemed the best way out of the depression, and they were not willing to reduce Imperial Preferences until America offered drastic cuts in its own tariffs. Negotiations on lowering trade barriers between the two dragged on from 1934 to 1938.
World war II On the night of August 31. 1939. Hitler invaded Poland, ignoring Britain's ultimatum, and three days later Britain and France declared war. Unlike Wilson in 1914, Roosevelt at once made clear that American sympathies lay with the Allies. For seven months after war was declared there was little fighting. Poland was swiftly dismembered by Germany and Russia, with whom Hitler had signed a nonaggression pact. There then followed the period of inactivity known as the phony war. Despite their Confucian overtones, the family metaphor and proper-place philosophy bore close resemblance to Western thinking on issues of race and power. The Japanese took as much pleasure as any white Westerner in categorizing the weaker peoples of Asia as "children." In their private reports and directives, they made clear that "proper place" meant a division of labor in Asia in which the Yamato race would con trol the economic, financial, and strategic reins o f power . . . and thereby "hold the key to the very existence of all the races of East Asia." . . . For other Asians the real mean ing of Japan's racial rhetoric was obvious. "Leading race" meant master race, "proper place" meant inferior place, "family" meant patriarchal oppression.